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Is Network-based Mobility Management the Future?
 

Is Network-based Mobility Management the Future?

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Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based mobility management protocol standardized ...

Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based mobility management protocol standardized
recently in IETF. This protocol is being referenced in various system architectures
such as a protocol for building a common and access independent mobile core. Currently, there are number of extensions that are being specified for extending this protocol to support various mobility features. This document provides a brief overview of the protocol features and the deployment scenarios behind these features. Additionally, this document also identifies the developmental efforts within Cisco for building the interfaces based on Proxy Mobile IPv6 on Cisco’s mobile gateway products.

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    Is Network-based Mobility Management the Future? Is Network-based Mobility Management the Future? Document Transcript

    • Is Network-based Mobility Management the Future? by Sri Gundavelli Abstract To overcome these shortcomings, IETF recently standardized a network-based ment. The protocol was designed with the goal that the network will perform the mo- Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based mobility management protocol, it is Proxy bility management on behalf of the client, it mobility management protocol standard- Mobile IPv6 [RFC-521]. Network-based will keep the client involvement to minimal ized recently in IETF. This protocol is being mobility management enables IP mobility proportions, such as allowing it to perform referenced in various system architectures for a host without requiring its participation inter-technology handoffs, or allowing it such as a protocol for building a common in any mobility related signaling. Net- to express handoff or flow preferences. and access independent mobile core. work-based mobility is another approach This design choice resulted in a simple Currently, there are number of extensions to solving the IP mobility problem. This client with minimal software requirements, that are being specified for extending approach for supporting mobility does not such as a connection manager which can this protocol to support various mobility require the mobile node to be involved perform these minimal required functions. features. This document provides a brief in the exchange of signaling messages The protocol was quickly adopted in GPP overview of the protocol features and between itself and the home agent. The and in WiMAX architectures on various the deployment scenarios behind these network is responsible for performing the interfaces and now many new extensions features. Additionally, this document also mobility management and a network node are being planned. identifies the developmental efforts within initiates the signaling with the home agent Cisco for building the interfaces based on Proxy Mobile IPv6 on Cisco’s mobile on behalf of the mobile node. Mobile Devices and gateway products. The protocol largely leveraged all the Access Networks signaling and messaging semantics from Most of the mobile devices that are avail- Introduction the Mobile IPv6 protocol, but chose the ap- able today in the market are equipped with Mobile Communications is now a real- proach of network-based mobility manage- multiple radio interfaces. So, it is reason- ity and is part of our daily lives. With the explosive growth in the smart PDA devices coupled with the ubiquitous availability of access networks, IP Mobility is now a key aspect of mobile communications and is the next step in the Internet evolution. It is practical now for a mobile node to roam between different access technologies and further it is reasonable to expect ad- dress continuity and session persistence across these handoffs. With these requirements in anticipation, Mobile IPv6 protocol [RFC-775] has been developed by the IETF few years back. It is a host-based mobility management protocol requiring the participation of the host in all aspects of mobility manage- ment. However, this requirement of the host participation in the mobility management and the associated software and resource requirements on the host has become a primary hurdle for the protocol adoption. IP NGN ARCHITECTURE THOUGHT LEADERSHIP JOURNAL - Q1 FY2010
    • able to assume that the mobile devices that attach to the 4G networks in future will also be equipped with multiple radio in- terfaces, such as LTE, WiMAX, eHRPD, WiFi etc, and in any combination. These mobile nodes can potentially attach to the network using one or more interfaces and be using all of those interfaces simultaneously for its data sessions. It is given that the next generation mobile networks will be true heterogeneous net- works. A mobile operator can potentially be managing more than one access technol- ogy in their core network. Or, they may have partnerships with other operators that support a different access technology Figure 14 - Proxy Mobile IPv6 Domain than what is supported in the operator’s home network. For example, one SP may have a nation-wide LTE network and may have partnerships with other SPs for WiFi mobile node moving from one base station to another and using the same Network-based Mobility access in hotspots. Even for other reasons interface for its network attachment. Management Approach such as during migration, an operator may support a nation wide G network with one • Roaming in a heterogeneous network The Proxy Mobile IPv6 protocol [RFC- 521] is designed with the goal of sup- access technology while bringing up 4G – A mobile node should have the ability porting the above requirements listed in networks in some pockets; this would be to seamlessly roam between two dif- Section 4.0. It is a protocol for providing the natural migration for CDMA operators ferent access networks. For example, a mobility management support to a mobile from eHRPD to LTE. mobile node initially attached to an LTE node without requiring its participation in network, later when in the vicinity of a Furthermore, these access networks can any mobility related signaling. The core WiFi network, should have the ability to be running any IP protocol version, such as functional entities of the protocol are the perform an inter-technology handoff the network could be IPv4-only, IPv6-only local mobility anchor (LMA) and the mobile and move its IP address configuration or IPv4/IPv6 capable. access gateway (MAG). and all its network sessions to the WiFi interface. The local mobility anchor is the home The Mobility Requirements • Multihoming Support – A mobile node agent for the mobile node in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 domain. It maintains the mobile should have the ability to attach to The anticipated mobile device capabilities node’s binding state and is the topological network using multiple interfaces and coupled with the availability of hetero- anchor point for the mobile node’s home be able to use any one or more of its geneous network with multiple access network prefix. The protocol introduces interfaces for network connectivity. technologies requires seamless mobility a new functional entity called the Mobile support for providing any reasonable end- • Flow Mobility Support – A mobile node Access Gateway. It is the entity responsible user experience. Following are the some of should have the ability to move the for detecting mobile node’s movements to the mobility related considerations: flows between interfaces on a selec- and from the access link and for initiating tive basis. For example, a mobile node signaling with the local mobility anchor. • Roaming in a homogeneous network initially attached to an LTE network, later Once the mobile node enters a Proxy – A mobile node should have the abil- when in the vicinity of a WiFi network, Mobile IPv6 domain and attaches to an ity to seamlessly roam and change should have the ability to move certain access link, the network allocates a unique its point of attachment within a single high bandwidth intensive flows to the home network prefix set for that attached access technology domain. This is WiFI network. interface. The mobile node will be able to the case of a simple roaming with the configure one or more addresses from CISCO PUBLIC
    • The host can be a simple dual-stack termi- nal. However, for supporting inter-technol- ogy handoffs, the protocol places certain assumptions on the host; specifically it requires the host to have the ability to per- form inter-technology handoffs. On most operating systems, it can be achieved by enabling virtual interface configuration on the host, as shown below. Client-based Mobility Management Approach Mobile IPv6 [RFC-775] with some of the other extensions can be potentially used for supporting these mobility requirements Figure 15 - Inter-Technology Handoffs identified in Section 4.0. This requires the mobile node to participate in all aspects of mobility management. In addition to the the assigned prefixes. If the mobile node sending a Proxy Binding Update (PBU) base Mobile IPv6 client support, it requires connects to the Proxy Mobile IPv6 do- message. support for the following extensions: main through multiple interfaces and over multiple access networks, the network will • The local mobility anchor learns the • Dual-Stack Mobile IPv6 [ID-DSMIP6] mobile node’s current point of attach- support is required for supporting allocate a unique set of home network pre- dual-stack mobile nodes and also while ment from the received Proxy Binding fixes for each of the connected interfaces. roaming into an IPv4-only network. Update. Upon accepting the request, it The mobile node will be able to configure the addresses on those interfaces from assigns a home network prefix for the mobile node’s attached interface and • Multiple Care-of Address Registration the respective home network prefixes. support [ID-MCOA6] is required for establishes a tunnel with the mobile allowing the mobile node to use more If the mobile node performs a handoff by access gateway. than one of its interfaces and establish moving its address configuration from one interface to the other (Ex: Moving from LTE • The mobile access gateway, then, ad- tunnels to the home agent. to WiFI) and if the local mobility anchor vertises the home prefix to the mobile node over the point-to-point link. There- • Additionally, the mobile node is re- receives a handoff hint from the serving quired to support IPsec [RFC-401] fore, the mobile node can auto-config- with IKEv2 [RFC-406] for securing the mobile access gateway about the same, ure one or more IPv6 addresses from signaling. the local mobility anchor will assign the its home network prefix. same home network prefix that it previous- However, it is to be noted that the internet ly assigned prior to the handoff. However, • Any time the mobile node changes its community is not in favor of supporting this may require some special configura- point of attachment, the mobile access client-based mobility protocols for various tion on the mobile node to ensure there is gateway on the new link will perform reasons. no session loss during this handoff. the same sequence of operation and The following are the typical sequence ensure the mobile node can continue to retain its address configuration on The future of of events that follows a mobile node’s change of attachment in the Proxy Mobile the new link. It will ensure the prefixes Client-based Mobility IPv6 domain: that are hosted on the new link are the mobile node’s home network prefixes. Management For attempting to understand why there • The mobile access gateway detects For supporting the requirements identi- is a large internet community and vendor the mobile node’s attachment on its link backing behind network-based mobility fied in Section 4.0, the protocol does not and initiates Proxy Mobile IPv6 signal- approaches, such as Proxy Mobile IPv6 require any special changes on the host. ing with the local mobility anchor by [RFC-521] or Generic Tunneling Protocol IP NGN ARCHITECTURE THOUGHT LEADERSHIP JOURNAL - Q1 FY2010
    • (GTP), it is important to review the current be supported in some of the integrated deployment and tool availability status of dual-radio wireless chipsets, by at least one of the key components in the client- one chip vendor, but that represents a based mobility management protocol, the low and insignificant adoption rate. Mobile IPv6 client [RFC-775]. Following Thus, it is reasonable to assume that there are some observations: are significant challenges in pushing a cli- • The Mobile IP client, Mobile IPv4 or Mo- ent-based mobility management approach bile IPv6, is not shipped to-date as part which requires massive amount of devel- of any of the major Operating Systems. opment efforts and $$ investment. Given To name a few, its not part of any of the the fact that there is no vendor commit- Microsoft Windows released versions, ment, no tools in the market and consider- its not shipped with MAC OS/X, its not ing the number of years since some of shipped with any of the standard Linux these specs have been standardized, it is distributions (Fedora, Redhat, Ubuntu ..) reasonable to explore other approaches. and is not shipped as part of any of the Given the multitude of operating systems BSD distributions. and variants, it is not a trivial task to have • Looking beyond the default Operating a Mobile IPv6 client that includes IKEv2, System shipments, there are close to IPSec, Dual-Stack Mobile IPv6 and MCOA, zero, or may be one or two commercial and have it tested across all these plat- stack vendors. Further, expecting these forms and be available in the time frame vendors to support the core mobility when the industry needs this work. This components, Mobile IPv6 [RFC-775], may happen eventually, but for the current Dual-Stack Mobile IPv6 [ID-DSMIP6], time frame, the market is looking for other MCoA [ID-MCOA6], IKEv2 [RFC-406], solutions and network-based mobility is IPsec [RFC-401] on all variants of the preferred approach which requires Windows, Android, iPhone, Linux and minimal host support with an application BSD systems requires a lot of effort, pa- module that any vendor can develop easily. tience, faith and hope. However, it may May be Proxy Mobile IPv6, is the answer. CISCO PUBLIC
    • Americas Headquarters Asia Pacific Headquarters Europe Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems (USA) Pte. Ltd. Cisco Systems International BV San Jose, CA Singapore Amsterdam, The Netherlands Cisco has more than 200 offices worldwide. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco Website at www.cisco.com/go/offices. CCDE, CCENT, CCSI, Cisco Eos, Cisco HealthPresence, the Cisco logo, Cisco Lumin, Cisco Nexus, Cisco Nurse Connect, Cisco Stackpower, Cisco StadiumVision, Cisco TelePresence, Cisco WebEx, DCE, and Welcome to the Human Network are trademarks; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn and Cisco Store are service marks; and Access Registrar, Aironet, AsyncOS, Bringing the Meeting To You, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Collaboration Without Limitation, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Event Center, Fast Step, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, GigaDrive, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, iPhone, iQuick Study, IronPort, the IronPort logo, LightStream, Linksys, MediaTone, MeetingPlace, MeetingPlace Chime Sound, MGX, Networkers, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, PCNow, PIX, PowerPanels, ProConnect, ScriptShare, SenderBase, SMARTnet, Spectrum Expert, StackWise, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, TransPath, WebEx, and the WebEx logo are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0903R) Americas Headquarters Asia Pacific Headquarters Europe Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems (USA) Pte. Ltd. Cisco Systems International BV San Jose, CA Singapore Amsterdam, The Netherlands Cisco has more than 200 offices worldwide. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco Website at www.cisco.com/go/offices. CCDE, CCENT, CCSI, Cisco Eos, Cisco HealthPresence, the Cisco logo, Cisco Lumin, Cisco Nexus, Cisco Nurse Connect, Cisco Stackpower, Cisco StadiumVision, Cisco TelePresence, Cisco WebEx, DCE, and Welcome to the Human Network are trademarks; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn and Cisco Store are service marks; and Access Registrar, Aironet, AsyncOS, Bringing the Meeting To You, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Collaboration Without Limitation, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Event Center, Fast Step, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, GigaDrive, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, iPhone, iQuick Study, IronPort, the IronPort logo, LightStream, Linksys, MediaTone, MeetingPlace, MeetingPlace Chime Sound, MGX, Networkers, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, PCNow, PIX, PowerPanels, ProConnect, ScriptShare, SenderBase, SMARTnet, Spectrum Expert, StackWise, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, TransPath, WebEx, and the WebEx logo are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0903R)