• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Private Content
Catalyst 6500 and 4500 IP Multicast Architecture and Troubleshooting
 

Catalyst 6500 and 4500 IP Multicast Architecture and Troubleshooting

on

  • 11,655 views

This session will provide a thorough understanding of IP Multicast architecture and packet flow on Cisco Catalyst 6500 operating in Standalone and VSS mode, as well as Catalyst 4500/4900.

This session will provide a thorough understanding of IP Multicast architecture and packet flow on Cisco Catalyst 6500 operating in Standalone and VSS mode, as well as Catalyst 4500/4900.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
11,655
Views on SlideShare
11,655
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
426
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Catalyst 6500 and 4500 IP Multicast Architecture and Troubleshooting Catalyst 6500 and 4500 IP Multicast Architecture and Troubleshooting Presentation Transcript

    • Catalyst 6500 & 4500/4900 IP Multicast Architecture Session ID: BRKARC-3322
    • Cisco Live & Networkers Virtual Special Offer – Save $100 Cisco Live has a well deserved reputation as one the industry’s best educational values. With hundreds of sessions spanning four educational programs — Networkers, Developer Networker, Service Provider, IT Management, you can build a custom curriculum that can make you a more valuable asset to your workplace and advance your career goals. Cisco Live and Networkers Virtual immerses you in all facets of Cisco Live, from participating in live keynotes and Super Sessions events to accessing session content to networking with your peers. Visit www.ciscolivevirtual.com and register for Cisco Live and Networkers Virtual. To get $100 USD off the Premier pass, which provides access to hundreds of technical sessions, enter “slideshareFY11”. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
    • Session Goals To provide you with a thorough understanding of the Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast architecture and packet flow To provide you with a thorough understanding of the Catalyst 4500 & 4900 IP Multicast architecture and packet flow Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
    • Session Assumptions Working understanding of General (platform-independent) IPv4 & IPv6 Multicast Working understanding of Catalyst 6500 & 4500/4900 (platform-dependent) architecture and operation General IP Multicast architecture covered in: General Catalyst 6500 architecture covered in: IPM-1261: Introduction to IP Multicast RST-3465: Cisco Catalyst 6500 Switch Architecture Advanced IP Multicast architecture covered in: General Catalyst 4500/4900 architecture covered in: IPM-2008: Advanced Topics in IP Multicast Deployment RST-3445: Cisco Catalyst 4500 Switch Architecture Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
    • IP Multicast - Agenda 1/3 Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes (~5m) • IGMP/MLD & Snooping (~2m) • Multicast VPN & Extranet (~2m) • Multicast High-Availability (~2m) • Multicast Management (~2m) • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 (~2m) • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 (~2m) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
    • Catalyst 6500 - Agenda 2/3 Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture (~15m) • Multicast Hardware Forwarding (~10m) • Multicast Hardware Replication (~5m) • Multicast Packet Flows (~15m) • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping (~5m) • Multicast Forwarding on VSS (~10m) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
    • Catalyst 4500/4900 - Agenda 3/3 Catalyst 4500/4900 (30-40m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture (~10m) • Multicast Hardware Forwarding (~10m) • Multicast Hardware Replication (~5m) • Multicast Packet Flows (~15m) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
    • • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview PIM Distribution Modes Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
    • PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM) Source Tree Source Tree 1st Gen. “Flood” & “Prune” (S,G based) Rooted at Rooted at Source2 multicast distribution protocol Source1 1 2 Source1 Source2 Designed with the assumption that receivers are “Densely” populated in the network... Uses only Source-based Trees • Distribution “trees” are unidirectional (RPF-based) Does NOT use Rendezvous Points (RP’s), which makes it simpler to implement & deploy Data-driven Multicast state • Requires Periodic “Flooding” & “Pruning” on all PIM routers, and DR Election / Asserts on each subnet Group membership tracked via IGMP v1 or v2 Catalyst Switches provide support for: • IPv4 PIM-DM (S,G) forwarding • IGMPv1 & v2 and Snooping Receivers Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
    • PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) 2nd Gen. All-Purpose (S,G and / or *,G) Source Tree Source Shared Tree RPT: Rooted multicast distribution protocol SPT: Rooted at the Source at the Rendezvous Point Designed with the assumption that receivers RP are “Sparsely” populated in the network... Uses both Shared (RP) & Source based Trees • Distribution “trees” are unidirectional (RPF-based) Data-driven Multicast state • Requires Source “Registration”, RP group-mapping, DR Election & Asserts, and SPT switch-over Automatic “Source” discovery (via Registers) Group membership tracked via IGMP v1, v2, or v3 (IPv4) or MLD v1 or v2 (IPv6) Catalyst Switches provide support for: • IPv4 and IPv6 (*,G) forwarding Receivers • IPv4 and IPv6 (S,G) forwarding • IGMP v1/2/3 & MLDv1/2 and Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
    • PIM Source-Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM) Source Tree Source Tree 3rd Gen. “Shortest Path” (S,G based) Rooted at Source1 Rooted at Source2 multicast distribution protocol 2 1 Source1 Source2 Low-Latency variation of PIM-SM, which assumes the “one-to-many” model • Internet, Inter-Domain and Voice / Video distribution Data-driven Multicast state • Requires only SSM Range, and DR Election / Asserts Hosts are responsible for “source discovery” • Typically via some out-of-band mechanism (web page,etc.) • Eliminates need for RP (Shared trees) & MSDP Group membership tracked via IGMP v3 (IPv4) or MLD v2 (IPv6) Catalyst Switches provide support for: • IPv4 and IPv6 (S,G) forwarding • IGMPv3 & MLDv2 and Snooping • SSM mapping (for IGMPv2 & MLDv1) S1,G1 S1,G1 S1,G1 S2,G1 S2,G1 Receivers Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
    • Bidirectional PIM (PIM-BiDir) 3rd Gen. “Shared Path” (*,G based) Source Shared Tree Bidirectional tree multicast distribution protocol rooted at the Rendezvous Point Highly Scalable variation of PIM-SM, which assumes LOTS of Sources & Receivers RP • Intra-Domain multicast & Database distribution Data-Flow Independent • Pre-built (RP/DF-based) distribution trees = NO source registers, DR Asserts, or non-RPF issues Drastically reduces network mroute state • Eliminates ALL (S,G) mroute state in the PIM network • Permits virtually UNLIMITED Sources • Multicast traffic can flow Up & Down (Bidirectional) on the Shared (RP-based) tree Group membership tracked via IGMP v1 or v2 Catalyst Switches provide support for: Sources/Receivers • IPv4 PIM-Bidir (*,G) forwarding • IGMP v1/2 & Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
    • The Evolution of PIM... SSM Sparse Mode BiDir (S,G) One to Many (S,G) & (*,G) (*,G) Many to Many Lookup Lookup arrives arrives Accept arrives arrives Accept Lookup Lookup arrives arrives Direct Direct (S,G)? (S,G)? (*,G)? (*,G)? Connect? Connect? (S,G)? (S,G)? Discard Discard RPF or RPF or DF DF Discard Discard OIF OIF PIM PIM RPF? RPF? List? List? Process Process DF DF OIF OIF PIM PIM RPF? RPF? Forwarding // Forwarding List? List? Process Process Replication Replication r o v e S w S P T itc h OIF OIF Discard Discard !NULL? !NULL? Forward/ Forward/ sent Forward // sent rewrite rewrite sent Forward rewrite sent sent rewrite rewrite sent Replicate Replicate Replicate rewrite Replicate Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
    • • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview IGMP/MLD & Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
    • IGMP / MLD & Snooping Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Source Source • Host “membership” reporting for IPv4 Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) • Host “membership” reporting for IPv6 IGMP / MLD operates on L3 PIM Interfaces • IGMP v1/v2/v3 • MLD v1/v2 • SSM mapping IGMP / MLD “Snooping” constrains multicast flooding on L2 switchports • Based on received Join / Leave reports Host Snooping process uses both L2 & L3 “Join” Reports Hardware & Software information Receivers • Snooping support for IGMPv1/2/3 and MLDv1/v2 • PFC/DFC performs hardware “protocol redirection” of IGMP & MLD packets to SP CPU for processing Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
    • • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast VPN & Extranet Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
    • Multicast Over MPLS VPN MVPN CE Receiver Data MDT CE Used for high-bandwidth data stream Join PE Enterprise MPLS Core Receiver Default MDT Join Default MDT Receiver Traffic Used for low-bandwidth & control-traffic only High-Rate Source MVPN Source Tree Shared / Source Tree Rooted at Source PE: Rooted at CE RP or Source: controls multicast distribution controls multicast distribution within MPLS VPN core within individual VPN/VRF Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
    • MVPN Extranet Join Receiver MPLS Core Join Traffic Receiver Source Allows IP Multicast content which originated in one MVPN, to be distributed to other MVPNs Two configuration requirements: On Source PE or Receiver PE (or both) configure all relevant MVRFs Configure “fallback” static mroute (for Source VRF IP subnets: Source and / or RP address) to allow RPF check between MVRF’s. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
    • • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast High-Availability Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
    • Multicast HA - MMLS NSF/SSO Multicast MLS Non-Stop Forwarding Multicast Data (NSF) & Stateful Switch-Over (SSO) Structures Active Offers single-node Multicast HA on Catalyst 6500 with Supervisor 720 Synchronizes critical Multicast forwarding entries from the Active supervisor to Standby • Multicast (MLS/CEF) Forwarding Entries Global Global Sync Periodic Syncs Sync • Multicast Expansion Table (MET) Standby • IGMP / MLD Snooping state Benefit: Minimizes multicast traffic disruption during supervisor switchover Works with PIM “Triggered Joins” Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
    • Multicast HA -Triggered PIM Joins Designed for SSO/NSF-capable “Highly RP Available” IP Multicast deployment Benefit: Rebuilds the PIM multicast “state” GenID 1 GenID 2 very quickly after switchover On switchover, new Active supervisor Standby changes “Generation ID” field in PIM Hellos Active Failure PIM neighbors use the new GenID as an indication that the neighbor on that Interface has no / old multicast state GenID 1 GenID 2 Neighbor then sends “triggered” PIM Join messages for all (*,G) & (S,G) mroutes, which have that Interface as the RPF Interface Assumption is that PIM neighbors know Periodic PIM Hellos how to interpret GenID field in PIM hello Periodic PIM Joins Hello with new GenID Triggered PIM Joins Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
    • • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast Management Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
    • Multicast Management - NDE with NetFlow v9 NetFlow Provides wire-rate statistics Collector collection for IP Multicast data flows Support for Ingress & Egress multicast statistics • Ingress NetFlow tracks multicast traffic received (input) on an Interface S1,G1 NetFlow v9 Export • Egress NetFlow tracks multicast S2,G1 traffic replicated (output) on an S1,G2 Egress Interface S3,G1 Netflow “Sampling” support, Voice to reduce export load Ingress vlan100 Important for PIM-BiDir Video vlan200 networks, where (S,G) g1/1 entries NOT in mroute table Data Catalyst 6500 vlan300 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
    • Multicast Management - SNMP MIBs & Traps Several Multicast-specific SNMP SNMP MIB’s Server PIM, MROUTE, MSDP, MVPN & IGMP/MLD Several Multicast-specific SNMP Traps • pimNeighborLoss • ciscoPimRPMappingChange SNMP Traps • ciscoPimInvalidReFaster S1,G1 • ciscoPimInvalidJoinPrune SNMP MIBs S2,G1 • ciscoPimInterfaceUp • ciscoPimInterfaceDown S1,G2 Egress • msdpEstablished1 S3,G1 • msdpBackwardTransition Voice vlan100 • ciscoMvpnMvrfChange Ingress Special Trap called Multicast Heartbeat can be used to track Video vlan200 availability of a Multicast group g1/1 ciscoIpMRouteMissingHeartBeats vlan300 Data Catalyst 6500 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
    • • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast on Catalyst 6500 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
    • Catalyst 6500 - Cisco’s Premiere Multicast Hardware-Switching Platform Leverages Cisco IOS’s 10+ years of IPv4 & IPv6 Multicast expertise & innovation Delivers Un-Matched Price & Performance • 200+Mpps IPv4 multicast forwarding demonstrated in EANTC tests • Up to 80G multicast “replication” per-slot with WS-6708-10GE module • 720Gbps throughput & 1.44Tbps throughput with VSS Already widely deployed in many of the World’s most business-critical networks • Global Financials - Exchanges, Brokerages and FSP’s • Video Providers - Domestic / Foreign IPTV and Triple-Play ISP’s • Retail Enterprise - Inventory & Data-Base Distribution • Government and Department of Defense Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
    • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 Centralized & Distributed IPv4 & IPv6 Multicast hardware-switching • Off-loads the majority of multicast forwarding load (data-plane) from the switch control-plane IPv4 & IPv6 PIM-SM & PIM-SSM (S,G) mroute forwarding in hardware IPv4 & IPv6 PIM-SM & PIM-Bidir (*,G) WS-SUP720-3B/XL WS-SUP720-3B/XL mroute forwarding in hardware IPv4 MVPN forwarding in hardware IPv4 IGMP v1/v2/v3 Snooping in hardware IPv6 MLD v1/v2 Snooping in hardware IPv4 PIM Snooping in hardware Switch Fabric provides greater throughput over traditional Bus-based designs VS-S720-10GE-3C/XL VS-S720-10GE-3C/XL Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
    • • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
    • Classic and E-Series Platforms Classic E-Series Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
    • Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Implements Centralized & Distributed IPv4 and IPv6 Multicast hardware-switching Off-loads the majority of (data-plane) forwarding tasks from the switch control-plane Supports IPv4 & IPv6 PIM-SM and PIM-SSM (S,G) mroute forwarding in hardware Supports IPv4 PIM-SM and PIM-Bidir (*,G) mroute forwarding in hardware Supports IPv4 MVPN forwarding in hardware Supports IGMPv1/v2/v3 snooping in hardware Supports MLDv1/v2 snooping in hardware Supports PIM snooping in hardware Supervisor720 supports Centralized & Distributed multicast packet-replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
    • Multicast Features (Hardware) Features Classic E-Series IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) v1, v2, v3 Yes Yes IGMP Snooping (v1, v2, v3) Yes Yes MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery) v1, v2 No Yes MLD snooping (v1, v2) No Yes PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) SM (Sparse Mode) Yes Yes PIM DM (Dense Mode) Yes Yes PIM SSM (Source Specific Mode) Yes Yes PIM Bi-Dir (Bi-Directional) No Yes Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
    • • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Hardware Architecture Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
    • Supervisor Engine “Multicast” Components Switch Fabric & PFC Daughter Card Multicast Replication Engine Route Processor (RP) Switch Processor (SP) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
    • Supervisor 720 Multicast Architecture PFC provides L2 - L3/L4 RP & SP CPU’s control Software Hardware data-plane, using control-plane and user-interface TCAM’s & ASICs Bidir RP table for DF Interface check SP CPU programs RP CPU FIB contains ADJ contains hardware & maintains mroutes (S,G) & (*,G) entries rewrite info & performs IGMP/MLD & state, and and RPF VLAN MET index & PIM snooping downloads tables Supervisor 720 Baseboard 1GE Uplinks Counter QoS FIB ADJ RP (MSFC3) FPGA TCAM TCAM 1 Gbps CPU DRAM Port ASIC Bidir RP 1 Gbps SP (NMP) DRAM ACL L3/4 CPU TCAM NetFlow Engine CPU Daughter Card MET Protocol L2 Engine PFC3 Integrated Redirection Daughter Fabric 20 Gbps Logic L2 CAM 720 Gbps Card Interface & Switch Fabric … Replication Engine 18 x 20Gbps Fabric Channels Protocol Redirection 32 Gbps DBUS Central replication-engine captures IGMP Bus 16 Gbps L2 CAM contains RBUS / MLD & PIM MET contains OIL’s for Bus-based modules packets multicast MAC entries Bus for replication and uplink ports Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
    • Supervisor 720-10GE Multicast Architecture PFC3C serves same RP & SP CPU’s basic functions as perform all CLI and PFC3A/B control-plane functions Supervisor 720-10GE Baseboard 1GE & 10GE Uplinks Counter QoS FIB ADJ RP (MSFC3C) FPGA TCAM TCAM 1 Gbps CPU DRAM Port Port ASIC ASIC Bidir RP 1 Gbps SP (NMP) DRAM ACL L3/4 CPU TCAM Engine NetFlow MET CPU Daughter Card Protocol L2 Engine PFC3C Integrated Redirection Daughter Fabric 20 Gbps Logic L2 CAM 720 Gbps Card Interface & Switch Fabric Replication Engine … 20 x 20Gbps Fabric Channels 32 Gbps DBUS Central Replication engine Bus RBUS for Bus-based cards and uplink ports Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
    • Supervisor 32 Multicast Architecture PFC3B is the same as RP & SP CPU’s used on Supervisor perform all CLI and 720 control-plane functions Supervisor Engine 32 Baseboard 10GE Uplinks Counter QoS FIB ADJ FPGA TCAM TCAM 1 Gbps SP CPU DRAM Port Port ASIC ASIC Bidir RP 1 Gbps ACL L3/4 RP CPU DRAM TCAM Engine NetFlow FPGA MSFC2a Daughter Card MUX Protocol L2 Engine PFC3B Redirection Daughter Bus Interface & Logic L2 CAM Card Replication Engine MET WS-SUP32-10GE-3B 32 Gbps DBUS Central “replication engine” Bus RBUS performs replication for ENTIRE system Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
    • Classic Module Architecture DBUS Example: WS-X6416-GBIC RBUS Classic Module Port Port Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE Example: WS-X6148A-RJ-45 Port ASIC for Physical DBUS Connectivity, Buffering, RBUS and Queuing Classic Module Port ASIC 48x10/100 No multicast-specific components on these modules... Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
    • CEF256 Module Architecture Example: WS-X6516-GBIC DBUS 8 Gbps Fabric RBUS Channel CEF256 Module Fabric / Bus Interface Fabric Interface LC-DBUS Connects to LC-RBUS Fabric and Bus Replication MET Engine Port Port Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC MET 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE Contains Multicast Replication OILs for Port ASIC for Physical Engine—Replicates Replication Connectivity, Buffering, Packets to OILs and Queuing Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
    • CEF256 Module Architecture + DFC Example: WS-X6516-GBIC with WS-F6K-DFC Layer 2 Engine for MAC learning, Security / QoS ACL Lookups, and Protocol Redirection 8 Gbps Fabric Layer 3 Channel Engine for CEF256 FIB/ADJ and Layer 2 L3/L4 Module NetFlow Fabric / Bus with DFC Lookups Engine Engine Interface DFC LC-DBUS LC-RBUS Replication MET Engine Port Port Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
    • CEF720 Module Architecture Example: WS-X6748-SFP DBUS 20 Gbps Fabric RBUS 20 Gbps Fabric Channel Channel Complex A Complex B CEF720 Module Fabric Bus Bus Fabric Interface & Interface Interface Interface & MET Replication Replication MET Engine Engine Port Port CFC Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE Port ASIC for MET Fabric Interface & Physical Contains Replication Engine - Connectivity, OILs for Connects to Fabric & Bus Buffering, and Replication (CFC), and Replicates Queuing Packets to OILs Bus Interface for Control Data Only!! Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
    • CEF720 Module Architecture + DFC3 Example: WS-X6748-SFP with WS-F6700-DFC3B Layer 2 Engine for L2 Lookups and Protocol Layer3/4 Engine for FIB/ADJ, Redirection ACL, QoS, and NetFlow Lookups 20 Gbps Fabric 20 Gbps Fabric Channel Channel Complex A Complex B CEF720 Module Fabric Layer 2 Layer 2 Fabric w/DFC3 Interface & Engine Engine Interface & MET Replication Replication MET Engine L3/4 Engine Engine Port Port DFC3 Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
    • • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Hardware Forwarding Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42
    • Multicast Control Plane RP CPU (L3) IP Multicast SP CPU (L2) IP Multicast control- control-plane functions: plane functions: • Multicast protocols: PIM, IGMP / MLD, • Managing PFC / DFC hardware tables AutoRP / BSR, MSDP, MVPN, etc. • IGMP / MLD Snooping packet processing • Calculating RPF interfaces • PIM Snooping / RGMP packet processing • Managing software IP mroute table • IGMP / MLD Querier functions • Downloading IP mroute table entries • Statistics Collection & Reporting to SP (for installation in the PFC / DFC hardware) IP Mroute Table RP (MSFC3) Group 1 Gbps CPU Membership Inband MSDP Channels 1 Gbps SP (NMP) IGMP / MLD Snooping CPU PIM Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43
    • Hardware Multicast Switching RP CPU derives 3 important data RP (MSFC) PIM, IGMP, structures from the IP Multicast MLD & routing table... MMLS-RP MDSS IP Mrouting • Multicast FIB: Contains (S,G) & (*,G) entries, RPF VLAN, and BiDir RP index SCP / ICC • Adjacency Table: Contains L2 rewrite MAC information and MET index SP (Supervisor) MET Manager, • Multicast Expansion Table (MET): Contains Output Interface Lists (OILs) IGMP & PIM MMLS-SP Snooping RP CPU downloads tables to SP... SP CPU installs the tables into the SCP appropriate hardware... • MET installed in replication engines LC (Linecard) LC (Linecard) • Multicast FIB and Adjacency tables MET FIB/ADJ MET installed in PFC/DFC hardware MMLS-LC SP CPU also maintains L2 tables MMLS-LC for IGMP/MLD & PIM snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44
    • Multicast FIB TCAM Lookup Compare 3 Generate Lookup 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 Key 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 1 Lookup Key 2 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 2 FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 3 (S,G) 1 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 4 Result Multicast 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 5 4 RPF VLAN Packet HIT! 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 6 Adj Index 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 7 S,G compares 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 8 all bits in FIB TCAM Masks Patterns Source IP and Group IP Replication Engine(s) MAC, MET Index OIL #1 OIL #2 MAC, MET Index 6 5 OIL #3 MAC, MET Index OIL #4 MAC, MET Index MET Adjacency Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45
    • BiDir FIB TCAM Lookup Compare 3 Bidir RP Table Generate 5 Lookup 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 XXXXXX, RP #1 DF Set Key xxxxxxxx, 239.1.1.99 1 Lookup Key 2 RP #2 DF Set xxxxxxxx, 239.1.16.1 2 RP #3 DF Set 00000000 FFFFFFFF xxxxxxxx, 239.2.1.1 3 S,G RP #4 DF Set 1 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 xxxxxxxx, 239.14.14.1 4 Multicast xxxxxxxx, 239.44.12.1 5 4 Packet HIT! xxxxxxxx, 239.1.1.1 6 Bidir RP Index Adj Index xxxxxxxx, 239.1.11.1 7 Result xxxxxxxx, 239.50.1.1 8 *,G compares all bits in Masks FIB TCAM Patterns Group IP Replication Engine(s) MAC, MET Index OIL #1 OIL #2 MAC, MET Index 7 6 OIL #3 MAC, MET Index OIL #4 MAC, MET Index MET Adjacency Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46
    • BiDir RP-to-DF Mapping Table RP Index DF Interface Set 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 4K VLAN IDs RP RP IP DF Index Address Interfaces RP #1 DF Set 0 10.1.1.1 VLAN 1 2 3 RP #2 DF Set 1 10.2.2.2 VLAN 3 4 5 6 RP #3 DF Set 2 10.3.3.3 VLAN 3 4093 RP #4 DF Set 3 10.4.4.4 VLAN 200 201 Bidir RP Table (PFC/DFC) Mapping Table (Software Data Structure) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47
    • Multicast Expansion Table (MET) Index OIF VLAN Port List Index A from ADJ A 100 Gi4/12,Gi4/19 101 Gi9/1 MET Block 102 Gi9/25,Gi9/29 Index B from ADJ B 100 Gi4/12,Gi4/22,Gi4/30 1019 Te1/1 Index C from ADJ C 700 Gi4/1,Gi4/2,Gi4/3 4030 Te8/1 Replication 4031 Te8/3 MET Engine 4032 Te2/1,Te2/2,Te2/9 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48
    • • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Hardware Replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49
    • Multicast Replication Process of creating “copies” of multicast packets on each Layer 3 OIF • Example: A PIM-SM (S,G) with 3 OIFs - multicast replication creates three copies of every packet received from source (S) & destined to group (G) • Catalyst 6500 supports 3 types of “replication” Layer 3 multicast replication • For Layer 3 Forwarding between (1 or many) interfaces • “Replication Engine” does the replication Layer 2 multicast replication • For Layer 2 Forwarding between ports in same LC • “Port ASIC” does the replication Fabric multicast replication • For Egress Forwarding between ports on different Modules • “Fabric ASIC” does the replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50
    • Multicast Replication Modes Replication Mode refers to exactly where in the system that multicast replication occurs Replication occurs in one or more “replication engine” ASIC’s In a Classic (bus) system, replication occurs centrally on the Supervisor replication engine In a Fabric-enabled system, there are two possible replication modes: •Ingress replication •Egress replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51
    • Centralized Replication - Classic Systems The Supervisor replication-engine MUST perform multicast packet Supervisor replication for all modules Linecard Linecard All input packets must pass on the FIB/ADJ MET shared Data switching Bus (DBUS) All replicated copies must also pass DBUS -- Data Bus: on the switching bus DBUS Data Bus: Path over which actual Path over which actual frame Data (and // or Header) frame Data (and or Header) PFC performs forwarding lookups, is transferred between is transferred between Modules and the Supervisor Modules and the Supervisor and then replicates all packets Linecard Linecard RBUS -- Result RBUS Result Bus: Path over which Bus: Path over which Only one MET within the system Results of L2-L3/L4 Results of L2-L3/L4 forwarding-engine lookups forwarding-engine lookups (i.e. the MET on the Supervisor by the Supervisor (PFC) are by the Supervisor (PFC) are passed back to Modules passed back to Modules replication-engine) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52
    • Ingress Replication-Mode Supported on Supervisor 720’s & Supervisor 2 + SFM Three Packets Cross Switch Fabric Requires Switch Fabric, and multiple Fabric & Replication-capable modules B Replication load is Distributed: RE Supervisor and / or Switching modules can perform replication A C Replication engine on the ingress Switch module performs replication for all RE Fabric RE OIF’s D Input and replicated packets get lookup on PFC or ingress DFC RE All replicated copies pass over Fabric to egress modules Multiple MET tables, but MET on all RE = Replication Engine replication-engines synchronized Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
    • Egress Replication-Mode Supported on Supervisor 720’s with certain modules One Packet Crosses Switch Fabric • e.g. CEF720, 6516A, 6548A-GETX, SIP’s Requires ALL “egress-capable” modules Input packets get one lookup on ingress B PFC/DFC, replicated packets get lookup A RE on egress PFC/DFC C Switch For OIFs on ingress module, the local RE RE Fabric RE performs the replication D For OIFs on other (egress) modules, RE the ingress RE only sends a single copy of packet over Switch Fabric The replication-engine on the egress = Replication Engine module then replicate for local OIF’s MET on different egress-capable RE = Replication Engine modules can be different / asymmetric Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54
    • Egress Replication - Same Module MET Contents With Egress Replication OIF entries are symmetrical Entry OIF Dest Index among replication-engines on the same module... Index 1 2/1 2/1 Hence replication bandwidth usage is not optimized 2 2/2 2/2 Module B RE 2/1 Receiver Green 2/2 Module A DROP Switch Fabric RE 2/3 RE 2/4 Source Entry OIF Dest Index MET entry for Non-Local port 1 2/1 2/1 RE = Replication Engine = Replication Engine 2 2/3 2/3 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public MET Contents 55
    • Egress Local Replication MET Contents Egress “local replication” optimizes the replication Entry OIF Dest Index bandwidth within the same module, by including Index only the local ports of each replication engine 1 2/1 2/1 Cat6500(config)# mls ip multicast egress local 2 2/2 2/2 Module B RE 2/1 Receiver Green 2/2 Module A Switch Fabric 2/3 RE RE 2/4 Source Entry OIF Dest Index 1 2/3 2/3 RE = Replication Engine = Replication Engine MET Contents Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56
    • • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Packet Flows Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 57
    • Centralized Replication (1) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Supervisor Engine 32 L3/4 Engine Orange Green Red Purple MET R R R R L2 Engine Port ASIC Port ASIC 2 3 Replication A B Engine Classic PFC3 Module B DBUS RBUS Source S Classic Receiver R Port ASIC Port ASIC Module A A B4 Blue VLAN 1 Orange VLAN Blue S Blue R Green VLAN Red VLAN Purple VLAN Entire Packet Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58
    • Centralized Replication (2) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Supervisor Engine 32 L3/4 Engine Orange Green Red Purple MET R R R R 8 8 8 8 L2 Engine Port ASIC Port ASIC 6 Replication A B 7 Engine Classic PFC3 5 Module B DBUS RBUS Source S Classic Receiver R Port ASIC Port ASIC Module A A B Blue VLAN Orange VLAN Blue S Blue R Green VLAN Red VLAN Purple VLAN Entire Packet Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 59
    • Ingress Replication (1) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Orange Green Red Purple R R R R Supervisor Engine 720 Port ASIC Port ASIC L3/4 Engine A B LC-RBUS LC-DBUS L2 Engine 720 Gbps Switch Fabric Replication CEF256 3 8 Gbps MET PFC3 Fabric Interface Engine Module B DBUS RBUS 2 Fabric CEF256 Source S 8 Gbps Module A Interface 4 Receiver R Blue VLAN LC-DBUS Orange VLAN LC-RBUS Green VLAN Replication Red VLAN MET Engine Port ASIC Port ASIC Purple VLAN A B 1 Blue S Blue R Entire Packet Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60
    • Ingress Replication (2) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Orange Green Red Purple R R R R Supervisor Engine 720 Port ASIC Port ASIC L3/4 Engine A B LC-RBUS LC-DBUS L2 Engine 720 Gbps 7 Switch Fabric 9 Replication CEF256 8 Gbps MET PFC3 Fabric Interface Engine Module B DBUS RBUS 6 Fabric CEF256 Source S 8 Gbps Module A Interface 8 Receiver R Blue VLAN LC-DBUS Orange VLAN LC-RBUS Green VLAN Replication 5 Red VLAN MET Engine Port ASIC Port ASIC Purple VLAN A B Blue S Blue R Entire Packet Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61
    • Egress Replication (1) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Orange Green Red Purple R R R R Port ASIC Port ASIC CEF720 DFC3 Module B Supervisor Engine 720 L3/4 Engine w/DFC3 MET 720 Gbps Fabric Interface & PFC3 Switch Replication Engine L2 Engine 20 Gbps Fabric 20 Gbps Source S CEF720 Receiver R 2 Module A Blue VLAN Fabric Interface & L2 Engine w/DFC3 Orange VLAN MET 3 Replication Engine Green VLAN 4 Red VLAN L3/4 Engine Purple VLAN Port ASIC Port ASIC DFC3 Internal VLAN 1 Entire Packet Blue S R Blue Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 62
    • Egress Replication (2) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Orange Green Red Purple R R R R Port ASIC Port ASIC CEF720 DFC3 Module B Supervisor Engine 720 L3/4 Engine w/DFC3 MET 720 Gbps Fabric Interface & 9 PFC3 Switch Replication Engine L2 Engine 20 Gbps Fabric 8 20 Gbps Source S CEF720 Receiver R 7 5 Module A Blue VLAN Fabric Interface & L2 Engine w/DFC3 Orange VLAN MET 6 Replication Engine Green VLAN Red VLAN L3/4 Engine Purple VLAN Port ASIC Port ASIC DFC3 Internal VLAN Entire Packet Blue S R Blue Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 63
    • Egress Replication (3) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Orange Green Red Purple R R R R Port ASIC Port ASIC CEF720 DFC3 Module B Supervisor Engine 720 L3/4 Engine w/DFC3 MET 12 12 720 Gbps Fabric Interface & 11 PFC3 Switch Replication Engine L2 Engine 20 Gbps Fabric 10 20 Gbps Source S CEF720 Receiver R Module A Blue VLAN Fabric Interface & L2 Engine w/DFC3 Orange VLAN MET Replication Engine Green VLAN Red VLAN L3/4 Engine Purple VLAN Port ASIC Port ASIC DFC3 Internal VLAN Entire Packet Blue S R Blue Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 64
    • • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast IGMP/MLD & PIM Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 65
    • IGMP / MLD Purpose: Signal & Refresh group “membership” on receiver subnets IGMP (IPv4) & MLD (IPv6) supported IGMP v1, v2 & v3 protocol support for PIM-SM & PIM-BiDir IGMP v3 protocol support for PIM-SSM • Option for “SSM Mapping” to translate IGMPv2 (*,G) joins into PIM-SSM (S,G) joins MLD v1 & v2 protocol support for PIM-SM MLD v2 protocol support for PIM-SSM • Option for “SSM Mapping” to translate MLDv1 (*,G) joins into PIM-SSM (S,G) join Operates on Layer 3 PIM interfaces Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66
    • IGMP / MLD Snooping Purpose: Constrain unnecessary multicast “flooding” on Layer 2 host ports IGMP/MLD Snooping code leverages both Hardware and Software: • Switch “snoops” Layer 3 contents of IGMP / MLD packets • PFC/DFC ASIC’s recognize IGMP / MLD packets and “redirects” them to SP CPU (protocol redirection logic) • Switch installs static Layer 2 forwarding entries for each multicast group MAC address • Multicast data traffic forwarded to appropriate Interfaces according to MAC address table entries (per VLAN) Snooping does NOT affect the performance of multicast data traffic Redirection logic ONLY redirects IGMP/MLD packets, not UDP (multicast data) packets Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 67
    • PIM Snooping Purpose: Constrain unnecessary multicast “flooding” on Layer 2 “mrouter” ports Mainly used in PIM-connected Layer 2 “Core” PIM Snooping code also leverages both Hardware and Software: • Switch “snoops” Layer 3 contents of PIM packets • PFC/DFC ASIC’s recognize PIM packets and “redirects” them to SP CPU (protocol redirection logic) • Switch installs / removes Layer 2 forwarding entries for interfaces which send PIM Joins / Prunes • Multicast data traffic only forwarded to appropriate Interfaces according to PIM Snooping mroute table entries (per VLAN) Protocol redirection ONLY redirects PIM packets, not UDP (multicast data) packets Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 68
    • L2 Snooping Packet Flow NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Supervisor Engine 720 Baseboard CPU Daughter Card RP (MSFC3) Port ASIC CPU 5 SP (NMP) SNOOPING 4 CPU PROCESS MET Fabric Interface Integrated & Replication 720 Gbps Engine Switch Fabric CEF720 3 Module DFC3 L2 Engine Fabric Interface & w/DFC3 2 Replication Engine Protocol L3/4 Engine Redirection Logic Port ASIC Port ASIC 1 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69
    • • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Forwarding on VSS Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70
    • Virtual Switching System - Overview Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71
    • Benefits of Multicast with VSS Stand-Alone Virtual Switch DR Non-DR Switch-1: Active Switch-2:-Standby DR STP/HSRP VSL Benefits of VSS Better multicast traffic load-distribution using MEC Inter chassis SSO – (*,G) & (S,G) and L2 snooping entries synced across chassis, faster convergence Simplified multicast topology eliminates PIM DR election process & Non-RPF traffic across inter-switch links Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 72
    • Multicast with VSS - Load-Sharing VSS provides Multicast Load-sharing across multiple links with MEC Stand-Alone VSS RP RP L3 MEC ECMP DR Non-DR DR STP/HSRP VSL L2 STP L2 MEC Receivers Receivers Receivers Receivers Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 73
    • Multicast with VSS - Inter-chassis SSO VSS Supervisor failure re-convergence is faster with MMLS SSO Multicast forwarding entries (State) is synchronized, so that the new Active Supervisor can forward traffic immediately after Switch-Over RP SSO Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74
    • Multicast with VSS - Simplified Topology VSS Simplifies Multicast Topologies Stand-Alone VSS Logical View DR Non-DR DR Non-RPF flows In Stand-Alone (multi-home) topologies, inter-switch link bandwidth is wasted due to non-RPF traffic between DR & non-DR VSS is a single DR, so there is no non-RPF traffic Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75
    • Multicast Re-convergence Scenarios 1. Uplinks Failure 3. Switch Interlink Failure RP 1 L3 DR L3 L2/L3 2 3 L2/L3 4 2. Supervisor Failure 4. Downlinks Failure Receivers Receivers Multicast State: 500 PIM groups @ 10 sources per-group = 5000 mroute entries With MMLS Egress Replication-Mode = 10,000 shortcuts in hardware Time is in Seconds Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 76
    • Multicast with VSS - Deployment Guidelines VSS Multicast Guidelines: Connected devices should ALWAYS be dual-homed (MEC or ECMP), for optimal replication performance L3 L3 MEC MEC MEC is recommended in BOTH L2 & L3 environments, to provide deterministic VSS data-plane convergence MEC eliminates RPF re-calculation & DR re-election during Link Failures PIM DR Use Egress replication-mode (and egress-local) for higher multicast L2 L2 replication throughput MEC MEC Egress replication-mode requires DFC’s for optimized replication performance Traffic flow #1 Size the total number of VSL member Traffic flow #2 links to meet traffic requirements Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 77
    • Multicast Control Plane Details Control Plane operates ONLY on the VSS Active Supervisor Multicast Control Plane traffic ( IGMP / MLD, PIM hellos, PIM Joins / Prunes, etc... ) received by VSS Standby are redirected to VSS Active via VSL Control traffic is redirected to Active VSS SP/RP Catalyst 6500-A Catalyst 6500-B (VS Active) (VS Standby) VSL Supervisor Supervisor SP RP RP SP PIM Hellos MEC MEC Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 78
    • VSS Multicast: FIB Programming VS ACTIVE VS STANDBY • The VS Standby SP is MET 67XX treated as a DFC module DFC FIB/ADJ from a FIB / ADJ MET forwarding perspective. FIB/ADJ DFC MET • The VS Active SP installs forwarding shortcuts onto MET C2+ C2+ MET the Active PFC, Standby PFC and all other DFC’s FIB/ADJ in the VS System. Active Standby FIB/ADJ MET SP SP MET VSL HA FIB-CAPABLE ICC MCAST GROUP Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 79
    • VSS Multicast: MET programming VS ACTIVE VS STANDBY • The VS Standby SP is C2+ MET treated as a Supervisor module from a MET DFC MET programming perspective DFC MET • The SP on each Chassis manages & programs it’s C2+ MET C2+ MET own MET, and the MET’s of all local C2+ modules • DFC modules manage and Active Standby SP MET SP MET program their own MET’s VSL ACTIVE SCP MET STANDBY SCP MET MCAST GROUP MCAST GROUP Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 80
    • Multicast Ingress Forwarding Model All forwarding-lookups & replication occur on the Ingress modules Subsequent modules only perform L2 egress lookup. Multiple replications cross the Ingress Core’s Switch Fabric and / or VSL Ingress Core Egress Core M0 R R M0 R3 E E 1 M1 R R M1 MET2 LC2 LC 1 LC 3 S 2 MET3 3 M0 R R M0 E R4 R1 6 7 E VSL E LC1 (Ingress) R5 M1 R R M1 8 4 9 LC3 LC2 LC 4 Switch 1 Switch 2 MEC I-E-E-E (Ingress-VSL-VSL-Egress) Access Switch NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps 5 •Multicast packets may cross up to 4 DFC’s are kept in the Slide Notes •Ingress DFC performs L2-L4 forwarding lookup R2 •Up to 3 DFC’s (VSL) perform L2 egress lookup Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 81
    • Multicast Egress Forwarding Model Ingress modules replicate locally & one copy to Egress modules Egress modules (on Ingress Core) then replicate locally, and also for all receivers on the Egress Core. Multiple replications cross the VSL Ingress Core Egress Core M0 R R M0 R3 E E 1 M1 R R M1 MET3 LC 3 S 2 LC2 (Egress) LC 1 MET2 M0 R R M0 R4 E R1 6 7 8 E VSL E LC1 (Ingress) R5 3 M1 R R M1 9 LC3 (Egress) 4 LC 4 10 LC2 Switch 1 Switch 2 MEC MET2 MET3 Access Switch I-E-E-E (Ingress-VSL-VSL-Egress) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps •Multicast packets may cross up to 4 DFC’s 5 are kept in the Slide Notes •Ingress DFC performs L2-L4 forwarding lookup R2 •Up to 3 DFC’s (VSL) perform L2 egress lookup Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 82
    • • Catalyst 4500/4900 (30-40m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Hardware Architecture Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 83
    • Cat4K Architecture Packet Processor: receive, extract, reconstruct, and send. Forwarding Engine: lookup, rewire, replication, and Qos Packet Memory Packet Memory Packet Lookup Descriptor (PLD) Layer2 module Input Services FWD Replication Forwarding Engine Replication Forwarding Engine module Packet Processor Packet Processor Queue Queue Output Services Packet Transmit Replication Replication Descriptor(PTD) Module Module CPU CPU Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 84
    • Cat4K Multicast Architecture Single copy of multicast packet in Packet Memory => Excellent buffer capability Same path as unicast => deterministic and low latency/jitter Packet Memory Packet Memory Packet Lookup Descriptor (PLD) Layer2 module Input Services FWD Replication Forwarding Engine module Packet Processor Packet Processor Forwarding Engine Queue Output Services Packet Transmit Replication Descriptor(PTD) Module Replication CPU CPU Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 85
    • • Catalyst 4500/4900 (30-40m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Hardware Forwarding Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 86
    • Multicast Forwarding Overview Forwarding TCAM RET table RPF index Set of {vlan switchport} S,G RP ID RET index interface 0 S1, G1 Vlan3 0 1219 .. S2, G2 Vlan7 0 1279 1279 {vlan3, Fa3/1} {vlan5, Fa3/2} … *, G4 2 1356 … … 1356 {vlan101, te1/1} {vlan1007, te1/8} Hardware FIB Table Hardware RET Table Install mroute table except OIL Install OIL information of mroute (Outgoing Interface List) These two tables constitute the MFIB entry Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 87
    • Multicast PIM BiDir Forwarding Overview Forwarding TCAM RET table RPF index Set of {vlan switchport} S,G RP ID RET index interface 0 S1, G1 Vlan3 0 1219 .. S2, G2 Vlan7 0 1279 1279 {vlan3, Fa3/1} {vlan5, Fa3/2} … *, G4 2 1356 … … 1356 {vlan101, te1/1} {vlan1007, te1/8} VLAN DF Table VLAN 1 2 … 7 1 0 0 0 … 0 0 0 101 0 1 0 … 4094 0 0 0 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 88
    • • Catalyst 4500/4900 (30-40m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Hardware Replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 89
    • Replication Module Packet Memory Packet Memory PLD Layer2 module Input Services FWD Replication Forwarding Engine Replication Forwarding Engine module Packet Processor Packet Processor Queue Queue Output Services Replication PTD Module Replication Replication CPU CPU Table Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 90
    • Replication Module Replicated packets—packets that need to go to two or more ports and/or VLANs Packet which require replication are CPU copy for Unicast packet SPAN Unknown Unicast Flooding IP multicast packet Replication Broadcast packets Module With Classic Supervisors, this module is called Multicast Replication Module (MRM) With E-Series Supervisors, this module is called Replication Management Module (RMM) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 91
    • Replication Table Packet Memory Packet Memory PLD Layer2 module Input Services FWD Replication Forwarding Engine Replication Forwarding Engine module Packet Processor Packet Processor Queue Queue Output Services Replication Replication PTD Module Module Replication CPU CPU Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 92
    • Replication Table Stores replication vlan/portsets information for L2 multicast/broadcast/flooding and IP multicast forwarding With Classic Supervisors, this module is called Multicast Expansion Table (MET). The MET size is 64K [it is 32K for SupII+, SupII+TS and SupII+10GE] Replication Table With E-Series Supervisors, this module is called Replication Expansion Table (RET). The RET size is 102K Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 93
    • Replication Queues Packet Memory Packet Memory PLD Layer2 module Input Services FWD Replication Forwarding Engine module Packet Processor Packet Processor Forwarding Engine Queue Output Services Replication Replication PTD Module Module Replication Replication CPU CPU Table Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 94
    • Replication Queues Replication queues prevents the congestion in Forwarding Engine’s pipeline With Classic Supervisors, this module is called Multicast Replication Queue (MRQ). Queue depth is 2048. It stores [pkt id, header, MET index] Replication With E-Series Supervisors, this module is Queue called Replica Request Queue (RRQ). Queue depth is 4096. It stores [pkt id, header, RET index] Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 95
    • • Catalyst 4500/4900 (30-40m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Packet Flows Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 96
    • IP Multicast Forwarding Packet Memory Packet Memory Host A—VLAN 1 PLD Multicast Source Layer2 module Input Services Host B—VLAN 2 Packet FWD Multicast Receiver Modules Packet Replication Forwarding Engine Modules Processor Forwarding Engine module Processor Queue Output Services Replication PTD Module Host C—VLAN 3 Multicast Receiver CPU CPU Replication Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 97
    • IP Multicast Forwarding Packet Memory Packet Memory Host A—VLAN 1 PLD Multicast Source Layer2 module 1 2 3 4 Input Services Host B—VLAN 2 Packet FWD Multicast Receiver Modules Packet Replication Forwarding Engine Modules Processor Forwarding Engine module Processor Queue Output Services Replication PTD 6 Module 5 Host C—VLAN 3 Multicast Receiver CPU CPU Replication Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 98
    • IP Multicast Forwarding Packet Memory Packet Memory Host A—VLAN 1 Multicast Source PLD 7 Layer2 module 8 Input Services Host B—VLAN 2 Packet FWD Multicast Receiver Modules Packet Replication Forwarding Engine Modules Processor Forwarding Engine module Processor Queue Output Services Replication PTD Module 9 Host C—VLAN 3 Multicast Receiver CPU CPU Replication Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 99
    • Session Take-Away’s Catalyst Switches leverage proven IP Multicast IOS code Hardware Switching provides Higher Throughput • Software-based Multicast forwarding is limited by CPU & Memory (vs. bandwidth) • MLS & CEF offloads a significant portion of Multicast routing (packet rewrite) to hardware • WS-SUP720-3B & VS-S720-10G provide 720Gbps Fabric-based throughput (VSS @ 1.44Tbps) • WS-SUP32-3B provides 32Gbps Bus-based throughput • DFC’s + Egress Replication capable of 30/48Mpps of throughput • Supervisor 6E & Catalyst 4900M capable of 250Mpps of replication. • Supervisor 6L-E capable of 225Mpps of replication. Hardware Switching provides Less Latency / Jitter • Software-based forwarding incurs high latency / jitter during routing & replication • Hardware-based forwarding is only limited by ASIC replication times High-Availability (SSO/NSF) Minimizes Traffic Loss • Loss of an adjacency will cause RPF re-calculation, DR/DF election, before convergence • Forwarding entries are synchronized & adjacencies will not drop, resulting in near-zero loss Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 100
    • Recommended Reading Continue your Networkers @ Cisco Live learning experience with further reading from Cisco Press Check the Recommended Reading flyer for suggested books Available Onsite @ the Cisco Company Store Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 101
    • Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 102
    • APPENDIX: IP Multicast Troubleshooting Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 103
    • Some Definitions... ACL: Access Control List BIDIR: Bi-Directional (PIM) ACE: Access Control Entry DR: Designated Router (DM,SM & SSM) ADJ: Adjacency Table / Rewrite Info DF: Designated Forwarder (BIDIR) DM: Dense-Mode (PIM) CEF: Cisco Express Forwarding IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol FIB: Forwarding Information Base MET: Multicast Expansion Table HA: High Availability MLD: Multicast Listener Discovery MLS: Multi-Layer Switching MVPN: Multicast VPN NSF: Non-Stop Forwarding OIF: Out-going InterFace RPF: Reverse-Path Forwarding OIL: Out-going Interface List SSO: Stateful Switch-Over PIM: Protocol Independent Multicast VPN: Virtual Private Network RP: Rendez-vous Point (SM & BIDIR) VRF: Virtual Routing & Forwarding SM: Sparse-Mode (PIM) VSS: Virtual Switching System SSM: Source-Specific Multicast (PIM) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 104
    • Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Troubleshooting Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 105
    • Multicast Troubleshooting Overview Key Problem Areas Configuration Software and hardware multicast forwarding state Software and hardware scalability limits Most of the troubleshooting is applicable to Catalyst 4500/4900 as well. There is note on the slide if that is specific to Catalyst 6500. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 106
    • Verify the Multicast Configuration Verify that ip multicast-routing is enabled! If MVPN, verify ip multicast-routing is enabled “per-VRF” PIM enabled on all of the Interfaces (including Loopbacks) If PIM-SM and / or PIM-BiDir, verify the RP configuration (AutoRP, BSR, Anycast, Phantom RP, Static) Hardware MMLS/CEF and IGMP Snooping enabled (enabled by Default, but can be disabled) Watch out for TTL thresholds, multicast boundary, security ACLs, VACLs, policers, etc. Watch for proper SSM or BiDir address-range configuration (SSM & Bidir require coordination between Network and Application groups) Unicast Routing is enabled & RPF information is correct ☺ Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 107
    • Troubleshooting Forwarding State Verify RP and DR/DF state Verify software IP mroute state Verify hardware multicast forwarding tables Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 108
    • Verifying RP and DR/DF State Check RP IP addresses and group-to-RP mappings Verify RP RPF/upstream information Verify DR or DF Interface state Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 109
    • Verifying Group-to-RP Mappings Catalyst-6506E#show ip pim rp mapping PIM Group-to-RP Mappings Group(s): 224.0.0.0/4, Static RP: 10.255.255.3 (tstevens-6509.cisco.com) Catalyst-6506E#show ip pim rp Group: 239.1.1.10, RP: 10.255.255.3, v2, uptime 00:01:10, expires never Group: 239.1.1.11, RP: 10.255.255.3, v2, uptime 00:01:10, expires never Group: 239.1.1.12, RP: 10.255.255.3, v2, uptime 00:01:10, expires never Group: 239.1.1.13, RP: 10.255.255.3, v2, uptime 00:01:10, expires never Group: 224.0.1.40, RP: 10.255.255.3, v2, uptime 00:01:10, expires never Catalyst-6506E# Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 110
    • Verifying IP RPF Information Catalyst-6506E#show ip rpf 10.255.255.3 RPF information for tstevens-6509.cisco.com (10.255.255.3) RPF Interface: GigabitEthernet1/5 RPF neighbor: tstevens-6513 (10.20.1.2) RPF route/mask: 10.255.255.3/32 RPF type: unicast (ospf 10) RPF recursion count: 0 Doing distance-preferred lookups across tables Catalyst-6506E# Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 111
    • Identifying the DR for a Segment show ip pim Interface identifies DR for each Interface Catalyst-6506E#show ip pim Interface Address Interface Ver/ Nbr Query DR DR Mode Count Intvl Prior 10.255.255.2 Loopback0 v2/S 0 30 1 10.255.255.2 10.255.254.1 Loopback1 v2/S 0 30 1 10.255.254.1 10.10.1.2 GigabitEthernet4/3 v2/S 1 30 1 10.10.1.2 10.30.1.1 GigabitEthernet4/16 v2/S 1 30 1 10.30.1.2 10.100.1.1 Vlan100 v2/S 1 30 1 10.100.1.2 10.101.1.1 Vlan101 v2/S 1 30 1 10.101.1.2 10.200.1.1 Vlan200 v2/S 1 30 1 10.200.1.2 10.201.1.1 Vlan201 v2/S 1 30 1 10.201.1.2 This router’s Interface Catalyst-6506E# Compare with DR addresses address Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 112
    • Identifying Bidir DF Interfaces Catalyst-6506E#show ip pim Interface df Interface RP DF Winner Metric Uptime Loopback0 10.255.255.3 10.255.255.1 2 02:21:07 GigabitEthernet1/5 10.255.255.3 10.20.1.2 0 02:21:08 GigabitEthernet1/13 10.255.255.3 10.13.1.1 2 02:21:07 GigabitEthernet2/13 10.255.255.3 10.13.2.1 2 02:21:07 GigabitEthernet2/14 10.255.255.3 10.14.2.1 2 02:21:07 GigabitEthernet2/24 10.255.255.3 10.2.24.1 2 00:35:15 Vlan100 10.255.255.3 10.100.1.2 2 00:03:39 Vlan101 10.255.255.3 10.101.1.2 2 00:01:13 Vlan200 10.255.255.3 10.200.1.2 2 00:01:10 Vlan201 10.255.255.3 10.201.1.2 2 00:01:07 Catalyst-6506E# Winner’s routing metric to RP PIM enabled Interfaces IP address of current Bidir RP DF winner address Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 113
    • Bidir RP-to-DF Interface Mapping Table * Catalyst 6500 Only Catalyst-6506E#show mls ip multicast rp-mapping df-cache State: H - Hardware Switched, I - Install Pending, D - Delete Pending, Z - Zombie All DF Interfaces should be in H state RP Address State DF State 10.255.255.3 H Gi2/13 H 10.255.255.3 H Gi1/13 H 10.255.255.3 H Gi2/14 H 10.255.255.3 H Gi2/24 H 10.255.255.3 H Vl100 H 10.255.255.3 H Vl101 H 10.255.255.3 H Vl200 H 10.255.255.3 H Vl201 H Catalyst-6506E# DF Interfaces for specified Bidir RP Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 114
    • Verifying Software IP Mroute State Ensure IP mroute exists in software... show ip mroute Does (*,G) and/or (S,G) exist in software mroute table? Does Hardware state information in show ip mroute output appear correct? Ensure RPF Interface is known and correct Make sure show ip mroute and show ip rpf show correct RPF Interface for (*,G) or (S,G) PIM reliance on unicast routing means multicast issues often caused by unicast routing issues Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 115
    • Verifying Software IP Mroute State (2) OIFs are Known and Correct OIF Inclusion driven by PIM or IGMP Ensure PIM neighbors active and stable (show ip pim neighbor) IGMP dictates connected receiver membership— ensure joins/leaves sent by receivers and received by RP CPU Might need to verify PIM and IGMP packet exchange using SPAN/sniffer and/or debugs Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 116
    • Displaying Hardware Forwarding Entries * Catalyst 6500 Only show mls ip multicast Catalyst-6506E#show mls ip multicast group 239.1.1.1 source 10.1.1.100 Multicast hardware switched flows: (10.1.1.100, 239.1.1.1) Incoming Interface: Gi1/5, Packets switched: 293919 Hardware switched outgoing Interfaces: Vlan100 Vlan101 Gi1/13 Gi2/13 Gi2/14 Vlan200 RPF-MFD installed Total hardware switched flows : 1 Catalyst-6506E# Applies to PIM-SM, PIM-SSM, and Bidir (*,G) hardware entries Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 117
    • Bidir-PIM (*,G/m) Entries Source-only traffic must reach RP (could be receivers on other branches) For efficiency, system installs (*,G/m) hardware forwarding entry/entries to transport this traffic Entries based on Bidir-PIM RP ACL configuration At RP, assuming no receivers on other branches, packets dropped in hardware NOTE: (*,G/m) entries not shown in software mroute table today Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 118
    • Viewing Bidir (*,G/m) Forwarding Entries * Catalyst 6500 Only Catalyst-6506E#show mls ip multicast rp-mapping gm-cache State: H - Hardware Switched, I - Install Pending, D - Delete Pending, Z - Zombie RP Address State Group Mask State Packet/Byte-count 10.255.255.3 H 224.0.0.0 240.0.0.0 H 1183799/1754389822 Catalyst-6506E# Statistics Group IP and Mask (224/4) Bidir RP IP Address Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 119
    • Troubleshooting Group Membership Verify IGMP / MLD & IGMP / MLD Snooping configuration status Make sure IGMP snooping requirements are met Make sure the Layer 3 and Layer 2 entries exist and Interface/port membership is correct Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 120
    • Verifying IGMP / MLD & Snooping Configuration Status Catalyst-6506E#show ip igmp Interface vlan 100 Vlan100 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 10.100.1.2/24 IGMP is enabled on Interface Current IGMP host version is 2 Current IGMP router version is 2 IGMP query interval is 60 seconds IGMP Configuration IGMP querier timeout is 120 seconds State IGMP max query response time is 10 seconds Last member query count is 2 Last member query response interval is 1000 ms Inbound IGMP access group is not set IGMP Packet IGMP activity: 3 joins, 2 leaves Statistics Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 121
    • Verifying IGMP / MLD & Snooping Configuration Status (2) Multicast routing is enabled on Interface Multicast TTL threshold is 0 Multicast designated router (DR) is 10.100.1.3 DR & Querier Information IGMP querying router is 10.100.1.2 (this system) No multicast groups joined by this system IGMP snooping is globally enabled IGMP snooping is enabled on this Interface IGMP snooping Gist-leave is disabled and querier is disabled IGMP snooping explicit-tracking is enabled IGMP snooping last member query response interval is 1000 ms IGMP snooping report-suppression is disabled Catalyst-6506E# IGMP Snooping Configuration State Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 122
    • Verifying IGMP Snooping Requirements IGMP querier must be present in the VLAN Could be multicast router or switch configured as querier Make sure all multicast router ports known Switch tracks location of all multicast routers on per-VLAN basis Detection based on IGMP queries and PIM hellos Snooping switch uses list of mrouter ports to flood certain traffic—e.g., proxied joins/leaves Loss of multicast router port will impact traffic flow Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 123
    • Viewing Multicast Routers Catalyst-6506E#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan ports -----+---------------------------------------- 100 Gi3/7,Gi3/16 101 Gi3/7,Gi3/16 List of Multicast Router Ports for VLAN 200 Gi3/7,Gi3/16 201 Gi3/7,Gi3/16 Catalyst-6506E# VLAN for Which Specified Ports Are Multicast Router Ports Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 124
    • Verifying IGMP Membership IGMP enabled when PIM configured on an Interface For receiver segments, IGMP drives OIF presence in mroute table Use show ip igmp groups to see IGMP join status on mrouter Use debug ip igmp <group> to monitor IGMP packet reception at router Be aware of effect of IGMP snooping on Layer 3 IGMP behavior (e.g. not all joins/leaves seen by router) Verify IGMP querier consistency and group membership for routers on shared segments Watch for IGMP access groups, multicast boundary Verify IGMP snooping entries Make sure entry exists and port membership correct Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 125
    • Verifying IGMP Entries Catalyst-6506E#show ip igmp groups IGMP Connected Group Membership Group Address Interface Uptime Expires Last Reporter 239.1.2.0 Vlan200 00:00:12 00:00:00 10.200.1.101 239.1.2.1 Vlan200 00:00:12 00:00:00 10.200.1.101 239.1.2.2 Vlan200 00:00:12 00:00:00 10.200.1.101 239.1.2.3 Vlan200 00:00:12 00:00:00 10.200.1.101 239.1.1.10 Vlan201 Interface with 00:00:13 00:00:00 10.201.1.101 Connected Receiver 224.0.1.40 Loopback0 1w4d 00:02:18 10.255.255.1 Catalyst-6506E# IP Address of Last Multicast Group Joined Receiver to Report for the Group on the Interface Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 126
    • Verifying IGMP Snooping Entries Catalyst-6506E#show mac-address-table multicast igmp vlan mac address type learn qos ports -----+---------------+--------+-----+---+-------------------------------- 200 0100.5e01.0101 static Yes - Gi3/1,Gi3/7,Gi3/16 100 0100.5e01.0101 static Yes - Gi3/5,Gi3/7,Gi3/16 101 0100.5e01.0101 static Yes - Gi3/6,Gi3/7,Gi3/16 Catalyst-6506E# List of Receiver Ports (Also Includes Any Multicast Router Ports in VLAN) Group Destination MAC VLAN Where Group MAC Is Learned Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 127
    • Scalability Limits Ensure Layer 3 and Layer 2 entry capacity not exceeded Monitor MET utilization Monitor RP and SP CPU utilization Monitor Fabric and bus utilization Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 128
    • Checking Layer 3 Entry Capacity * Catalyst 6500 Only Multicast entries share FIB TCAM entries and hardware adjacency entries with other protocols (unicast, IPv6, MPLS) Syslogs printed when hardware capacity exceeded (total FIB exhaustion, or exceeded max-routes configuration) Check current entry status: show mls ip multicast summary show mls cef maximum-routes (PFC3) Maximum capacity by forwarding engine documented earlier in your handouts Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 129
    • show mls ip multicast summary * Catalyst 6500 Only show mls ip multicast summary Catalyst-6506E#show mls ip multicast summary 21210 MMLS entries using 3394656 bytes of memory Number of partial hardware-switched flows: 0 Number of complete hardware-switched flows: 21210 Directly connected subnet entry install is enabled Hardware shortcuts for mvpn mroutes supported Current mode of replication is Ingress Auto-detection of replication mode is enabled Consistency checker is enabled Bidir gm-scan-interval: 10 Catalyst-6506E# Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 130
    • Monitoring MET Utilization Recall that MET in replication engines contains OIFs for mroutes MET is limited hardware resource (64K entries total) Allocated in fixed size blocks CatOS always allocates in four-entry blocks Cisco IOS allocates in variable block sizes based on need (one, two, four, eight, or 16 entries) Monitor current MET utilization Inexact science—some internal “overhead” (pointers, etc.) and “wasted” space Syslog generated if MET capacity reached %MMLS-SP-6-MET_LIMIT_EXCEEDED: Failed to allocate MET entry, exceeded system limit of (65536) entries. Number of times MET limit is exceeded in the last 1 min : 7 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 131
    • Monitoring MET Utilization Catalyst-6506E-sp#show mmls met met free entries: 61462 Total Free Entries met total entries: 65526 <…> 64K Total MET Entries Catalyst-6506E-sp# Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 132
    • Layer 2 Entry Capacity Limit is 15,488 Layer 2 multicast groups Limit is configurable using ip igmp snooping l2-entry-limit command Syslog posted when limit exceeded or hash collision occurred %MCAST-SP-6-GC_LIMIT_EXCEEDED: IGMP snooping was trying to allocate more Layer 2 entries than what allowed (15488) %MCAST-SP-6-L2_HASH_BUCKET_COLLISION: Failure installing (G,C)- >index: (0100.5e01.1465,1017)->0x82C When limit exceeded, flooding occurs for additional group MACs Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 133
    • Monitoring Layer 2 Entry Capacity show mac-address-table multicast igmp count Catalyst-6506E#show mac-address-table multicast igmp count Multicast MAC Entries for all vlans: 455 Catalyst-6506E# Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 134
    • Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Troubleshooting Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 135
    • Multicast Related Entries Protocols EIGRP/OSPF PIM/IGMP IGMP snooping Unicast Routing Multicast Routing Layer 2 Forwarding Table Table Table Software Tables CEF MFIB CEF – MFIB Subsystem S/W adjacency S/W FIB Table Table Hardware H/W adjacency H/W FIB Replication Tables Table Table Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 136
    • Multicast Related Entries Protocols EIGRP/OSPF PIM/IGMP IGMP snooping show ip igmp snooping group show ip mroute show ip igmp group Unicast Routing Multicast Routing Layer 2 Forwarding Table Table Table Software show ip mfib Tables CEF MFIB CEF – MFIB Subsystem show platform software ip route multicast S/W adjacency S/W FIB Table Table show platform hardware ip route multicast Hardware H/W adjacency H/W FIB Replication Tables Table Table Table show platform hardware met entry < > Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Show platform hardware ret chain index <> Cisco Public 137
    • IGMP Troubleshooting Check List Make sure igmp entry is correctly programmed to mroute table show ip igmp snooping group show ip igmp snooing mrouter show platform hardware mac-address-table address < > show platform hardware met entry < > [Classic] show platform hardware ret chain index < > [E-Series] show ip igmp group show ip igmp Interface < > show ip pim neighbor show ip mroute Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 138
    • PIM troubleshooting check list PIM and mroute debugging show ip mroute show platform hardware ip route multicast show platform hardware met entry < > [Classic] show platform hardware met chain < > [Classic] show platform hardware ret chain < > [E-Series] show ip rpf < > show ip pim neighbor show ip mroute < > count show ip mroute active Show ip pim rp mapping in-use Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 139