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Resolution summer 2009

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    Resolution summer 2009 Resolution summer 2009 Document Transcript

    • Summer 2009 Resolution 33 News from the Restorative Justice Consortium A Perfect Match: RJ and Protective Behaviours Can Murder ever be Restorative Practices in the workplace Forgiven? Restorative Approaches in Lewisham Schools More news from SORI - Supporting An Eventful Journey: RJ Offenders through Restoration Inside and Leicestershire Police R. Andren Essex County Juvenile Firesetters Scheme Company number:4199237 Charity number:1097969
    • Contents Introduction ow. We've just come back from the already exists - is incredibly exciting. A full 02 03 Introduction and Editor’s note News in brief W RJC's Summer Conference, our first in Wales, on the theme of write up of the conference will be published soon, and presenter's slides are all on the Becoming a Restorative County/Local RJC website. Authority. Hearing from the speakers and 04/05 Restorative Justice and Protective workshop presenters what is already going Each area is different; each area has it's own Behaviours: A Perfect Match on, up and down the country, was story, it's own journey to take, as so much of inspirational. this depends - as we learned throughout the 06/07 Can murder ever be forgiven? A day - on the work of individual people, restorative justice case study We heard from Julia Houlston-Clarke, passionate and committed to restorative Chaplain at Cardiff Prison, about how inter- practice - building relationships, bringing 08/09 An eventful journey: Restorative agency working has taken the SORI people on board and showing people across Justice and Leicestershire Police programme from strength to strength, both their area what can be done. A key message in Cardiff and at six other prisons across the I took away from the day was that although 10 Social Capital in a Civil Society country. Speaking of her own experience of restorative practice needs support from the importance of getting out of people 'at the top' - Chief Constables, Prison 11 Improving School Climate: organisational silos, Julia showed us a slide Governors, Headteachers and Councillors, Findings from schools of Cardiff Prison, saying 'These walls aren't Chairs and Chief Executives in Local implementing restorative practices real.They look real, but they aren't.' This was Government for example - so much can and a message we can all hear - whether we're is already being achieved at the grass roots, 12 Events working in a school, a police force, a YOT, a by individual people just making it happen in children's home, or at the RJC - the 'walls' their day to day life and work. we put up between our organisations don't need to be there; and when we get out there It was great to hear about local networks of and make connections, the impact of restorative practitioners forming across the Editor’s note restorative practice can really start to country - the RJC will do whatever we can to spread out and be much more effective, support these networks and help people join Resolution is here to reflect Restorative because all our partner agencies can see the - watch out for a new page on our website Justice and Restorative Approaches in all benefits of a restorative approach. soon for local practitioner networks. As their forms and developments. To this Mark Finnis said, in Hull their aim is to get end we welcome your input and ideas. We heard next from Mark Finnis about away from restorative practice being an what's happening in Hull as great strides are initiative or a project, something seen as an Please get in touch if you would like to being taken towards Hull becoming a add on, and instead for it to become 'just the submit an article, have suggestions for a restorative city. Starting from one primary way we do things here'. What was so feature, share what you would like to see school, where Estelle McDonald as Head inspiring about the conference was covered, or to alert us to an event you showed the profound impact restorative recognising that that applies to all of us. Our wish to advertise. practices can have on a whole range of members are already making it 'just the way indicators, restorative practice is spreading we do things around here.' How exciting that Cover picture by Ronnie Andren throughout the agencies in the city. One key this is something each one of us can do, as we indicator stood out. At Endeavor High remember, however isolated we feel working Chris Igoe, Editor School, the introduction of restorative in our particular context, we are part of a E: chris@restorativejustice.org.uk practices led to a huge fall in staff absence - much wider community of people, all of us thus saving the school £8,000 in the cost of working to make restorative practice 'just Resolution is the quarterly newsletter of supply teacher cover. Findings like these the way we do things' across our nations. the Restorative Justice Consortium really need to get out there. Everyone in Hull Albert Buildings, has recognised what a profound impact Lizzie Nelson 49 Queen Victoria St, London, EC4N restorative practices can have on the whole Acting CEO 4SA culture and morale of organisations; with RJC Tel: 020 7653 1992 concrete findings like these - and many other E: info@restorativejustice.org.uk dramatic statistics - coming out of Hull, this W: www.restorativejustice.org.uk is something teachers and DCSF will be Company number: 4199273 wanting to learn from nationwide. Registered Charity no: 1097969 When we got on to workshops we heard (c) 2009 RJC from people in Lancashire, Durham, Not to be reproduced without permission Oxfordshire and Norfolk - people based in police, education departments, YOTs - who The articles in this newsletter express the are working together across agencies to 'go personal views of the authors and do not on a journey' - as Pete Wallis from necessarily reflect the views of the RJC Oxfordshire YOT described it - towards becoming a restorative county or Local Authority. The range of different ways that people are working together, and step by step introducing restorative practice in a range of new areas, and joining it up where it
    • 02 | 03 News in brief Leading Think Tanks United Nations to Engaging Call for RJ promote the use of RJ Communities Three leading think tanks have led calls in youth justice The Government's wide-ranging for Restorative Justice to be expanded consultation ‘Engaging Communities in in the criminal justice system in the last Criminal Justice’ asks how the On the 20th March 2009 the UN General Assembly Human Rights Government should publicise few months. Council agreed with respect to the Restorative Justice and encourage administration of juvenile justice to: community involvement. The Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), the UK's leading “Encourage States… to develop and implement a comprehensive juvenile The RJC welcomes the Engaging progressive think tank, has justice policy to prevent and address Communities Consultation, and within recommended the Youth Justice System juvenile delinquency as well as with a be reshaped to be tiered, preventative it, the recognition of the Ministry of view to promoting, inter alia, the use of Justice research findings that and diversionary including the alternative measures, such as diversion introduction of Community Justice restorative justice both increases victim and restorative justice.” Panels, using Restorative Justice satisfaction and can reduce reoffending, principles. The report is supportive of thereby reducing the number of victims of crime in the future. Restorative Justice as a method of RJ in the Media reducing reoffending and engaging victims & communities in a way that can The RJC has responded to the Restorative Justice is becoming be popular with the general public. consultation, calling for a Restorative increasingly well known by the general Justice Act to provide sentencers with public. The rapid expansion of the ability to refer adult offenders to The Local government Information restorative practice into neighbourhood restorative justice conferences; and for Unit (LGiU) in their report 'Primary policing and education coupled with the Justice' propose a decisive break with the establishment of local restorative growing evidence in support of a the centralised approach to criminal practice services with a Restorative restorative approach has contributed to justice in favour of devolving Practice Board to provide national an increasing interest from local and responsibility and funding to local oversight. national media. authorities.The report recommends that "Restorative justice should be a RJC has supported this by responding Community Justice mainstream part of primary justice... to news stories, by briefing ITV, BBC there should be an understanding that and Channel 4 producers on the Panels expand the availability of restorative justice is potential for documentaries and The success of Chard and Ilminster as important to victims as justice programmes involving Restorative Community Justice Panel is leading to through the criminal system." Justice and by giving interviews and similar panels based on Restorative comment on the radio. Justice principles being opened locally The Centre for Social Justice (CSJ) has and around the country.The Community called for a national RJ agency and If your organisation is receiving negative Justice Panel in Sheffield will be the Restorative Justice Act to provide a media attention the RJC can help and first to open in a major city in the UK. legislative framework for RJ expansion. we encourage members to get in touch if The Act would encourage and expand this is the case. It is important that we Community Justice Panels are based on RJ Conferences in prisons and in the all do more to promote our success Restorative Justice principles in dealing community to rehabilitate prisoners and stories and the RJC is delighted to help with low-level crime.The Panels can give a new recognition and role for publicise your good news stories and arrange for victims and offenders to victims in the Criminal Justice System. results in any way we can. meet and reach an agreement on how to The CSJ regard RJ as a well-tested but make amends for the crime.The process surprisingly under-utilised method of For a full round-up of all the latest is voluntary and open only to offenders prisoner rehabilitation. CSJ also call for media coverage make sure you receive who have admitted responsibility for a police officers to be trained to deliver our monthly E-bulletin. This resource is crime. Restorative Justice disposals in available to all members and situations where they deem a supporters. It also includes information “It is brilliant that we have been able to conventional criminal justice disposal to on events, vacancies and resources. expand the scheme locally so that even be inappropriate. more people can benefit from To alert RJC to breaking news or to Restorative Justice." Valerie Keitch, Co- The reports are available through the share your successes stories call ordinator of Somerset Community websites of the IPPR, CSJ and LGiU. 020 7653 1992. Justice Panel
    • 04 | 05 Restorative Justice and Protective Beh Personal Support Network n the 21st May 2009 at Egrove Park, O Oxford, 120 people attended the launch of the Oxfordshire Young Victims of Crime project; one of several Home We all need to make choices Office initiatives intended to improve support for young people who have been hurt through for ourselves. crime. Pete Wallis, the Restorative Justice lead for Oxfordshire Youth Offending Service, gave We do not need to make an overview of the project, explaining that it was founded on two main philosophies - these choices by Restorative Justice and Protective Behaviours. ourselves. In his address Pete commented that 'Protective Behaviours and Restorative Justice were a perfect match'. Many of the audience would have been familiar with the principles and concepts of RJ but it is likely that fewer of them had heard of Protective Behaviours (PBs). So what is PBs, how does it work and how does it complement RJ so well? Persistence: we need to keep talking to Outline of Protective Behaviours the people on our network until our PBs originated in the 1970s in the United concern goes away or we feel safe again. States when a school social worker, Peg Flandreau West, responded to a number of The Oxford Young Victims of Crime project uses easy to understand tools to reinforce pupils who were coming to her for help. In time Protective Behaviours Themes. Above is an example exercise undertaken with young she observed a pattern; many of these young people to identify and review who they turn to for help and advice. Each finger people had been the victims of abuse - represents a person they could ask for support, the palm represents sources of self emotional, physical, sexual - and had suffered support and emergency contacts are kept up the sleeve.This exercise could be used to in silence, sometimes for long periods, before help young people identify who they would like to support them at an RJ meeting. seeking help. Peg raised her concerns with colleagues, Protective Behaviours and RestorativeJustice of safety. consulted with survivors, professionals, friends, and explored how best to help these young So how and why do PBs and RJ complement Theme One also highlights the links between people. This initiative developed into the two each other so well? rights and responsibilities. If we have the right Themes and seven Strategies we call the to feel safe we have a corresponding Protective Behaviours Process. The concept of safety is central to both responsibility to avoid behaviour which might approaches. PBs was a response to the needs leave others feeling unsafe. If we have harmed It has been said that the greatest truths are the of individuals who had been victimised and RJ someone else, we have a responsibility to take simplest and the PBs Process is based on two focuses on the effects of conflict on people, action to repair that harm. very simple truths or, as we call them, the two including their needs in the aftermath of an Themes: incident. PBs highlights the 'ability to respond' contained within the meaning of Theme One Fundamental to the PBs process is the 'responsibility'. The 'ability to respond' applies We all have the right to feel safe affirmation in Theme One of the right to feel to all parties. For the person who has been all the time safe. Encouraging people to believe they have harmed it is important for them to be able to this right gives them the confidence to seek help voice the effect the incident has had on them. Theme Two when they feel unsafe. This is of benefit in the For the person who has caused the harm, an There is nothing so awful or small context of both prevention (keeping safe) and opportunity to respond allows them to take that we can't talk about it with as a response to an event where we have responsibility for their actions. RJ provides an someone suffered harm or felt unsafe. opportunity for these things to happen, empowering participants with the ability to Supporting the two themes are the seven PBs If someone's right to feel safe has been respond. Enabling participants to become Strategies: transgressed, PBs emphasise the importance familiar with PBs concepts prior to their of Persistence - persisting in seeking help until meeting provides an ideal starting point for an · Theme Re-inforcement they feel safe again. This might include RJ meeting · Protective Interruption attending an RJ meeting which illustrates · Persistence another strategy - risking on purpose. Meeting Theme Two encourages people to develop a the person who caused you harm entails a personal support network which they can call · Risking on Purpose degree of risk.The goal of PBs is that, despite upon when they have identified that they are · One Step Removed your experience, you will be able to continue to feeling unsafe.This could assist participants in · Network Review live a confident and fulfilling life, not having to identifying supporters they would wish to curtail your lifestyle because of fear. Attending attend an RJ meeting with them. The need for · The Language of Safety an RJ meeting is a crucial opportunity for all Safety will often be raised in RJ meetings and parties to regain their confidence and feelings having an effective support network would be
    • haviours: A Perfect Match of great value in assisting someone to regain the The 'Language of Safety' is the glue which is also used as the guiding ethos of many confidence they may have lost as a result of the holds all the PBs elements together. It restorative approaches, particularly in schools. harm they have suffered. encourages the use language which is clear, PBs overlaps in many respects with the empowering, non-victimising and non-violent. It principles of Restorative Justice and the Theme Two confirms the importance of talking confirms that language is a powerful tool in guidance provided by the PBs Process enables as a means of keeping safe or regaining the forming and maintaining healthy relationships RJ practice to be even more effective in feeling of safety - not only talking with your and a positive self-image. By using this model achieving its goals. support network but also with the person who we are observing our responsibility to respect caused you harm.Theme Two therefore provides everyone’s right to feel safe. Restorative Penny Bassett and Tim Lee are Protective an ideal platform on which to develop an RJ processes also emphasise the need for care with Behaviours trainers who have applied the PBs meeting. language and communication. For example message in various settings, in particular the during the establishment of ground rules for a development of aprison groupwork programme The interaction between feelings, thoughts and meeting there is an emphasis on respecting one www.feelingsafestandingstrong.com behaviour is central to PBs. People are another, on listening and not interrupting. The encouraged to identify and value their feelings restorative approach, like PB's, helps establish Penny has also developed a peer mentoring as a means of tapping into and trusting their a mindset that isn't just about specific incidents programme, based on PBs, which she has intuition. The Feelings, Thoughts, Behaviour and events - it gradually becomes integrated delivered in many primary and secondary Model is also a useful means of analysis, to gain into every situation and action, helping to schools - www.pennybassett.com a deeper understanding of the motivation of maintain a responsible, adventurous and behaviour and the consequences of specific healthy attitude to life that is optimistic for the Illustrations are provided by young people events. This emphasis placed on feelings, future. involved with the Young Victims of Crime thoughts and behaviour has strong resonance in Project. relation to a Restorative Enquiry, as a means of Conclusion exploring the consequences of a specific offence or incident.This can be summed up by one of the The PBs Process is essentially a framework of key PBs phrases - 'Feelings are feelings, ideas which provides guidance on how to behaviour a choice, always with an effect. Our respond positively to challenges in all aspect of thinking influences both'' our lives, to keep ourselves and others safe. Its clarity, simplicity and coherence make it Another reason for the effectiveness of PBs is accessible to everyone - young people, that it is as valid for the person who has caused adolescents and adults of all abilities, lifestyles the harm as it is for the person who has been or belief systems. At the same time it can be harmed - the PBs principles are universal. surprisingly subtle when the essential concepts Many crimes, for example those committed by are applied to our personal interactions. With people carrying knives, relate to someone not its emphasis on the right to safety, networks and feeling safe themselves. By raising their problem-solving strategies, it has become awareness of PBs, the person who caused harm established throughout the UK in various is likely to be more receptive to the goals of an settings - abuse prevention, crime prevention, RJ conference. Internalising PBs is also likely parent support, counselling, sex and to reduce the risk of re-offending - if you believe relationship education, peer mentoring, drug Theme One, committing offences which harm education. It has already been adopted by a others can never be justified. number of RJ projects around the country and Oxfordshire Young Victims of Crime Project The Oxfordshire Young Victims of Crime departments and Thames Valley Police. Project was initially a 6 month Home The pilot demonstrated over a very short Office funded project which ran between time scale that there is significant December 2008 and May 2009. The demand for services to support young primary aim of the pilot was to develop a people victimised by crime and that high quality manual and resource pack within Oxfordshire there is a significant drawing on Protective Behaviours and gap in such provision.The feedback from Restorative Justice principles, to be used service users and referrers was by practitioners working with young overwhelmingly positive. This has victims to reduce the harm caused and resulted in some interim funding being help them in their recovery. During the received with a view to continuing the pilot phase the materials were delivered project within Victim Support. by specially recruited and trained project support workers to young victims who For further information about the had been referred to the project through Young Victims of Crime Project contact various pathways including from Victim Pete Wallis or Shellie Keen on 01865 Support, the Education and Health 202218
    • 06| 07 Can Murder ever be Forgiven? A Restorative Justice Case Study For Christmas in 1985, Marlon* went to visit his daughter who was living with his ex-wife, her aunt and her four year old cousin, Tanya. Marlon went with the intention of giving both girls a Sindy doll as a Christmas present but the visit resulted in the murder of Tanya's mother in front of her eyes. Sharon Goldstone describes an exceptional restorative meeting in which Tanya and Marlon met for the first time in twenty-four years. aren Watson, of London Probation had K been Tanya's Victim Liaison Officer for a number of years. During that time Tanya had never thought in positive terms about the future, only about the irredeemable past. However, whilst attending a Landmark Training and Development Programme she arrived at a transformational position of total forgiveness. She contacted Karen to see if she could help her to arrange to express that forgiveness directly to the offender, Marlon. I was asked, in my role as Restorative Justice Practitioner for the Victims Unit of London Probation, to lead in the case and try to repair some of the harm caused. Tanya still held memories of that day. She remembered her uncle, Marlon, arriving at the flat, and that for some reason he had not been allowed in. Her next memory was of her uncle Marlon presented breaking into the flat and a violent Tanya with a 1985 confrontation, culminating with her mother Sindy doll exactly being stabbed as she sought to shield Tanya's aunt, Marlon's ex wife, from attack.Tanya was like the one he had haunted by a feeling of helplessness and sense intended to give her of guilt for the past 24 years for not rushing twenty-four years over to help her mum. To complete the nightmare, she watched her mother's body ago. being hurled out of the window. Over the next 12 hours Tanya drifted in and out of I helped Tanya articulate her feelings and to deal with emotional and physical wounds consciousness as her uncle inflicted great pain wishes for the future and, once I identified that which, in different ways, had devastated their on her while her aunty was forced to watch.The Tanya had forgiven herself for not coming to lives. following day armed police ended the siege and her Mum's aid during the crime, we worked Marlon received two bullet wounds, one bullet together to find how this could be expressed to On the day of the meeting, Tanya shared with still remaining in his brain to this day. the offender in ways which would enable him to me how she felt a mixture of anxiety and receive forgiveness, move forward with his life excitement. Similarly, Marlon said that After serving 17 years in prison, completing and adopt strategies to prevent re-offending. although he longed for the opportunity to tell lots of courses and a further 3 years being his story and say how sorry he was, the thought supervised in the community, Marlon had ideas I continued to work separately with Tanya and of seeing his niece 24 years later all grown up, about what to do next, but no real purpose. He Marlon assisting them to explore the truth sent feelings of shame and anxiety through his lived with the pain he had caused to others for about what happened. They wrote down their body. so long, that he didn't think he would ever be feelings in letters, along with questions they able to forgive himself for what he did and he had related to the crime, which I exchanged Tanya later told me that when she first saw did not expect anyone else to forgive him either, through a process called shuttle mediation. Marlon he seemed so frail and insignificant, least of all Tanya. He was sorry, ready to admit Following this, both Tanya and Marlon very different to the man she remembered. it, but even though released from custody, he expressed a strong desire to meet each other When the meeting started Tanya invited him to found himself still in a prison of deep regret. face to face. A restorative meeting was set up come and sit beside her and he was shaking.
    • She extended her hand out to him and told him that she was not there to make him suffer, but to help him. Monica, one of Marlon's Support Workers, also observing the meeting said that Marlon had been a model tenant. Since coming out of prison he had always been polite, paid his rent on time and proved himself to be someone whom they could trust. She described him as being a genuine individual. Marlon said that going through the restorative process was the hardest thing he had ever chosen to undertake. He came to understand that our acceptance was based on who he was, not what he had done, and that had given him back his dignity. We spoke about the crime, considered the harm that had been caused and he was able to take responsibility for his behaviour more totally than he had ever before. Although Marlon had participated in a victim empathy course in prison and met someone else's victim, meeting his own victim had proved much more difficult; but Tanya's letter Princess Anne speaks to Sharon about her restorative work with London Probation Service had made him feel worthy of a chance to repair what had been ruined, so he slowly important in their lives. For Tanya, this shown me that crime has a devastating impact began to open up and truthfully tell his side of included working with others sharing her on victims, offenders, their families and the what had happened. As Marlon looked in experiences, raising money for Charity and wider community. Victims want to feel Tanya's eyes and began to speak with so much writing a book entitled 'Letters to my Mother'. understood; they want offenders to own up to shame, she squeezed his hand tight and told Marlon shared that he also used his what they have done and acknowledge the him that being able to forgive was a God given experiences to help youngsters while in prison suffering they have caused. Many victims also blessing which she wanted him to know; that and others in the community and that he also want some good to come of their tragedy and she didn't want him to blame himself anymore. continued to enjoy making and carving that means they want the offender to go wooden items which he was keen to develop through an experience that leads them to give into a business. Tanya offered her marketing up crime. It had been humbling to take part in "Working with the victim through experience to help Marlon to market his a restorative process that has begun to repair a process of recrimination, to products. the harm caused by the crime and has made a forgiveness and then beyond this significant contribution to victim to reconciliation has been an I then focused the meeting further towards the empowerment, offender accountability, overwhelming experience." future and Tanya expressed a wish to build a restoration of relationship and brought new closer relationship with her uncle. She told him meaning and purpose into the lives of all who Tanya described the special relationship she that there was nothing he had to make up for had been involved in the process. had enjoyed growing up with Marlon's and that he was a perfect and generous man daughter. Tanya's cousin had various trinket and that she hoped others would also see what Restorative practices are increasingly being boxes which her Marlon had made her out of was in his heart.Tanya encouraged Marlon to recognised as the most positive intervention to matches and she asked him if he still made re-contact his daughter, saying that because of assist victim and offenders to move forward those things. Marlon paused for a while and conflicting loyalties they had not enjoyed a with their lives reducing the harm of the crime smiled for the first time and then produced two good relationship since the crime. Tanya told and they are the most likely strategies to parcels for Tanya and asked her to accept them Marlon that his daughter loved him and that reduce reoffending.They allow both victim and as tokens of his gratitude for her she wanted to try and repair the rift between offender to settle with the past, engage with understanding. The first parcel contained a them also, and hoped her actions today would the present and to believe in the future and I genuine 1985-6 pedigree edition Sindy Doll be an example to the rest of the family of what intend to be working tirelessly to see this work which Marlon explained represented the can be achieved. Marlon also invited Tanya to continue to develop. Christmas present he had not had the meet some family members on the other side opportunity to give her. The second parcel which she was excited about. Sharon Goldstone is Restorative Justice contained a wooden trinket box which Marlon Practitioner for London Probation Service's had carved himself. At this point the giver and As the meeting ended Marlon said that the Victims Unit. receiver became filled with emotion. Tanya gifts of acceptance and forgiveness that had kissed Marlon and hugged him tight, as all been given to him today were priceless and had To comment on this article or for further past feelings of resentment and bondage were given him new meaning and purpose in his life. details about restorative mediation e-mail cleared away, leaving them both free to begin With Tanya's help, he wanted to make a better Sharon.Goldstone@london.probation.gsi.gov. afresh.This process had changed the way they future for himself and family. uk perceived themselves and given them new identities. I thanked everyone for participating and Tanya *Marlon & Tanya's names have been changed and Marlon for the privilege of travelling for confidentiality. During a time of open dialogue Tanya and alongside them on their journey. Fourteen Marlon told each other a little about what was years experience in conflict resolution has
    • 08| 09 An Eventful Journey: Restorative Ju PC Sandie Hastings has been implementing Restorative Justice since piloting its use with young people who had received police final warnings for Leicestershire Youth Offending Service (LYOS) in 2000. During her time with LYOS Sandie facilitated over two hundred face to face RJ conferences and became the largest sole contributor to Mediation UK's publication "40 cases: RJ and Victim-Offender-Mediation" (now available online). Her research project 'An Examination of Restorative Justice in the Neighbourhood Policing Context' earned her a Fulbright Police Fellow Scholarship in 2006. Her research provided a host of exciting learning opportunities including time working with police and community RJ projects in Rochester, New York (see also Resolution 31). Below Sandie describes the latest chapter in her RJ story beginning with an opportunity to pilot restorative justice in neighbourhood Above: Three young people cleaning their graffiti from a Charity building following policing on two estates in Leicestershire. agreement with the victim (Multiple Sclerosis Charity Centre manager pictured centre). The selection of Leicestershire as a pilot There has been no further incidents of grafitti - in fact the young people concerned took to area for the Flanagan Report ‘policing’ the wall to protect their hard work! recommendations on community policing has provided a chance to put her learning to Every neighbourhood beat officer and Police A) Appropriate reduction in bureaucracy, use on a much larger scale. Community Support Officer (PCSO) and B) Proportionality in the crime recording some key partner agency representatives process. nitially, the plan was to introduce based within the pilot area were trained in a C) Allowing officers to use more discretion, I restorative practice into mainstream policing as a pilot project with two full day to the 'street' or 'instant' RJ level one standard. experience, and professional judgement , and, D) placing more emphasis on 'community neighbourhood beat teams each based on an resolution' (based on RJ principles) to estate in the Leicester City area. The pilot However, towards the end of March 2008 provide a more citizen focussed service. was to run from 1st April 2008 for three and before the April 1st pilot start date, months and if it proved successful then it significant events came about that would would be rolled out across the organisation. rather spectacularly supersede the scale of A policy document setting out guidance for this planned localised scheme. “surveys across all its use (i.e. which offences and offenders were deemed suitable or otherwise), and In a recently published report outlining a four pilot sites procedural guidance around its application major review of policing produced by Sir was produced. Ronnie Flanagan, Leicestershire indicated significant Constabulary had been identified as one of Restorative Solutions was commissioned to four Police Forces in the UK, together with increases in both provide training for one session on the basis Surrey, Staffordshire and West Midlands, to that I would co-train the 'Restorative pilot its recommendations. Before writing his customer and staff Approaches in Neighbourhoods' (RAiN) report, Sir Ronnie Flanagan, carried out session with one of their trainers, and from extensive national research which found; satisfaction.” then onwards, given my experience of the subject, I would train other colleagues using 'The current Police approach to dealing with The governance structure for the pilot of the the packs provided. [local crime] is clumsy, officers are reports findings consisted of a programme encouraged to criminalise people for steering group with representation from the The training was adapted to meet our local behaviour which may have caused offence Home Office, the National Policing needs. Emphasis was placed on providing but would be better dealt with in a different Improvement Agency (NPIA), HMIC, and greater discretion to officers to provide a way. Complainants are dissatisfied because the Association of Chief Police Officers range of restorative processes in addition to they want help rather than a criminal justice (ACPO) as well as individual force project a face to face RJ conference. This flexibility outcome.' teams. The programme explored a departure of approach avoided a 'one size fits all' from the sanction detection performance solution in favour of taking into account the Some of the recommendations of the report culture in response to a change in the wishes needs of individual victims. highlighted the need when dealing with local and needs of the public, enabling them to crime for;
    • ustice and Leicestershire Police contribute towards the outcome of crimes For the purpose of the pilot, 'local crime' was have a particular aptitude and interest in and incidents through local community identified as minor theft, damage and restorative work. These officers are now resolutions. All four forces developed a assaults, anti social behaviour and recognised as 'force champions' in this field variety of work streams, including surveys, harassment. Examples of creative, effective and have agreed to support colleagues with evaluation of training and monitoring of and innovative use of community resolution RJ and promote its use where appropriate. outputs over the course of the intervention, by front line staff soon began to emerge and Partner agencies are also a vital resource based on a framework of agreed principles. were used to promote best practice to and will be included where possible in the colleagues via the force website, and in the next phase of coaching due to be rolled out This was an exciting development, and press for information and reassurance to the neighbourhood beat teams where although the initial Leicester City based pilot purposes to local communities. more emphasis will be placed on the did go ahead and was a success in its own development of RJ conferencing skills. right, it would be fair to say that the successful implementation of a review of this Outcomes The development of Restorative Justice in scale would fundamentally change the way (July 2008 - March 2009) Leicestershire Constabulary has made an we police our communities in the UK for the exciting start. The passion of the people better. · 2,666 offences resolved involved combined with the opportunity provided by the Flanagan Report is a Leicestershire's pilot manager, Chief using the community powerful vehicle that has the potential to Inspector Richard Keenan, invited me to resolution process based on take restorative justice to the place where it work with him to roll out the initial training belongs; in the heart of our communities. to all front line staff across the entire Force. RJ principles. Deadlines were tight; approximately twelve Sandie Hastings. hundred staff members received the input in · Over 2,000 offenders were Police Constable sixty two sessions in a matter of thirty days. directly involved in the Leicestershire Constabulary, In order to achieve this target, the sessions process. UK. were reduced to three hours. This allowed sufficient time for us to deliver an overview · 45% of offenders were An extended article charting Sandie's RJ of the Flanagan report (a basic insight into journey since first training course with restorative practices using live examples), juveniles. Thames Valley Police in 1999 and detailing and an understanding of the simplified the meteoric development of RJ in Leicester, process and procedures now in place. There ·Re-offending rate for Leicestershire and Rutland will be made were mixed reactions from front line staff juveniles involved in the available at www.restorativejustice.org.uk during the training sessions, but what was seen as 'common sense policing' was process is 18%. generally welcomed. Below: A young man found smoking ·Victim satisfaction rates have cannabis on church premises agrees to pick The pilot went live across the entire force in risen from 60% (pre-pilot) to litter from the churchyard. Leicestershire on 1st July 2008. Early signs from surveys across all four pilot sites 90%. indicated significant increases in both customer and staff satisfaction.Victims were · Over 18,500 hrs Police time asked about their experiences and were saved and re-invested in local generally found to be supportive of the process of community resolution and thought policing. it was appropriate to their incident, the offence and the offender. They liked the idea of not criminalising the offender and The selection of results above is by no means resolving issues outside of the traditional comprehensive, merely an encouraging legal system. indicator of the effectiveness of the process within a very short time span, carried out by Staff welcomed the opportunity to have officers with minimal basic awareness greater flexibility, particularly highlighted training. A full evaluation of the four force around the requirement to arrest for minor pilots is currently being undertaken by the offences due to the need to meet NPIA and the results will be published in due performance targets, when the victim did not course. want formal Police action. Feedback from operational officers indicated that as a result There is of course much more to be done to of this initiative, the proportionate recording embed a more thorough understanding of RJ of crime and the manner in which it is principles into the organisation. I have resolved, has freed up time to allow them to recently delivered bespoke coaching sessions focus on what matters. to thirty one personally selected officers, each of whom have shown themselves to
    • Social Capital in a Civil Society Power in our hands but form only 15 per cent of the total. home placement is less likely after an FGC. The welfare state has paternalistic elements, Kemény said, with the state Learning circles promote the individual taking over from municipalities and people school careers of pupils; a question from a losing the know-how for everyday living. pupil is discussed with people involved in Mediation services haven't yet re-vitalized his/her life. communities but have potential. Solidarity must be re-learnt. A conferencing model Restorative Justice conferences deal with has taken off, and helps to create social conflicts between parties or in schools etc. support; police and prosecutors like it, Victims, perpetrators and their respective although mediation services have only families and social networks are brought recently acquired the skills. There is a together. need for sound police-mediation o A restorative meeting is attended by an cooperation; if police work restoratively, average of 8 persons. they can help the community to cope with o 92% of the meetings concluded with a conflicts, and they do not have to record restorative plan. every small offence. Siri ended by warning o 95% of the participants could partially against the professionalization of or fully contribute to a solution. mediation; the Dutch programme Eigen o After three months, 77% of the plans hat started as Restorative Justice Kracht shows that it is not necessary. are fully executed and 20% partially. W could lead to a wider concept of civil society, and even help to make 'Eigen Kracht' literally means 'Own 'All-hands' community conferences are it a reality. That was the message of a Power'. Hedda van Lieshout, in her used for difficult situations in seminar of the European Forum for workshop, called it 'Teamwork with neighbourhoods or organizations, for Restorative Justice, in Leuven, Belgium, in citizens in restorative practices'. A loose example, when there is tension in a June 2009, on 'Building social support for translation might be 'Power in our own neighbourhood or at a school, the people Restorative Justice: working with media, hands'. Hedda suggested that well- involved get a chance, by means of a civil society and citizens'. intentioned organisations may take over conference, to make their own plan as an too much, whereas Eigen Kracht gives answer to the question or a solution to the Ivo Aertsen described civil society as people the opportunity to resolve things problem. Issues may include child care, uncoerced, voluntary collective action themselves. Rather than one-to-one health, schools, correction centres, around shared interests, purposes and mediation, they aim to widen the circle of domestic violence, community policies - values. It forms a 'Third Sector', alongside people who contribute both to finding a wherever a decision is needed. the state and business and includes 'civil solution and to supporting it. They use society organizations' such as professional trained independent facilitators - people It is the official policy of the Dutch associations, trades unions, self-help who mostly have other full-time jobs; they government to encourage local authorities groups and voluntary organizations. The are not volunteers, but paid (35 euros per to promote Eigen Kracht.The participants latter may be state subsidized. There is hour). In the Netherlands (population 16 and the facilitators together are working also scope for restorative practice in million) there are 400 of them, speaking a towards a civil society with maximum schools and sport. All this adds up to total of 66 languages. Most conferences autonomy of citizens. 'social capital', which is a capacity to take about 15 hours to organize, but mobilize resources to solve social Family Group Conferences take about 30 Martin Wright problems. There is a need for a co- hours. The national office has 7 staff, and ordinated and strategic approach - but it there are 16 regional co-ordinators. More For more information much of it in should leave room for surprises! than 2000 conferences have been held in English) on Eigen Kracht visit the Netherlands.They use slightly different www.eigen-kracht.nl or email info@eigen- Norway has progressed down this road, models for different situations. kracht.nl with community mediation that has been running for nearly twenty years. Siri Family group conferences (FGCs) are for For materials and information on the Kemény, of the Norwegian Mediation problems within a family. The average Building Social Support for Restorative Council, pointed out that the Norwegian number of people at an FGC is 14. A Justice: Working with Media, Civil Society law says that mediation must be done by quarter of the families make a plan that and Citizens conference please visit lay citizens, in contrast to Austria, where they can fulfil on their own, three quarters www.euforumrj.org/Activities/seminars.htm 'out-of-court offence resolution' is all ask for help or support from professionals professionalized. The aim is to strengthen - which in some cases they had rejected Dr Martin Wright is a senior research communities' ability to resolve minor when it was forced on them. The fellow, at De Montfort University, offences, without weakening the legal participants have 'private time' as part of Leicester and trustee of the Restorative profession. Civil cases are also dealt with, the process. In child-care cases, an out-of- Justice Consortium.
    • 10 | 11 Improving School Climate: Findings from Schools implementing Restorative Practices nspired by the failure of I authoritarian responses to falling academic standards and increasing violence in schools the International Institute for Restorative Practices developed an alternative approach. The core principle of this new approach is "to strike at the heart of the culture" of the school, by using restorative practices to foster dialogue among students and between pupils and staff. The IIRP is committed to providing ongoing data about how restorative practices are being implemented. Here data from a range of programmes are reported from schools and school districts in the US, Canada, and the UK to provide a snapshot of findings related to restorative practices. North America Ronnie Andren Programmes were tailored to the particular needs of each school but all share basic decreased by 98% and the school's Ofsted pupils learn to respect others and take restorative principles, seeking to improve ranking moved from the lowest ranking responsibility for their own actions behaviour through building relationships, "needing special measures" to "outstanding". ·Development of "team feeling" between rather than through punishment and fear. The secondary school pilot results include pupils, between staff members, and between Teachers and other educators have been reductions in physical abuse, racism, staff and pupils trained to employ the continuum of exclusions and 62.5% decrease in staff ·Positive effect on academic performance, as restorative practices, using restorative absences. pupils begin to feel safe and part of a school questions for sharing and eliciting emotions community and employing conferencing, circles, Following the pilot results restorative interventions and one-to-ones, as practices have been expanded to seven more UK appropriate throughout the school day. For schools with positive results. In other areas, example, in some schools, circles are used at results so far are equally promising. The first of two UK reports is from a the beginning and end of each class, for Involving families, as well as school staff, in residential school for boys with emotional students to set goals and expectations circles with those children experiencing the and behavioural difficulties. Echoing the together. The implementation of restorative greatest difficulties has proved beneficial to reports from North America, a school with practices in six US schools range across everyone. The police are using restorative an "us and them" ethos and high levels of urban, suburban and rural settings. Results practices for first-time minor offences and vandalism and antisocial behaviour, has been include one of the most dangerous schools in neighbourhood conflicts. In children's homes, turned around by the introduction of Philadelphia where violent acts reduced by restorative practices have resulted in greatly restorative practices. Circles are now 52% and 40% in consecutive years. At a reduced criminal records and police embedded in the school culture for all staff school in a relatively affluent area of involvement. Circles have even helped staff and pupils, and a sense of community has Pennsylvania where problems were more effectively manage their own issues. been developed. One welcome outcome is the restricted to a small number of repeat substantial reduction in repair costs for offenders, suspensions dropped from 30 a damaged property; previously in one week Conclusion year to just 5. In Canada restorative over £1000 was spent on broken windows practices were implemented as a systemic but now this sort of vandalism has virtually The results from both North America and approach covering all the elementary and disappeared. the UK are overwhelmingly positive and secondary schools in the two school board show that restorative practices can areas involved. The second, and perhaps most remarkable, transform schools by engaging students in example is from Hull which is endeavouring taking responsibility for making their own In all the schools, reported results were to become a "restorative city" where schools better. The data presented highlights overwhelmingly positive and changes began everyone working with children will employ the remarkable potential of restorative to appear very quickly following restorative practices. Schools, families, the practices to achieve safer, saner schools and implementation of a programme. police and the Children and Young People's communities. Services are all involved and committed to The results show: This article is a summary by Christine Groothues. building social connection and responsibility, The full report ‘Improving School Climate’ by · Large decreases in suspensions from and providing a means to repair harm when Sharon Lewis, Director of Research IIRP school, as problems are faced and solved relationships break down. Graduate School is available at with pupils: Decrease in recidivism among www.iirp.org/pdf/IIRP-Improving-School-Climate. The the most difficult pupils Pilots were conducted at a primary and a report was originally shared with members of the · Great improvement in student behaviour secondary school with results reported after Restorative Practices eForum. You may join for generally, less disrespect and fighting as two years. At the primary school exclusions free at www.iirp.org/join_eforum
    • Events 'Families, Friends and 12 Communities: strengthening prisoners' and ex-offenders' positive relationships' Prisoner Action Net Date: 5 November 2009 Venue: Inmarsat,99 City Road, London For up-to-date information on RJ events go to: PrisonerActionNet are organising a www.restorativejustice.org.uk/?Events conference that aims to highlight the range of work that's possible and effective with offenders to improve their relationships with others. practitioners, the conference aims to For IIRP World Conference Transition to Adulthood help review and develop projects and ‘Restoring Community in Interactive Consultation initiatives that strengthen offenders' a Disconnected World’ Events relationships, and to help them understand how this work can be International Institute for Clinks, T2A and Barrow Cadbury evidenced and commissioned. Restorative Practices 26th August 2009 ı Bristol Date:Wednesday 21st - 23rd October 10th September 2009 ı Manchester Key themes include family and lasting Venue:Bethlehem, Pennsylvania,USA 23rd September 2009 ı London relationships, peer mentoring, Restorative justice and victim empathy - This conference will provide an Transition to Adulthood (T2A) is an helping offenders to apologise and make international perspective on restorative Alliance, led by the Barrow Cadbury Trust, amends. practices theory and practice in a variety campaigning for young adults (18-24 of settings including education, social year-olds) in the Criminal Justice System. For more information including how to welfare, criminal justice, community book call 020 8348 8263 or visit development and workplaces. Restorative T2A, in partnership with the National www.lemosandcrane.co.uk practitioners from around the world will Council for Voluntary Youth Services share their knowledge and achievements (NCVYS), is hosting three interactive and find encouragement, support and consultation events on A New Start - the advice. green paper from T2A - which lists 21 RJC Full details and booking information are recommendations for change. We need your views as practitioners working with young adults on the ground. available at www.iirp.org/beth Advertising International Institute These events are free of charge, but places are limited to 60 delegates at each venue. The Restorative Justice Consortium for Restorative To make a booking, or for more offers free advertising to our membership. Practices UK Office information, contact Karen Desai at (IIRP UK) Clinks: karen.desai@clinks.org or call In addition to listings on our popular 01904 673 970. Autumn 09 Regional Workshops website www.restorativejustice.org.uk and our monthly e-bulletin, your organisation may receive a prominent 3-Day Restorative Conferencing Facilitator Skills Training This events listing is listing in Resolution at no extra charge. Date: 6th - 8th October not exhaustive Venue:Oxford, England Further sponsorship and marketing For a full list of events opportunities are available to members 1 Day Introduction to Restorative Practices Workshop on Restorative Justice and non-members at competitive prices. Dates: 5, 10th, 11th, 26th November and related fields Venues: Manchester, Exeter, London & Cardiff please visit the RJC For details email info@restorativejustice.org.uk Full information & pricing available at website www.iirp.org/uk www.restorativejustice.org.uk Join the RJC If you believe in Restorative Justice, join the Restorative Justice Consortium and help support our work. Members benefit from free copies of Resolution, monthly emails about the latest Restorative Justice news and events, free entry to our regular Forums and further discounts on all our events as well as the opportunity to place articles and advertise on the RJC website. We rely on our membership to help us promote the use of Restorative Justice and your support will help us do even more. Join us now by downloading an application form from www.restorativejustice.org.uk/?Membership or call the RJC on 020 7653 1992 for more information.