But if you do it just to gain an MA, that’s missing the point. It should help you to grow as a person. It is the opportunity to do something you have never done before and might do again (except if you carry on for a PhD).It is the academic side of MACE in which we try to get a balance between academic and professional skills.As an MA student you have to be critical. One of the major assessment criteria. At undergrad you could be descriptive not at post grad levelMA dissertation as the door to a network and networking opportunities. You can be quite strategic about this.
Why are you doing this MA?
Key words: cultural intermediaries
The typical length of the final Dissertation report will be 12,000 – 15,000
Episteme: KnowledgeLogos: Science, study of Nature of knowledge? What does it mean to say that I know or that I fail to know something?Sources ? How do we acquire knowledge? How can we use our reason, our senses, the testimony of others and other ressources to acquire knowledge? Limits of knowledge? Are there limits to what we can know? Are there things which are unknowable?
Empiricism Experience : usually perceptions through our senses. Perceptions. So if we observe and measure what we can apprehend through our senses, we should be able to acquire knowledge and reach the truth.Rationalism Reason, intuition, concepts. Reasoning
Data, evidence and rational considerations shape knowledge.
Social sciences: anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, linguistics, political science, sociology, international studies, communication,managementHumans engaged in the world. The researcher’s mission is to interpret (make sense) the meanings others have of the world. The context in which human beings evolved is important and must be understood.
EthnographyImmersion in a social setting for an extended periodIncludes the observation of participants and extensive diarising of observationsGrounded theory Approach to qualitative data that generates theories from the research dataOpposite of a deductive approach that tests a theory generated from the literatureCase studies (see Yin)A research design that involves the in-depth study f a single case Can also refer to the comparison of 2 or 3 casesNarrative researchApproach that explores data from a story perspective, and participants as story tellers Involves analysis of stories which are woven though the data. Observation, interviews, ask participants to use photography
Computer Assisted/Aided Qualitative Data AnalysiS (CAQDAS) is the use of computer software to aid qualitative research such as transcription analysis, coding etc
Mixed methods research
Blaxter, L (2010), How to research, Maidenhead : McGraw-Hill/Open University Press
First one = a direct quote.Second one = paraphrasingThird one = attributing at the end of the sentence.
Using verbs other than ‘says’ can:strengthen the arguments you are presenting help the reader understand why the source is relevant.
Why reference?Harvard system Layout, style & punctuation matter!
MACE 2012 Assignment Strategy
Assessment Strategy BSM 705 1
Fairs/festivals/tradeshows are eventswhich are taking place across allcreative industries. Choosing one suchevent in the creative industry of yourchoice and using relevant academicconcepts, determine in a short essay(1,000 words max) why –even at theage of virtual reality- these events arecrucial for their respective industry. 2
This essay will be due back on9thNovember 2012 (turnitin). You willbe asked to upload your essay in theTurnitin box so that we can alsodiscuss the issues of plagiarism. 3
This essay will be due back on9thNovember 2012 (turnitin). You willbe asked to upload your essay in theTurnitin box so that we can alsodiscuss the issues of plagiarism. 4
A group of 4 or 5 students chooses atopic amongst those suggested belowand organises a discussion panel of 20minutes maximum + 10 minutesquestions on this topic. Students can siton the panel and/or invite guestspeakers to debate the chosen topic.The audience will then be invited to askquestions and/or enter the debate. 5
A written document of 2,000 wordsmaximum will be handed in by thegroup at the end of the discussion. Thisdocument will summarise their mainarguments in answer to the questionand provide a complete bibliography. 6
Possible general themes for the panels:1. Working in the creative industries:2. The digital revolution and the creative industries3. Intellectual property and open source.4. The Creative Industries need government support to thrive.5. Are the Creative Industries sustainable?6. Is there a geography of creativity? 7
ASSESSMENT WEIGHTINGThe individual essay: 3,000 words -- 60%The group panel discussion + leaflet: 2,000 words 40% 8
The Geography of Creativity. Do creativeclusters work?There is a folder on Study SpaceThere are articles in the folderDo I need to say anything else? 9
Why should I embark on a Personal Research Project?• To demonstrate knowledge of the subject (culmination of a degree)• Academic, intellectual and rigorous exercise• Develop your research, analytical and critical skills• Reflect on the nature of information and the ethics of its gathering and use Intelligent consumers of information Intelligent commissioners of information• Access to information and networks 12
What should I consider before choosing my topic?• Your own experience, background, culture• Your personal interest(s)• Your employers preferences,• Your post MA goals (where do you want to pursue your career?) 13
Where do I find ideas?• Recommended readings in various modules – Books (academic and others) – Academic Articles http://kuaquabrowser.kingston.ac.uk/ABL/• Previous dissertations (here or elsewhere)• Academic and non academic associations – http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/creative_industries/default.aspx – http://creativeconomy.britishcouncil.org/resources/our-publications/ – http://www.nesta.org.uk/areas_of_work/creative_economy – http://www.rccil.org.uk/ – http://www.britishfashioncouncil.com/ – http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-32-10-374/EN/KS-32-10-374-EN.PDF• Media stories • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2046735/Steve-Jobs-dead-Turtleneck-clothing-firm-cashes-sales- soar.html• ‘Experts’ and think tanks • http://www.davidparrish.com/ • http://www.creativeeconomy.com/index.htm • http://www.demos.co.uk/• Brainstorming, talking to staff, students, professionals• Create your own library and take notes! 14
What is the format?• Choose one of the following – a practice-based project + a critical reflection (8,000 to 10,000 words) – a dissertation (12,000-15,000 words) – an innovative new venture project + a critical reflection (8,000 to 10,000 words) 15
Research methodology workshops• Compulsory• Semester 1 and 2 workshops• Timetable for this semester – Today 19th October: Introduction to the module + how to search the KU library website – Early December: Introduction to epistemology, research methodology – Mid December: literature review 16
Creative ?• Topics on – Creative Economy – Creative industries – Creativity and innovation• Creative research methods (primary and secondary data)• Creative in presenting knowledge – you have the option to present an alternative type of output (e.g. a film, video, musical extract, poem, story etc.). It is important to note, however, that the remaining 8-10,000 words must follow the prescribed format of a dissertation 17
Important deadlines• Research project proposal: 25th February 2013• Draft dissertation: 30th August 2013• Final Proposal: 22nd April 2013• Final project submission: 13th September 2013• Graduation: January 2013 18
Let’s get started...• Check Appendix 4 in your dissertation document• Define – The area(s) you might like to explore – The questions you want to answer – Where to find secondary data – How will you collect primary data 19
Useful contact• MACE librarian Anna Englund email@example.com 20
My aim today• Reflect on what is knowledge• Where do you stand ?• Introduction to (critical) literature review 21
Plan of this seminar• Let’s be a bit philosophical about this…• Which side are you on?• What research strategy?• What research methods (techniques and procedures)?• Let’s get started on the research proposal: Lit review 22
Epistemology• Core area of philosophy• Episteme + logos• It is concerned with – the nature of K – sources of K – limits of K 23
How can we gain knowledge? Sources of knowledge• Empiricism: we can only know things after we have had the relevant experience (a posteriori knowledge)• Rationalism: it is possible to know things before we have had experience (a priori knowledge) 24
Empiricism, positivism and natural sciences• Positivism : the goal of knowledge is to describe the phenomena that we experience.• The purpose of sciences : to stick to what we can observe and measure.• In a positivist view of the world, science is the way to get at the truth, to understand the world well enough so that we might predict and control it.• Deterministic; causes that influence outcomes. Relationship among variables.• Hypothesis is set and then scientist will try to confirm or to infirm it• Hypothetico-deductive approach (Deduction)• Objectivity• Quantitative approach 25
What about social sciences?• interpretivism• Max Weber (sociology) : human beings cannot be studied like objects• Necessary to elicit people’s views, experiences and interpretations. How do people produce social life?• Knowledge is conditional and situational• World is a social construction• Induction (from observation to construction of explanations and theories)• Role of the researcher acknowledged (subjectivity)• Qualitative approach 26
Strategies associated with the quantitative approach• Experiments• Surveys (intent is to generalize from a sample to the whole population) 27
Strategies associated with qualitative approach• Ethnography• Grounded theory• Case studies (see Yin)• Narrative research 28
To summarise Research Data Collection Data Analysis Research Strategy Philosophy collection Tools analysis ToolsQuantitative Positivism Survey Questionnaire Mail/ online Statistical SPSS analysesQualitative Interpretivism; Ethnography; Interviews; Tape/ video Coding CAQDAS Social grounded theory; Focus Groups; recorder; analysis constructivism case studies; Ethnographic Field notes/ narrative research observation Diary (e.g. Bryman & Bell, 2003; Ritchie & Lewis, 2003)
Criteria used to judge research• Generalizability ? How can a research project be generalised and participate in the elaboration of general laws?• Representativity ?• Validity? Is the researcher measuring what they said they would?• Reliability? Research protocol• Objectivity? 30
Solution: multiangulation• Mix of qualitative and quantitative methods – The experience of museum goers and their perception of free entrance • Semi structured individual and group interviews, on site observation, survey – The role of shops in museums • Semi structured interviews + survey+ observation 31
Literature reviewWhat, why, where, what and how 32
What is a literature review. Definition?• ‘the selection of available documents (both published and unpublished) on the topic, which contain information, ideas, data and evidence written from a particular standpoint to fulfil certain aims or express certain views on the nature of the topic and how it is to be investigated, and the effective evaluation of these documents in relation to the research being proposed’. Pereira Heath and Tunan, 2010, p. 151 33
What it is not• List of unreferenced material (plagiarism)• List of referenced quotations• A descriptive report of the material found• A list of authors and their ideas 34
Why read? See Blaxter, 2010: 100• To get (more) ideas• To understand what other researchers have done in your area (no need to re-invent the wheel!)• To broaden your perspective and set your work in context• To acquire the right jargon and vocabulary in your area of expertise• To legitimate your arguments• It may cause you to change your mind• To be able to criticize effectively what others have done• To learn more about research methods• To spot areas which might not have been researched 35
What to read?• Books• Journals• Reports• Popular media• Online material• Memos, minutes, internal reports• Letters, diaries 36
What to read?• Be selective (does it really correspond to what I am looking for?)• Check summary or abstract• What is the expertise of the author?• What methodology did they use to research the topic?• Check the bibliography• Don’t be an eternal reader! 37
Reading for a purpose Making notes from the literature Record source info. Use headingsDo you make notes? and subheadings for main ideas. Use abbreviations.Are your notes helpful when Write points that explain or exemplify.you write an essay? Show quotes and paraphrasing.
ORGANISING• Key words• A literature map of the research i.e. a visual summary of your research• Synthesis ; A summary of the texts read BUT NOT ONLY• Critical presentation of the texts read 39
Critical? Taking a critical stance• Compare, contrast, critically analyse – What are the different view points – What are the positives? What are the drawbacks? – What do you think? What does this mean in relation to your research/ topic?• Give a coherent structure or order – For instance • Discuss in chronological order • Group into topics or themes • Pros and cons 40
Citing in the text• Brassington and Pettitt (2007, p.406) point out that “there are benefits in linking a brand and a good cause.”• It is recognised that in cause-related marketing; linking a brand and a good cause does have benefits for the organisation (Brassington and Pettitt, 2007, p.406).
Reporting verbs when introducing references into the textfrom: http://www.gcal.ac.uk/student/coursework/writing/reporting.html Some verbs are neutral:• Smith (2004) describes...• Jones (1999, p 3) states...• Green (2002) defines...Some verbs draw attention to the authors viewpoint:• Harris (2001) argues...• ONeill (1997) disputed...• Jackson (2003) conceded...Some verbs give information about the authors work:• Holmes (2000) investigated...• Church (1998) evaluated...• McColl (2002) estimated...Some verbs highlight the authors viewpoint:• Brown (2001) believes...• McAllister (1996) recognised...• Smith (2004) predicted...
References (a book) Title Publication Author(s) yearBrassington, F. and Pettitt, S.(2007)Essentials of marketing. 2nd edn. Harlow:FT Prentice Hall Edition Place of publicationPublisher
References (a print journal article) PublicationAuthor year Article titleFox, H. (2008) „Business risk: a review of the literature‟.International journal of business,14 (2), pp. 141-154. Journal title Page Volume Issue range
Referencing electronic materials You NEED to provide additionalinformation, including the web address(URL) and the date you accessed thematerial.Fox, H. (2008) „Business risk: a review of the literature‟.International journal of business,14 (2), pp. 141-154.EBSCO [Online]. Available at: http://www.ebsco.com(Accessed: 23 October 2011).
References ListWhere does it go?In what order?References vs bibliographyHarvard Referencing GuideStudentSpace>Library>Referencing>Business