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Classification of lifecindy
 

Classification of lifecindy

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  • Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.
  • Growth, with increases in size and number of cells, is part of development. Development involves many stages from conception until death.

Classification of lifecindy Classification of lifecindy Presentation Transcript

  • Classification copyright cmassengale 1
  • Species of Organisms•There are 13 billion knownspecies of organisms•This is only 5% of allorganisms that ever lived!!!!!•New organisms are still beingfound and identified copyright cmassengale 2
  • What is Classification?Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similaritiesClassification is also known as taxonomyTaxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms copyright cmassengale 3
  • Benefits of Classifying•Accurately & uniformly namesorganisms•Prevents misnomers such asstarfish & jellyfish that arentreally fish•Uses same language (Latin orsome Greek) for all names Sea”horse”?? copyright cmassengale 4
  • Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names copyright cmassengale 5
  • Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists copyright cmassengale 6
  • Early Taxonomists• 2000 years ago,Aristotle was thefirst taxonomist• Aristotle dividedorganisms intoplants & animals• He subdividedthem by theirhabitat ---land,sea, or air dwellers copyright cmassengale 7
  • Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778• 18th century taxonomist• Classified organisms by their structure• Developed naming system still used today copyright cmassengale 8
  • Carolus Linnaeus•Called the “Father ofTaxonomy”•Developed the modernsystem of naming knownas binomial nomenclature•Two-word name (Genus &species) copyright cmassengale 9
  • Standardized Naming•Binomialnomenclature used Turdus migratorius•Genus species•Latin or Greek•Italicized in print•Capitalize genus,but NOT species•Underline whenwriting American Robin copyright cmassengale 10
  • Binomial NomenclatureWhich TWO are more closely related? copyright cmassengale 11
  • Classification Groups• Taxon ( taxa-plural)related category into which is a organisms are placed• There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific• Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species copyright cmassengale 12
  • Hierarchy-Taxonomic GroupsDomain BROADEST TAXON Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Most Genus Specific Species copyright cmassengale 13
  • Did King Phillip Cross Over France Going South!copyright cmassengale 14
  • copyright cmassengale 15
  • Domains• Broadest, most inclusive taxon• Three domains• Archaea and Eubacteria(no unicellular prokaryotes are nucleus or membrane-bound organelles)• Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles copyright cmassengale 16
  • ARCHAEA• Probably the 1st cells to evolve• Live in HARSH environments• Found in: –Sewage Treatment Plants –Thermal or Volcanic Vents –acid Springs or Geysers that are Hot –Greatsalty water (Dead Sea; Very Salt Lake) copyright cmassengale 17
  • ARCHAEAN copyright cmassengale 18
  • EUBACTERIA• Some may cause DISEASE• Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones• Important decomposers for environment• Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc. copyright cmassengale 19
  • Live in the intestines of animals copyright cmassengale 20
  • Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms •Protista (protozoans, algae…) • Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) •Plantae (multicellular plants) •animals) Animalia (multicellular copyright cmassengale 21
  • Protista•Most areunicellular•Some aremulticellular•Some areautotrophic, whileothers areheterotrophic• Aquatic copyright cmassengale 22
  • Reproduction Asexually Mitosis and cytokinesis - unicellularhttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=mitosis+in+protist&view=detail Budding – similar to mitosis except daughter cell is smaller than parent – multicellularhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JIytOL-Q18&feature=related SEXUALLY Meiosis – special nuclear division to reduce chromosome number to haploid - multicellular Conjugation – exchange of nuclear material between two individuals - unicellular
  • Protists Three Types Animal-like Protists Plant-like Protists Fungus-like Protistshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
  • Protozoans animal-like protistUnicellular – made up of one cellHeterotrophs – they eat other organisms or dead organic matterClassified by how they movehttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=ameba+moving+by+pseudopodia&view=detail&mid=12BAAFBDAA246F74656112BAhttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=ameba+eating&view=detail&mid=2FAC7F7118693435B4B82FAC7F7118693435B4
  • Plant like protists - AlgaeFlagellates: the motorboatsUse a whip-like extension called a flagella to moveSome cause diseasehttp://www.bing.com/images/search?q=protist+-+flagellate&view=detail&id=23798BE7F96B6F0A5984FE05B9021A3DC78Ciliates – move by tiny hairs called ciliahttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=paramecium&view=detail&mid=0FFDD35BE3C8B0E5B95A0FFDD35BE3C8B0E5B95ASporozoans – parasites that do not movehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JwsoK8O0lXEhttp://www.bing.com/images/search?q=plasmodium&view=detail&id=B6D2E36FD71E1288663C0034AD66233D443960A1&f
  • Plant-like protist What are Algae?Multicellular – made of more than one cellPhotosynthetic – make their own foodNo roots, stems, or leavesEach has chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigmentsExamplesEuglena, Diatoms, Red Algae, Brown Algae, Green Algaehttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=euglena+video&mid=C67E436CB272D7AAD478C67E436CB272D7AAD478&view=detail&http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=diatoms&view=detail&id=E76D2C31E51A3DF7230E4CD13C14ACABE8B0E9BA&first=0
  • Fungus-like protist Characteristics in CommonObtain energy by decomposing organicmaterialNot in kingdom fungi because theyhave cellulose instead of chitin intheir cell wallsExamples - Plasmodium Slime Molds, Cellular SlimeMolds,Water Molds, & Downy Mildews http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GScyw3ammmk
  • Fungi• Multicellular, except yeast• Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it)• Cell walls made of chitin copyright cmassengale 29
  • The Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are NOT plants Nonphotosynthetic Eukaryotes Nonmotile Most are saprobes (live on dead organisms) 30
  • The Characteristics of FungiImportant decomposers & recyclers of nutrients in the environmentLack true roots, stems or leavesSome fungi are internal or external parasitesA few fungi act like predators & capture prey MULTICELLULAR like roundworms UNICELLULAR YEAST MUSHROOM 31
  • The Characteristics of Fungi Produce both sexual and asexual spores Classified by their sexual reproductive structuresSpores come in various shapes 32
  • The Characteristics of FungiGrow best in warm, moist environmentsFungi include puffballs, yeasts, mushrooms, toadstools, rusts, smuts, ringworm, and molds Penicillium moldThe antibiotic penicillin is made by the Penicillium mold Puffball 33
  • CladogramWhich of mostfollowing is the closely related to a mushroom (fungus)? WHY? Recent DNA- based studies show that fungi are more similar to 34
  • Plantae•Multicellular•Autotrophic•Absorb glucose –to make sunlightPhotosynthesis•Cell walls made ofcellulose copyright cmassengale 35
  • PlantDivisions copyright cmassengale 36
  • TaxonomyPlants are dividedinto two groupsBased on thepresence (vascular Vascuplants) or absence lar(nonvascular plants) Bundlof an internal estransport systemfor water anddissolved materials copyright cmassengale 37
  • Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used copyright cmassengale 38
  • Nonvascular PlantsDo not have vasculartissue for support orconduction of materialsRequire a constantlymoist environmentPlants can’t grow astallCells must be in directcontact with moistureMaterials move bydiffusion cell-to-cell copyright cmassengale 39
  • Nonvascular PlantsLiverwor Hornwor copyright cmassengale 40
  • Main Parts of Vascular PlantsLeaves- Photosynthetic part of plantthat contains chloroplast- have stomata on underneathside for gas exchangeStems- carry water and nutrients toleavesRoots-Found below ground-Absorb water & minerals-Anchor the plant 41
  • Vascular Plants Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed-bearing vascular plants Club copyright cmassengale 42
  • Seedless Vascular Plants Whisk ferns Horsetails copyright cmassengale 43
  • Seed-Producing Vascular PlantsIncludes two groups – Gymnosperms and AngiospermsGymnosperms have naked seeds in conesAngiosperms have flowers that produce seeds to attract pollinators and produce seeds copyright cmassengale 44
  • Gymnosperms vsAngiosperms copyright cmassengale 45
  • Animalia• Multicellular• Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies)• Feed on plants or animals copyright cmassengale 46
  • copyright cmassengale 47
  • Taxons•Most genera contain anumber of similar species•The genus Homo is anexception (only containsmodern humans)•Classification is based onevolutionary relationships copyright cmassengale 48
  • Basis for Modern Taxonomy• Homologous structures (same structure, different function)• Similar embryo development• Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins copyright cmassengale 49
  • Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. copyright cmassengale 50
  • Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos copyright cmassengale 51
  • CladogramDiagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales copyright cmassengale 52
  • Primate Cladogramcopyright cmassengale 53
  • Dichotomous Keying•Used to identify organisms•Characteristics given inpairs•Read both characteristicsand either go to anotherset of characteristics ORidentify the organism copyright cmassengale 54
  • Example of Dichotomous Key1a Tentacles present – Go to 21b Tentacles absent – Go to 32a Eight Tentacles – Octopus2b More than 8 tentacles – 33a Tentacles hang down – go to 43b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5 copyright cmassengale 55