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Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera  May 29 seminar-workshop
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Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera May 29 seminar-workshop

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This seminar-workshop was developed at the request of Ephesians Publishing Inc. for the Manila Central University teacher training series for elementary school and high school teachers. This was …

This seminar-workshop was developed at the request of Ephesians Publishing Inc. for the Manila Central University teacher training series for elementary school and high school teachers. This was conducted on May 29, 2013.

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  • 1. Practical Approaches for Cultivating English Proficiency Cindy Cruz-Cabrera Professor | Consultant | Gender Specialist about.me/cindycruzcabrera
  • 2. The Philippines and English Proficiency
  • 3. • English – the language of choice for education, business and professions • English – a second language • Everyone speaks a level of English • The country’s rank in English proficiency • Our advantages as English speakers and as an English-speaking nation – Within the country – Abroad
  • 4. What is “English proficiency”?
  • 5. • Expertness in the English language • A display of well-advancement or competence in the use of the English language • The ability to speak or perform in an acquired language (for most Filipinos, a second language) • The language arts: reading and listening (receptive); speaking and writing (productive)
  • 6. What aspects are measured to determine English proficiency?
  • 7. Accuracy • Vocabulary • Pronunciation • Structure Fluency • Prescriptive language • Descriptive language • Avoidance of code-switching ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 8. Prescriptive Grammar VS Descriptive Grammar
  • 9. Prescriptive Grammar (standard rules-based) • Standard academic English with a certain set of rules • Formal, academic and traditional as certain people or groups think it should be taught • Considered politically correct / socially proper Descriptive Grammar (usage-based) • English as actually used by speakers / writers • Everyday English • More ambiguous, changeable, flexible • Varies with countries, states, and cultural groups
  • 10. What are your thoughts and insights?
  • 11. • How would you handle the following in your classroom? – Mistakes in pronunciation – Mistakes in vocabulary or word choice – Sentence structure problems • In your classroom, would you allow only prescriptive grammar? Or would you accommodate descriptive grammar? Why or why not? ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 12. Why is English proficiency important?
  • 13. • Certain pursuits and industries require a prescribed level of competence in the language • Employment – candidates must have the language skills necessary to perform their jobs • Academic study – candidates must be suited for academic work in English • Extensive reading, writing and research; participation in discussions, debates and defence of written work
  • 14. Why is English proficiency measured?
  • 15. • Admission to a foreign university • Employment abroad • Working in a sector or an industry where English is the primary language, language of business • Professional proof / internationally accepted standardized measurement of English proficiency
  • 16. How is English proficiency measured?
  • 17. • Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) • International English Language Testing System (IELTS) • Pearson Test in English (PTE) • Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) • Business English Certificate Higher (BEC Higher) • Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) • Language Placement Tests for schools
  • 18. • English Proficiency Verification VS. English Proficiency Certification (vary per institution) • The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) puts a premium on “what a speaker can do with the language rather than focusing on the structures and abstract vocabulary that a speaker knows” and uses the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) to measure this.
  • 19. • The Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) developed a set of descriptions of abilities to communicate in a language. • The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages – guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages. • It regards language users as social agents who develop general and particular communicative competences while trying to achieve their everyday goals.
  • 20. Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) Scale
  • 21. Elementary Proficiency – Level 1 • Able to satisfy routine travel needs and conduct themselves in a polite manner • Able to use questions and answers for very familiar topics within a limited level of experience • Able to understand basic questions and speech, allowing for slowed speech, repetition or paraphrase
  • 22. Elementary Proficiency – Level 1 • Has only a vocabulary large enough to communicate the most basic of needs • Makes frequent mistakes in pronunciation and grammar • Makes frequent punctuation and grammatical mistakes in writing of the language • Able to perform most basic functions using the language such as making purchases, telling the time, ordering simple meals and asking for and giving simple directions.
  • 23. Limited Working Proficiency – Level 2 • Able to satisfy routine social demands and limited work requirements • Can handle with confidence, but not with facility, most basic social situations including introductions and casual conversations about current events, work, family, and autobiographical information • Can handle limited work requirements, needing help in handling any complications or difficulties
  • 24. Limited Working Proficiency – Level 2 • Can get the gist of most conversations on non- technical subjects (i.e. topics which require no specialized knowledge), and has a speaking vocabulary sufficient to respond simply with some circumlocutions • Has an accent which, though often quite faulty, is intelligible • Can usually handle elementary constructions quite accurately but does not have thorough or confident control of the grammar.
  • 25. Professional Working Proficiency – Level 3 • Able to speak the language with sufficient structural accuracy and vocabulary to participate effectively in most conversations on practical, social, and professional topics • Can discuss particular interests and special fields of competence with reasonable ease • Has comprehension which is quite complete for a normal rate of speech
  • 26. Professional Working Proficiency – Level 3 • Has a general vocabulary which is broad enough that he or she rarely has to grope for a word • Has an accent which may be obviously foreign; has a good control of grammar; and whose errors virtually never interfere with understanding and rarely disturb the native speaker.
  • 27. Full Professional Proficiency – Level 4 • able to use the language fluently and accurately on all levels and as normally pertinent to professional needs. • can understand and participate in any conversations within the range of own personal and professional experience with a high degree of fluency and precision of vocabulary
  • 28. Full Professional Proficiency – Level 4 • would rarely be taken for a native speaker, but can respond appropriately even in unfamiliar grounds or situations • makes only quite rare and minute errors of pronunciation and grammar • can handle informal interpreting of the language.
  • 29. Native or Bilingual Proficiency – Level 5 • Has a speaking proficiency equivalent to that of an educated native speaker • Has complete fluency in the language, such that speech on all levels is fully accepted by educated native speakers in all of its features, including breadth of vocabulary and idiom, colloquialisms, and pertinent cultural references.
  • 30. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
  • 31. A – Basic User A1 - Beginner • Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. • Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. • Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help. A2 - Elementary • Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). • Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. • Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
  • 32. B - Independent User B1 - Intermediate • Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. • Can deal with most situations likely to arise while travelling in an area where the language is spoken. • Can produce simple connected text on topics that are familiar or of personal interest. • Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. B2 - Upper Intermediate • Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. • Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. • Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
  • 33. C - Proficient User C1 - Advanced • Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. • Can express ideas fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. • Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. • Can produce clear, well- structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices. C2 - Mastery or Proficiency • Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. • Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. • Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.
  • 34. Issues on English Proficiency: What are your thoughts and insights?
  • 35. • Switching and mixing codes, with English as a second language or foreign language • Bilingualism and plurilingualism • Native language structure, accent and pronunciation vs. that of English • Would you allow your students to code- switch or answer in Filipino in your class? Why or why not? ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 36. • Varieties of English • Cultural considerations – colloquialisms, idiomatic expressions • Philippine English • Would you accommodate varieties of English, cultural language differences and Philippine English in your classroom? Why or why not? ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 37. Philippine English
  • 38. • Grammatical structures – inverted (Spanish influence) • No F, thus [p] • P and F confusion – F not originally present, hyper correction • No V, and in Spanish [v] and [b] both pronounced [b] • Some dialects have naturally occurring F and V (Ibaloi, Manobo)
  • 39. • Short vowels (American) not sounds present in our language/dialects • “brick” i = happy • [bit] and [beat] • [hit] and [heat] • Some dialects have only 3 vowels (a i u) Manuvu • [back] and [buck], also [back] as in [alin] • *cat+ and *cut+ (my dad says “kets”)
  • 40. • [pass] and [puss] • [beach] and [bitch] • [ble] [fle] ple] = marbol, waffol, peopol • [gle] and [dle] = googel, handel, German Moreno “gels” • Travel [trabel] • Computer [computer] (this is how I say it in Filipino, of course!) • Circle [sirkel]
  • 41. • No Z [sipper] [soo] [sigsag] • Words beginning with S = es+word (Spanish influence) – estrella, estatua, estricto, estofado • Older generation of Filipinos = istar, ispade, istampede, islide, isky, ischolar – ISKO ng UP • Direct translations – every language has these difficulties • “Open the light.” “Side.” (Tabi!) • “Tapos na tayo. The wedding is over!”
  • 42. Other Languages • Japanese – No [L] sound • French – [s] at the end of words is always silent • French and Spanish – similar to Filipino construction (“a lot a lot of...”+“major major”) • “The IG (egg) is the child of the man chicken.” • “Cindy, what is the opposite of ‘dog’?” • “There were many hobbits.” ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 43. • Implications of proficiency, or a lack thereof (impressions, judgments, self-concept) • English proficiency as a class phenomenon • Marginalization in the classroom • Background and personal history • Examine your own background and personal history vis-a-vis the learning of English. What factors encouraged and hindered acquisition of the language? ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 44. Classroom Experience • What are your thoughts or observations on English proficiency and the study of concepts? Do you feel there is a correlation between them? • What are the things that signal to you that your students are well-equipped to discuss the subject matter in English? Not very well- equipped? Have difficulty? • How do you plan your lessons or handle the class given these observations? ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 45. Improving English Proficiency
  • 46. • Continued exposure and experience >>> opportunities and practice >>> investment • Join or form an English conversation group • Watch English TV programs and movies • Listen to English songs, radio and audio books • Read English books, magazines, newspapers • For gamers, watch tournament webcasts • Go online – social media, stumbleupon, google currents, pinterest • Write or blog publicly or privately
  • 47. Cultivating English Proficiency
  • 48. • Create an emotionally-safe learning environment which encourages creative risk- taking. • Relating lessons and activities to their lives makes the subject matter relevant to them – students will be more willing to talk and write about them. • Games give students opportunities to use the language they are learning in non- threatening, enjoyable contexts. • Assign activities and exercises that require students to interact and use the language. ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 49. • Treat the students as authorities on their hobbies and pursuits, encourage them to relate these to the subject, and tap into their expertise. • Design learning activities which are lively, interactive and fun WHILE maintaining assessments that are valid and linked to class instruction. • Activities with rubrics provide for independent group work and self-regulation. • Technology can be learning’s best friend. ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 50. Rubric A chart that communicates and outlines the following: • Expectations for the project / activity / exercise • Criteria • Scoring guide and corresponding performance indicators / levels of quality Rubrics are used to TEACH as well as EVALUATE. • These focus on the process as well as the product. • These guide students to make dependable judgments about their work and give feedback. • Clarify standards for quality performance and progress towards those standards
  • 51. Cultivating English Proficiency: What are your thoughts and insights?
  • 52. • Which of these things do you already do? In what ways do these affect not only English proficiency but also the learning environment and the students? • Sharing your best practices: Which of your own methods, approaches, and ideas can we add to our list for cultivating English proficiency?
  • 53. Sample Activities
  • 54. • Report Card: Grade characters based on intelligence, resourcefulness, and conduct or behavior • Change the story ending (or other parts of the story) by making the villain win or making something else happen in the climax (group discussion with individual endings, or with one student assigned to each character) ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 55. • Interactive Museums and Festivals • Tours and Travel Brochures Interview with ___________________ • Historical figure • Scientist / Mathematician • Book Character • Artist / Writer / Composer • Dancer / Sports Figure
  • 56. Facebook: Harry Potter
  • 57. Twitter: Harry Potter
  • 58. Activities My Students and I Enjoyed • Creating an island / landscape / 3D map • Writing a brochure / giving a tour • Grading characters in a report card • Creating an interactive museum (interdisciplinary project - collaboration with other subject teachers) • Book Character Day • Solving a Murder Mystery
  • 59. Planning Activities and Exercises: What are your thoughts and insights?
  • 60. • What is your teaching philosophy? Based on this, how can you integrate the cultivation of English proficiency? • In what ways can you cultivate English in your subject area? • What are examples of activities or exercises that you can assign your classes? • What challenges do you face or anticipate in the cultivation of English proficiency? ATTRIBUTION: Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
  • 61. Open Forum Connect with me! cindycatz javadiggincat oldgirlinpeyups cindy cruz-cabrera 09166843723 cindycruzcabrera@gmail.com
  • 62. References (Downloadable PDFs) • TOEFL Speaking Rubrics http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/Spe aking_Rubrics.pdf • TOEFL Writing Rubrics http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/Writ ing_Rubrics.pdf • TOEFL Test of Written English Scoring Guide http://eslbee.com/TWE_Scoring_Guide.pdf • TOEFL http://www.ets.org/toefl/english_programs/scor es/guides/
  • 63. References • Dictionary.com • Wikipedia.com – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ILR_scale – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_European_Framework_of_Refe rence_for_Languages – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_English • “The ILR Proficiency Scale” http://www- 01.sil.org/lingualinks/LANGUAGELEARNING/MangngYrLnggLrnngPrg rm/TheILRFSIProficiencyScale.htm • “The Common European Framework in its political and educational context” http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/source/framework_en.pdf • ACTFL http://www.actfltraining.org/actfl_posting.cfm?recno=17 • Sample Rubic http://www.faeriekeeper.net/criteria38c.jpg • Rubistar http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php?screen=WhatIs
  • 64. References • “10 Tips to Improve English Proficiency” http://www.eflsensei.com/10-Tips-to- Improve-English-Proficiency/?tip&tipNum=3 • Helping Students Write The Best Research Reports Ever by Lois Laase and Joan Clemmons • Reading Strategies That Work: Teaching Your Students to Become Better Readers by Laura Robb

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