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Cindy Cruz-Cabrera - Violence and Sanction in the Male-Female Dynamic of Ilongot, Tausug, and Teduray Societies
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Cindy Cruz-Cabrera - Violence and Sanction in the Male-Female Dynamic of Ilongot, Tausug, and Teduray Societies


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This research paper was written as a requirement for Anthropology 225 – Philippine Culture and Society – under Dr. Maria Mangahas, an elective taken at the College of Social Sciences and Philosophy at …

This research paper was written as a requirement for Anthropology 225 – Philippine Culture and Society – under Dr. Maria Mangahas, an elective taken at the College of Social Sciences and Philosophy at the University of the Philippines Diliman. Dr. Mangahas assigned the students reading material for the research paper based on each one’s background and interests.

Cindy had been assigned three tribes – the Ilongot, the Teduray and the Tausug. As a graduate student of Women and Development Studies, she was attracted to the male-female dynamic prominent in the readings on all three tribes and thus explored this in the research paper, which was submitted in March 2008.

Cindy also had the good fortune of interviewing Al-Sadr Tammang, her Tausug student, for this paper. Mr. Tammang had also been a guest of honor at Cindy’s anthropology presentation, where Dr. Mangahas and the class had the opportunity to inquire about Tausug culture and society.

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  • 1. VIOLENCE AND SANCTIONin the Male-Female Dynamic of theIlongot, Tausug, and Teduray SocietiesCindy Cruz-Cabrera@cindycatzThis paper was written as a final requirement for Dr. Maria MangahasAnthropology 225: Philippine Culture and Society in 2008Read the full paper here:
  • 2. INTRODUCTION:Where Anthropologyand Feminist ResearchConverge and Diverge
  • 3. • Common veins of feminist research andanthropology:– the quest for contexts; and– the methodologies for gathering data to bring tolight these contexts.• Women and development studies:– contexts in locating women of differentcultural, social, political, religious, and economicrealities; and– bringing to light the varied “truths” that comewith each reality, with analyses moving fromgender to class to race.
  • 4. Common Veins ofFeminist Research and Anthropology• the quest for contexts; and• the methodologies for gathering datato bring to light these contexts.
  • 5. Anthropological Orientation• finding and interpreting meanings asunique to a particular group of study• searching for the similarities it shareswith other human natures as well asthe differences
  • 6. Feminist Research in Anthropology• Ethnographies that focused on “women’sroles, women’s lives, and women’s symbolicimages in different times and places”• Women’s issues and concerns such assubordination, domination, exploitation, appropriation of female labor, relegation todomestic roles as well as the legal control offathers, brothers, and husbands
  • 7. Feminist Analysis: A Messy Business• Usually met with contention and resistance• Oftentimes viewed as– a judgmental righteousness– an overreaction to things that have always been– a useless attempt at changing things that shouldsimply be accepted• Baring the foundation of the patriarchy• Challenging the status quo• Forcing one to confront inequalities that frame, maintainand perpetuate the institutionalized entitlements of themale and internalized oppressions of the female
  • 8. Rationale of the Paper• This paper shall focus on three indigenousPhilippine societies known for their cultures ofviolence and non-violence, delving into therationales, contexts, and principles upon whichtheir practices are based• My analysis of the male-female dynamic, as withall feminist analyses, will rest in human rightsparticularly the right to life, to self-determination, “to realization of human dignityand development of human personality”, “tofreely enjoy culture and the arts, and to share inscientific advancement and its benefits”
  • 9. Objectives of the Paper• To specify gender-marked or gender-equalcultural views and practices• To label them for what they are, withouteuphemism; and• To identify and describe the underlyingobjectives and concepts within which thesepractices are enshrined.
  • 10. Violence andthe Male-Female DynamicRead the full paper here:
  • 11. Ilongot Society: The Sexual Divisionof Labor, Abilities and Emotions• Ilongot Violence: Rage and Grief as theDomain of the Male• Ilongot Traits of Knowledge and Passion• Hunting and Horticulture• Implications of the Gender-Delineated Tasks• The Male-Female Dynamic: Incongruence inCultural Views and Practices
  • 12. Tausug Society: Male Dominionover Society and Everyday Life• Tausug Male Principles GoverningViolence• Key Values in Tausug Social Organizationof Violence• The Male-Female Dynamic in TausugSociety
  • 13. Teduray Society: Partnership andMutual Help as a Way of Life• Teduray Belief and Value Systems thatUphold Nonviolence• Teduray Social Activities• Teduray Principles of Social Organization• “Justice without Domination• Male-Female Dynamic in TeduraySociety
  • 14. ConclusionRead the full paper here:
  • 15. References• Eviota, Elizabeth Uy. The Political Economy of Gender: Women and the Sexual Division ofLabour in the Philippines. London: Zed Books Ltd., 1992.• Guerrero, Sylvia H (ed). Gender-Sensitive and Feminist Methodologies: A Handbook forHealth and Social Science Researchers. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2002.• Keesing, Roger M. Cultural Anthropology: A Contemporary Perspective. New York:Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981.• Kemp, Alice Abel. Women’s Work: Degraded and Devalued. Englewood Cliffs: PrenticeHall, _____.• Kiefer, Thomas M. “Chapter 3: The Values of the Male: Bravery, Friendship and Violence”, TheTausug: Violence and Law in a Philippine Moslem Society. 1972.• Kiefer, Thomas M. “Chapter 4: The Control of Violence”, The Tausug: Violence and Law in aPhilippine Moslem Society. 1972.• Miles, Rosalind. The Women’s History of the World. London: Paladin, 1989.• Rosaldo, Michelle. “Chapter 4: Horticulture, Hunting, and the Height of Men’s Hearts,”Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot Notions of Self and Social Life. Cambridge UniversityPress, 1980.• Rosaldo, Renato. “Grief and the Headhunter’s Rage: On the Cultural Force of Emotions.”(Photocopy)• Schlegel, Stuart A. Wisdom From A Rainforest: The Spiritual Journey of an Anthropologist.Quezon City: Ateneo De Manila University Press, 1999.• Torres, Amaryllis. “Chapter 7: Equality, Equity, Entitlement, and Human Rights,” Gender andEmpowerment. Pre-publication document, undated.• Interviews with Al-Sadr Tammang, varied dates (March 2008)