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Design problem statement: What is the best way for delivering health-related information accurately to the elderly? In order To have a better understand target demographic, Hong Kong elderly people. ...

Design problem statement: What is the best way for delivering health-related information accurately to the elderly? In order To have a better understand target demographic, Hong Kong elderly people. Three research methodologies are used in this research process; those are survey, interview and task analysis. After collecting qualitative and quantitative data, we analyze, categorize and find patterns of information obtained .insights are generated according to the analysis and remarks to provide support and help for design.

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Research & Analysis Report for Elderly and Health-related Information Research & Analysis Report for Elderly and Health-related Information Document Transcript

  • Elderly   and   Health-­‐related  Information     Report  of  Research  and  Analysis     LI  Yuhui  11537306g   CHEN  Di  11550119g   WEI  Yanfang  11550120g   XI  Jiutian  11550132g  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Table  of  Contents  1.  INTRODUCTION  ...........................................................................................................................  3  2.  SECONDARY  RESEARCH  ............................................................................................................  4   2.1  OVERVIEW  ...................................................................................................................................................  4   2.2  TOPICS  1  WHAT  STATISTICS  CAN  BE  FOUND  TO  BETTER  UNDERSTAND  THIS  TARGET  GROUP  ?  .  4   2.3  TOPICS  2  WHERE  DO  THE  ELDERLY  AND  THEIR  FAMILIES  LOOK  FOR  HEALTH  ...............................  5   2.4  TOPICS  3  SOMETHING  ABOUT  THE  LIMITATIONS:  ................................................................................  6  3.  SURVEY  ...........................................................................................................................................  7   3.1  REASON  FOR  SELECTION  SURVEY   ............................................................................................................  7   3.2  SURVEY  PLAN  ..............................................................................................................................................  7   3.3  DETAILED  PROCESS:  ..................................................................................................................................  7   3.4  FINDINGS:  ....................................................................................................................................................  8   3.4.1  About  Tools:  ..........................................................................................................................................     8 3.4.2  About  Health-­‐related  Information:  ............................................................................................     9 3.4.3  About  Demographic:  .........................................................................................................................     9 3.5  CHALLENGES  AND  FUTURE  RECOMMENDATIONS:  .............................................................................  10   3.6  INSIGHTS  ...................................................................................................................................................  10  4.  INTERVIEW  ................................................................................................................................  10   4.1  INTRODUCTION  ..................................................................................................................................  10   4.2  PROCESS  .................................................................................................................................................  11   4.2.1  Test  Run  ...............................................................................................................................................  11   4.2.2  Data  Collection  .................................................................................................................................  11   4.2.3  Data  Analysis  ....................................................................................................................................  11   4.3  FINDINGS  ...............................................................................................................................................  11   4.4  CHALLENGE  AND  FUTURE  RECOMMENDATION  .................................................................  13   4.4.1  Challenge  ............................................................................................................................................  13   4.4.2  Future  recommendation  ..............................................................................................................  14   4.5  INSIGHTS  ...................................................................................................................................................  14  5.  TASK  ANALYSIS  ........................................................................................................................  14   5.1  SUMMARY   ..................................................................................................................................................  14   5.2  TEST  DESCRIPTION  ..................................................................................................................................  15   5.3  CASE  DESCRIPTION  &  REMARKS  ..........................................................................................................  15   5.3.1  Case  1:  ..................................................................................................................................................  15   5.3.2  Case  2:  ..................................................................................................................................................  16   5.3.3  Case  3:  ..................................................................................................................................................  17   5.4  REMARKS  ANALYSIS   ................................................................................................................................  18   5.5  INSIGHTS  ...................................................................................................................................................  18  REFERENCE:  ...................................................................................................................................  20  APPENDIX:  ......................................................................................................................................  22   1.  SURVEY  FORM  -­‐  DATA  STATISTICS  .........................................................................................................  22   2.  RESPONSES  MATRIX  ..................................................................................................................................  22     2  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  1.  Introduction  According   to   the   “Hong   Kong   Population   Projections   2010-­‐2039”,   According   to  the   “Hong   Kong   population   projections   2010-­‐2039”,   published   by   Hong   Kong  Census   and   Statistics   Department,   Hong   Kong   is   facing   with   the   growing   aged  population,   and   the   percentage   of   elderly   people   will   increase   to   28%   in   2039.  Therefore,  how  to  provide  better  support  to  improve  elderly  people’s  quality  of  life  and  wellbeing,  becomes  an  increasingly  significant  issue  in  the  whole  society.    As   conducting   the   secondary   research   on   current   situation   of   elderly   people  living  in  Hong  Kong,  we  found  that  there  are  tons  of  health-­‐related  information  and   support   from   government   and   non-­‐government   organization   delivered   to  the  elders  every  day.  Lack  of  content,  therefore,  is  not  a  primary  problems  and  barriers   for   elderly   to   get   health-­‐related   information.   In   contrast,   approaches  and   channels   and   the   extent   that   they   get   and   digest   those   information,   play  increasing   important   roles   in   the   relationship   between   elderly   people   and  health-­‐related   information.   Based   on   the   secondary   research,   we   come   to   our  design   problem   statement:   What   is   the   best   way   for   delivering   health-­‐related  information  accurately  to  the  elderly?    In  order  to  better  understand  our  target  demographic,  Hong  Kong  elderly  people,  three  research  methodologies  are  used  in  the  research  process,  those  are  survey,  interview  and  task  analysis.  After  collecting  qualitative  and  quantitative  data,  we  analyze,   categorize   and   find   patterns   of   information   obtained.   Insights   are  generated  according  to  the  analysis  and  remarks  to  provide  support  and  help  for  design.         3   View slide
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  2. Secondary  Research  2.1  Overview    Caring  for  an  elderly  is  now  become  a  hot  topic  and  a  major  social  concern,  but  presents   difficult   challenges.   This   program   will   be   accomplished   by   conducting  research   to   improve   the   understanding   of   elderly   motivation   across   a   broad  range   of   health-­‐related   behaviors,   and   using   this   knowledge   to   develop   more  effective   and   economical   behavioral   interventions   and   ultimately   improve   the  health  of  this  target  demographic.    2.2   Topics   1:   What   statistics   can   be   found   to   better  understand  this  target  group?  2.2.1  Population  65+        The  Hong  Kong  population  is  ageing.  The  proportion  of  the  population  aged  65  and   over   has   increased.   At   the   mid   of   2008,   the   population   of   elderly   persons  aged   above   65   is   12.6%   (0.88   million)   of   the   total   population   in   HK.   It   is  estimated  that  in  2016  and  2033,  the  percentage  will  increase  to  14%  and  27%  respectively.   What’s   more,   according   to   the   United   Nations,   the   elderly  population   is   growing   at   its   fastest   rate   ever.   Explore   the   population   change   to  learn   more   about   how   the   populations   of   this   target   group   will   grow   and   change  over  time  [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5].  2.2.2 Retirement  &  Communities      The   life   of   Elderly   in   Hong   Kong   has   another   side:   retirement   but   most   of   the  elderly   also   have   to   making   money   to   maintain   their   living.   According   to   a  statistic,   it   is   said,   one   in   three   elderly   leading   an   extremely   poor   life   in   Hong  Kong.  Over  80%  of  the  elderly  persons  were  living  on  savings  [6]  [7]  [8]  [9]  [10].    2.2.3 Living  Conditions        The   living   arrangements   of   the   older   population   also   reflect   factors   other   than  marital   status,   such   as   their   health   status,   socioeconomic   situation,   and   family  and  cultural.  According  to  the  statistic  profile  from  the  year  of  2001  (222,000)  to  2006   (279,400),   the   singleton   elderly   and   older   couples   who   live   together   has  increased   26%.   Although   most   of   the   elderly   persons   are   still   living   with   their     4   View slide
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  families   (around   74.1%   of   the   elderly   population),   more   and   more   of   them   are  either   living   alone   (11.6%)   or   living   with   their   spouse   only   (21.2%)   [11]   [12]  [13].    2.2.4 Health-­‐Related  Problem      Most  elderly  persons  are  still  healthy  with  over  70%  of  them  are  suffering  from  one  kind  of  or  more  chronic  illnesses.  Among  them,  the  most  common  illnesses  include  hypertension,  arthritis,  ophthalmology  problems,  and  diabetes.  And  the  three  main  causes  of  mortality  in  the  Hong  Kong  Chinese  population  are  cancer,  ischemic  heart  disease,  and  stroke  [14]  [15]  [16].  2.2.5  Others    Social  Service  The  Hong  Kong  Government  provides  a  wide  variety  of  social  services  and  benefits  to  the  elders,  including  Community  Care  and  Support  Services,  Residential  Care  Services  and  Social  Security.  Combined  with  non-­‐governmental  support  services,  these  measures  ensure  that  the  elders  receive  the  help  they  need  [17]  [18].    Finance  Hong  Kong  has  established  a  dual  medical  economy  in  which  the  government  has  been  significantly  involved  in  both  the  funding  and  provision  of  health  services  mainly  through  tax  financing,  whereas  the  private  sector  operates  in  a  loosely  organized  manner  as  individual  clinics  that  dominate  or  populate  the  ambulatory  care  sector  [19]  [20]  [21].  Education  Not   only   the   Hong   Kong   government   set   up   many   programmer   for   elderly,   many  Institute   also   encouraging   the   elderly   to   pursue   lifelong   education   so   as   to  advance   with   the   society,   and   fully   develop   their   potentials.   Take   to   internater  usage   for   example;   the   number   of   seniors   using   the   Internet   has   risen   to   17.5  million   in   November   2009   from   11.3   million   in   November   2004,   according   to  Nielsen  data  [22]  [23]  [25].  2.3   Topics   2:   Where   do   the   elderly   and   their   families  look  for  health    Elderly   also   lived   in   an   information   environment   where   the   daily   news   media     5  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  were  the  most  important  information  sources.  Based  on  the  research,  over  90%  reported   having   used   (specified   as   read,   watched,   listened   to,   or   asked)   the  newspaper   every   day.   Newspapers,   followed   by   the   television,   were   most  commonly  used  every  day  among  the  oldest  (aged  56-­‐65).  News  on  the  television  and   on   the   radio,   with   around   70%   of   respondents   claiming   to   be   daily   users.  Other  radio  programmers  and  persons  close  by  were  in  fourth  and  fifth  place.    2.4  Topics  3:  Something  about  the  limitations     • Here   summarize   some   factors   creating   barriers   between   the   elderly   to   have  a  preferred  experience  towards  products  or  service:   • Difficulty  in  using  medical  terminology     • Lack  of  communication  skills   • Arrogant  attitude     • Lack  of  time     • Lack  of  information     • Facing  too  many  choice  cause  confusion   • Suffering  from  memory  problems.   • It  should  be  more,  but  these  listed  above  may  easily  affect  them  to  utilize   the  product  and  service.         6  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  3.  Survey  3.1  Reason  for  Selection  Survey  Health  related  information  —  the  possible  channels  and  ability  to  obtain,  process,  and   well   understand   these   basic   health   information   and   services   to   make  appropriate   health   decisions   —   is   essential   to   promote   health   situation   for   the  elderly.   This   survey   aims   at   collecting   the   quantitative   data   from   the   elderly  according   to   the   goals   of   our   design   problem.   The   survey   form   been   designed  with   different   goals   in   three   survey   sections   based   on   the   logistical   concept  about  the  collection  processes.  3.2  Survey  Plan  After  our  group  decided  the  first  methodology  is  survey  (actually,  it  is  more  like  a   questionnaire)   and   went   through   the   test   run   stage,   modified   survey   form   to  make   sure   it   could   help   us   achieve   the   basic   aim.   Then   we   planned   the   survey  like:  Target:  elderly  65+  Numbers:  A  total  of  30  participants  Questions:  About  13  questions  in  this  survey  focused  on  the  three  perspectives  of  health-­‐related  information  had  on  participants  decision  making  Aim:  finish  questionnaire  then  we  could  analysis  the  data  to  find  out  what  elderly  people   think   about   the   health-­‐related   information,   the   tools   or   channel   they  often  used  and  also  the  accuracy  of  the  information.    3.3  Detailed  Process:  According   to   the   logistical   concept   about   the   collection   processes   towards   this  survey  form  design,  it  can  be  considered  conclude  three  sections:    Section  1:  Tools  Variable  Goal   1:   To   understand   how   many   different   kinds   of   tools   can   best   serve   the  elderly?  Identify  preferences  for  the  existing  tools  /  media  /channels.  Identify  the  rate  of  recurrence  of  the  chosen  tool.    Section  2:  Health-­‐related  Information  Variable  Goal   2:   To   assess   the   range   of   health   information-­‐seeking   behaviors   of  intermediaries  and  individuals.     7  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Identify  the  sources  -­‐  where  they  can  get  the  health-­‐related  information.    Identify  the  contents  -­‐  what  are  the  information  they  care  about..  Discover  when  they  would  use  these  health  information  and  why.    Section  3:  Demographic  Variable  Goal  3:  To  investigate  the  user  information,  get  more  data  from  user  preference.  Explore  users  patterns  for  searching.  Validate  approach  of  education  degrees.  Identify   differences   between   users   expressed   preferences   for   seeking   health  information  and  their  actual  performance.  Open  end  opinion  about  the  tools  or  any  other  improvements.  3.4  Findings  3.4.1  Tools  Obviously,  compared  with  the  digital  device,  elderly  are  more  likely  prefer  to  use  the  traditional  tools  like  TV,  newspapers,  radios.     Based  on  our  survey  results  radio  is  the  most  commonly  used  tool  in  everyday  life  among  the  Hong  Kong  elderly.  Followed  by  the  newspapers,  television  and  magazines.     Information  that  suggested  by  some  close  friends,  families  or  relatives  are  also  ranking  at  the  top  5.        Fig.  1       8  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  3.4.2  Health-­‐related  Information                             • Day  care  tips  or  recommends  daily  activities  be  easily  for  elderly  people   to  generate  the  feeling  of  resonating.  How  to  form  healthy  eating  habits  is   also  could  be  a  heated  elective  item  in  the  form.  What’s  more,  the  financial   cost  elderly  spent  on  their  own  or  the  proportion  in  all  their  spending  is   also  arose  the  general  attention  which  means  there  might  be  involved  an   interesting  research  topic.     • All   most   all   the   elderly   claimed   that   health   information   or   related   information   are   important,   but   when   turned   to   the   trust   rate   of   these   information   that   they   gathered   form   different   channels,   the   rate   was   stayed   between   4(low   rate   of   trust)   –   6(just   medium)   Here   shows   most   elderly  just  not  lain  their  belief  into  these  information.     • Another   interesting   finding   is   when   comes   to   the   favorite   forms   of   information  display,  more  female  that  men  choice  their  favorite  form  by   using   small   videos,   male   are   more   into   just   using   words   to   show   the   necessary  information.     • Health  assessments  are  been  required  in  the  form  that  like  “  what  kind  of   additional  service  or  info  that  you  still  want  to  achieve?”    3.4.3  Demographic   • Due  to  the  limitation  of  the  interviewee  and  the  number  of  attributes   priorities,  the  situation  of  Hong  Kong  elderly  is  not  that  good.  Low  income,   and  limited  educational  backgrounds  and  possible  most  of  them  are  still   working.     • In  some  extended,  the  education  level  may  be  have  another  great  impact   on  elderly  how  to  search  and  get  for  what  or  how  they  get  it.  Have  a  good   understanding  of  information  or  evaluate  information  –  are  closely   related  to  their  management  of  health  care  and  also  did  some   performance  of  the  task  analysis  coming  next.       9  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  3.5  Challenges  and  future  recommendations   • It  is  a  natural  thing  for  the  elderly,  they  often  resist  in  using  electronic   equipment  and  there  is  kind  of  fear  emotion  behind  it.   • However,  the  majority  of  elderly  did  not  use  the  Internet  or  any  other   latest  technology  to  search  for  information  source  to  prepare  for  health   care.   • When  we  conducted  our  survey,  there  was  kind  of  lack  of  communication   skills  between  us  and  the  elderly.  Because  we  are  not  that  familiar  with   Cantonese,  although  we  already  make  our  survey  questionnaire  in  to   Cantonese.  Hope  it  will  help.  The  feedback  is  yes,  but  we  think  it  is  still  a   little  bit  understanding  problem.   • Recommendation:  you  can  take  it  for  granted  that  it  is  lack  access  to  the   Internet  among  the  elderly.  So  teaching  might  not  that  helpful,  here   suggests  that  find  a  way  to  increase  elderly’s  willingness  to  use  the   information    3.6  Insights   • Reduced  reluctance  to  use  digital  device  and  increased  willingness  to  use   the  Internet  and  other  new  media  to  have  fun  and  find  health  information   • Increased  credit  of  all  kinds  health-­‐related  information  to  gain  the  trust   • Adoption  of  a  more  active  role  in  managing  their  health  care   • Decreased   the   barriers   for   elderly   to   get   the   accurate   experience   towards   products  and  other  services  or  design  4.  Interview  4.1  Introduction  Several  one-­‐to-­‐one  interviews  were  conducted  based  on  the  secondary  research  and   survey,   to   gather   detail   information   on   elderly’s   current   perception,  situation  of  gaining  health-­‐related  information  in  Hong  Kong.  Four  elderly  people  living  in  Hong  Kong  were  invited  to  participate  in  one-­‐to-­‐one  interviews  respectively.  Here  is  some  of  their  personal  information:     Mrs.  Law   Mrs.  Chan   Mr.  Chan   Mr.  Chow  Age   57   62   65   63     10  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Occupation   Security   Retired   Security   Security   Guard   Guard   Guard  During  the  interviews,  interviewees  were  asked  to  share  their  values  on  healthy  information,  experiences  of  how  they  access  to  and  deal  with  those  information,  as  well  as  connection  between  such  information  and  their  daily  life.    4.2  Process  4.2.1  Test  Run  We  carried  out  test  runs  before  conducting  formal  interview.  After  going  through  the   test   run,   we   found   that   elderly   people   tended   to   better   understand   and  answer  based  on  scenarios.  Thereby,  we  modified  and  refined  our  questions  into  more  concrete  and  context-­‐based  one.  4.2.2  Data  Collection  Tape  record  the  entire  interview  and  take  notes  at  the  same  time.  Later  review  the  tape  and  notes,  and  transcribe  the  tapes,  but  not  transcribed  word  for  word.  The  transcribed  text  then  becomes  the  data  that  are  analyzed.    4.2.3  Data  Analysis  After   transcribing   the   tape,   we   used   responses   matrix   to   analyze   answers  obtained.   Remarks   were   made   based   on   reflection   and   interpretation   on  responses  from  interviewees.      4.3  Findings  Values  and  attitudes  on  health-­‐related  information:  All  of  them  find  health-­‐related  information  is  important,  however,  not  all  of  them  said  they  would  look  for  such  information.  Lots  of  aged  people  in  Hong  Kong  still  work   even   after   retirement,   and   that   makes   them   have   less   time   to   look   for   or  care  about  healthy  information.  Some  guards  are  not  allowed  to  read  any  things  irrelevant  to  the  job  nor  listen  to  radio,  when  they  are  on  duty.  At  the  same  time,  some  feel  it  is  irrelevant  to  them  since  they  are  still  young  and  healthy  enough.  For   those   who   pay   attention   to   the   health-­‐related   information,   in   fact,   they   are  passively  exposed  to  the  information  instead  of  seeking  actively.     11  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information    Accessible  channels  and  Preferences:  From  data  obtained  through  questionnaire  as  well  as  the  secondary  research,  we  have  general  and  basic  understanding  towards  the  preferred  tools.  Predictably,  newspaper,   magazines,   and   TV   are   still   chose   by   interviewees   as   the   usual  mediums  to  get  information.  By  chatting  with  them,  we  found  that  elderly  people  gain   information   mostly   from   free   newspaper.   Every   day   4-­‐5   free   newspaper  would  be  sent  to  their  home,  and  they  think  there  is  no  need  and  worth  to  buy  other   newspapers.   They   do   not   stick   to   specific   newspaper,   but   consider   of   its  convenience.   As   for   TV,   elderly   people   show   no   interest   in   health-­‐related  program,   and   claim   that   the   most   primary   way   for   them   to   get   health  information   from   TV   is   advertisements.   However,   radio   gets   less   votes   than  expect.  Radios  are  not  commonly  seen  in  their  home.  Some  of  them  tend  to  relate  radio  to  horserace  gambling  program.      We  also  found  that  leaflet  and  flyer  are  accessible  to  aged  people,  and  they  would  read   through   them   in   spare   time   and   keep   them.   Besides,   there   are   many  lectures  organized  by  government  or  company  held  in  community  especially  for  elderly   people.   The   lectures   are   not   attractive   to   the   working   elderly,   because  they  think  it  is  really  time-­‐consuming.    Surprisingly,  the  majority  of  them  gets  helpful  and  detail  medicine  support  and  information   from   pharmaceutics   in   drugstore   instead   of   doctor   in   hospital   or  clinic.   Due   to   the   limited   time   and   business   reasons,   doctor   fails   or   rejects   to  offer  detail  information,  such  as  what  should  be  pay  attention  in  terms  of  food  in  daily   life,   side   effects   etc.   Elderly   people,   therefore,   choose   to   ask   druggists,  friends  or  family  member.    Nearly  all  of  their  healthy  medicine,  food  and  products  are  bought  by  their  children.  They  do  not  know  much  about  differences  among  different  brands  and  products.  Normally,  they  think  highly  of  recommendations  heard  from  friends  and  family.  They  choose  health  care  products  based  on  choices  and  experiences  of  imitates  instead  of  advertisements.  Interestingly,  soup  is  regarded  as  health  care  food  in  Hong  Kong.  And  information  about  healthy  recipe  is  not  gained  through  TV,  but  other  people,  such  as  shopkeepers  in  wet  market  and  friends.  Most  of  them  do  not  learn  new  recipe,  and  some  of  them  prefer  to  buy  well-­‐prepared  soup  bags.    Speaking   of   computers,   most   of   them   have   the   experience   of   using   computer  mainly  for  watching  TV  drama  and  reading  news.  However,  lots  of  elderly  feel  it  complex  and  unnecessary  to  learn  how  to  use,  complain  about  its  font  size,  and  show  different  degrees  of  excludability  towards  digital  products.  But  there  is  still  some   elderly   hold   positive   opinions   that   computer   and   internet   can   provide  much  more  information  than  any  other  medium.  On  the  other  hand,  newspaper,     12  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  magazines  and  flyers  win  their  hearts  for  its  capability  to  be  kept  for  long  time  when  compared  with  computer.    How  to  deal  with  health-­‐related  information:  When   reading,   watching   or   listening   health-­‐related   information,   elderly   people  focus  on  specific  information  has  close  connection  to  their  own  conditions  rather  than   browse   all   kinds   of   information   roughly.   Elderly   people   have   clear   target  when  facing  information,  and  usually  have  purpose  and  motives.  Some  read  the  same  articles  repeatedly,  but  are  not  eager  for  latest  information.  And  they  pay  more  attention  to  the  solutions  compared  with  preventives.    After   getting   suggestions   or   advice,   they   find   it   is   hard   for   them   to   follow   and  persist.  Take  for  as  an  example,  Mrs.  Chan  said  it  is  difficult  to  take  notes  from  those   TV   programs   in   time.   Thus,   they   seldom   would   take   those   methods   into  practice.   Even   though,   they   feel   it   is   worthy   and   beneficial   to   know   such  information.    They   have   no   big   problem   with   the   medicine   instructions.   Most   of   them   think  that  the  instructions  from  doctors  or  on  the  drug  packages  are  clear  enough  for  them  to  deal  with  medicines  on  their  own.    They   lay   more   trust   on   information   delivered   through   news   compared   with  those   programs,   especially   programs   contained   business   elements.   Similarly,  they   accept   lectures   organized   by   government   and   information   explaining  disease   causes,   but   have   sense   of   rejection   towards   information   about   certain  products.    4.4  Challenge  and  future  recommendation  4.4.1  Challenge  Some   elderly   people   are   sensitive   about   health-­‐related   problems,   and   may   feel  offended   by   some   questions.   Therefore,   we   need   to   be   careful   about   usage   of  words   and   expressions   to   comfort   them.   However,   it   is   hard   to   find   balance  between  asking  question  directly  and  keeping  them  feel  comfortable.  The  second  challenge   is   the   limitation   of   time   as   well   as   the   types   and   quantity   of  interviewees.  As  student  come  from  mainland,  we  fail  to  contact  numerous  Hong  Kong   local   interviewees,   that   is   why   the   main   interviewee   source   for   us   is   the  security   guards   work   in   where   we   live.   This   narrows   down   the   targets   and  cannot   generate   all-­‐sided   comprehensions.   And   because   of   the   limited   time,  interviews  have  drawbacks  in  terms  of  quantity  and  depth.       13  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  4.4.2  Future  recommendation   • Interviewee:   Find   other   types   of   interviewees.   Working   as   security   guard,   elderly   people   seldom   have   spare   time.   Health-­‐related   information   may   have  different  meanings  or  play  different  role  in  others’  life.   • Get   deeper   understand   on   their   daily   life:   The   title   of   health-­‐related   information   may   have   set   boundaries   to   interviewees.   Find   ways   to   explore   more   about   how   they   get   other   information   as   usual,   and   make   comparison   with   those   for   health-­‐related   information,   find   differences   and  ask  why.    4.5  Insights   • Information  would  better  obtained  if  they  merge  into  elderly’s  life  instead   of  arising  their  awareness  to  get  information  actively.   • Information  in  storable  forms  would  be  more  suitable  for  elderly  people.   • Information   delivered   by   trustable   organization   or   authority   enhances   the  information  creditability.   • Information  can  also  be  effectively  delivered  to  elderly  people  indirectly   through  their  children.   • Healthy   information   divided   into   different   degrees   would   avoid   discouragements  and  be  better  followed  by  wide  range  of  elderly  people.      5.  Task  analysis  5.1  Summary  To  compare  the  design  of  current  information  sources  to  the  elderly’s  operating  capability  and  their  needs  and  wants,  we  use  task  analysis  based  on  our  previous  research  results  as  a  guide.  The  project  team  tests  and  observes  with  a  number  of  people  for  health  information  online  searching.  After  the  task  journey,  the  data  is  analyzed  for  needs  and  insights,  which  are  then  generate  the  problem  and  optimize  the  interaction.  During  the  task  analysis  process,  we  have  been  focused  on  our  target  group,  Hong  Kong  local  elderly.  Three  cases  of  task  analysis  have  been  taken  with  audio  and  video  recording.  Each  cases  last  about  half  hours.       14  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  After  the  task  performance,  the  project  team  reviews  the  recording  and  then  remark  each  findings  in  case  of  bringing  out  the  insights.  5.2  Test  description  Participants:  3  Hong  Kong  elderlies,  2  male  and  1  female,  age  60-­‐70    Materials:  A  computer  with  screen  recording  software  and  audio  recording  Online  Resources:  Search  Engine(Google)  &  http://www.39.net/(39健康網)    Procedure:   1. Choose  task  depends  on  previous  interview.   2. Tell  participant  the  scenario  of  the  task.   3. Tell  participant  the  task.     4. Make  sure  of  they  understand  the  task   5. Ask  them  to  out  loud  what  they  are  thinking  during  the  task   6. Observe  the  whole  task  journey  (with  a  screen  recorder)    5.3  Case  Description  &  Remarks  5.3.1  Case  1  Beginner  User:Mrs.  Chan  is  a  retired  housewife.  She  is  62.  She  just  using  computer  for  watching  online  TV  episode  and  has  little  experience  in  other  computer  operating.  She  cannot  type.       Observation   Remarks  When  browse  the  health  website,  Mrs.  Chan  never  use  the   (R1)Elderly  do  not  have  the  clear  “Back”  and  “Forward”  button.  She  just  check  the  information   understanding  of  website  architecture.  It’s  a  randomly  and  aimlessly.   one-­‐direction  browse.    She  preferred  to  click  the  relevance  article(linkage  URL)  in   (R2)  Relevance  article  and  Key  words  linkage  the  article  to  go  to  another  page.     URL  is  very  important  for  elderly  to  process   browsing.  She  could  not  typing.  So  she  can’t  using  any  search  engine  or   (R3)  Typing  largely  limited  the  capability  for  dialog  box  to  search  the  information.     elderly  to  search.  Their  online  process  thus   extremely  passive.    She  could  not  read  majority  of  text  since  the  small  fonts.     (R4)  Small  fonts  is  a  typical  problem  for  elderly   for  online  browsing.    She  could  not  using  the  scroll  bar  and  scroll  wheel.  So  she  can   (R5)  Elderly  lack  the  basic  knowledge  of  only  read  the  default  page  area  of  the  screen.     computer  operating.  Current  means  are   complicated  for  them  to  use.       15  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Compare  to  text  linkage,  she  prefer  to  click  the  button  linkage.     (R6)  Since  the  clear  difference  with  the  other   content,  button  give  the  elderly  better   understanding  of  turning  to  other  page.      She  do  not  clearly  understanding  somewhere  in  the  webpage   (R5)  whether  can  click  or  not.  Therefore  she  confuse  about  why  click  somewhere  do  not  have  the  feedback.  Color  help  her  a  lot  for  differentiation.      5.3.2  Case  2  Intermediate  User:  Mr.  Chan  retired  but  still  working  as  a  security  guard.  He  is  65.  He  would  sometimes  search  the  interesting  information  by  internet.  He  cant  typing.       Observation   Remarks  Mr.  Chan  can’t  typing,  so  he  can’t  using  typical  search  engine.   (R7)  Mouse  writing  function  give  the  But  he  can  use  the  Yahoo’s  mouse-­‐writing  input  function  to   opportunities  for  elderly  who  could  not  typing  accomplish  the  search.       to  actively  obtain  the  information.      He  operate  the  computer  very  slowly.  Therefore  he  love  to   (R8)Auto-­‐suggestion  function  accelerates  the  use  auto-­‐suggestion  function  of  website.     operating  time  for  the  elderly.      When  browse  the  health  website,  Mr.  Chan  said  he  prefer  to   (R3)  do  “Health  Q&A”.  But  when  he  find  out  it’s  need  typing,  things  get  trapped.    Throughout  the  whole  process.  The  click  rate  of  button  more   (R6)  than  text  linkage  a  lot.      When  he  did  search  in  Yahoo,  he  prefer  to  click  the  first   (R9)  Elderly  ‘s  information  browse  speed  and  article.  His  judgement  based  on  the  keywords.     instant  memory  are  weak.  He  said  he  prefer  to  watch  the  video.  But  he  could  not  find  the   (R10)  Elderly  do  not  know  the  differences  video  by  searching.  And  he  do  not  know  any  video-­‐sharing   between  websites.  They  could  not  efficiently  website.     get  the  right  information  by  specific  website.       16  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information    He  can  only  use  the  scroll  bar  instead  of  scroll  wheel.  The   (R5)    auto-­‐hide  scroll  bar  make  him  confuse  a  lot.    He  complain  about  the  small  text.  It’s  hard  for  them  to  find   (R11)  Small  fonts  and  Huge  mount  of  out  useful  information.   information  prevent  the  efficient  browning  for   elderly.      5.3.3  Case  3  Advanced  User:  Mr.  Lee  is  a  retired  lawyer.  He  is  70.  He  has  the  proficient  experiences  in  using  computer  and  searching  information  through  Internet.       Observation   Remarks  It  is  hard  for  Mr.  Lee  to  find  the  evaluate  health  information  in   (R12)  It’s  hard  to  find  Hong  Kong  local  Hong  Kong  website.  Most  Hong  kong  local  health  sites  based   comprehensive  health  information  website.  on  a  small  number  of  news  &  articles.  And  there  is  no  any  health  information  category.    By  using  health  information  website  in  mainland  China  site,  it   (R13)  Language  limits  elderly  to  use  website  in  difficulty  for  Mr.  Lee  to  read  simplified  Chinese  characters.   other  region.      By  using  health  information  website  in  mainland  China  site,  it   (R14)  It’s  hard  to  find  Hong  Kong-­‐related  difficulty  for  Mr.  Lee  to  find  the  Hong  Kong-­‐related  health   health  information  on  internet.      information.    Mr.  Lee’s  expectations  about  online  searching  is  weak.  He  just   (R15)  Elderly  suspected  the  authenticity  of  want  a  general  understanding  of  basic  information.   network  information.  In  addition,  the  large   number  of  search  results  include  advertising   interfere  users  to  access  accurate  health   information  efficiently.    Mr.  Lee  always  distracts  by  the  irrelevant  news  or   (R16)  When  users  search  for  health  information  and  then  search  the  irrelevant  topics.   information,  They  always  distract  by  the   irrelevant  topic  or  information.  Causing  task   transfer  to  the  wrong  direction.  After  searching,  Mr.  Lee  failed  to  get  the  health  information   (R17)  No  authoritative  health  information  what  he  expect  to  find  out.  He  can  only  get  few  fragmented   Website  in  Hong  Kong.  information.  He  complain  about  that  there  is  no  authoritative    health  information  Website  for  searching.   (R18)  It’s  hard  for  elderly  to  find  valuable   health  information  by  online.    When  we  ask  Mr.  Lee  try  to  use  the  health-­‐related  application   (R19)  Current  health-­‐related  application  and  in  smart  phone.  Mr.  Lee  could  not  find  anything  he  want  to   e-­‐payment  process  are  not  well  designed  for  know  on  it.     He  do  not  know  how  to  buy  app  in  the  app   elderly.    market.  Even  the  app  is  already  been  downloaded,  he  do  not    know  how  to  use.     (R20)  There  are  not  much  health-­‐related  app  in     17  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information   app  store  which  provide  Chinese(traditional)   version  which  elderly  can  use.    5.4  Remarks  Analysis    5.5  Insights  (S1)  Elderly  admit  the  significance  of  health  information,  but  seldom  of  them  would  actively  search  the  health-­‐related  information  through  Internet.  (S2)  Elderly  incline  a  one-­‐direction  browsing  process.    (S3)  Elderly  prefer  large  fonts  and  button  linkage.    (S4)  Huge  amount  of  information  in  one  page  would  make  elderly  confusing.    (S5)  Many  elderly  lack  the  basic  knowledge  of  computer  operating  and  Internet  term.  (S6)  Mouse-­‐writing  and  Autosuggestion  function  helps  elderly  a  lot.    (S7)  Hong  Kong  do  not  have  the  comprehensive  health  information  website  and  authoritative  health  information  Website.    (S8)  Language  limited  elderly  in  using  worldwide  health-­‐related  website.  (S9)  Authenticity  of  Internet  information  and  commercial  advertising  make  the  elderly  suspect  the  accuracy  of  information.  (S10)  It’s  hard  for  elderly  to  find  valuable  health  information  by  online.     18  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  (S11)  Current  health-­‐related  application  in  smart  phone  or  tablet  is  not  well  designed  for  elderly.    (S12)  Typing  is  the  major  barrier  for  elderly  actively  searching.  (S13)  Elderly  ‘s  Internet  browsing  is  not  an  active  process.  Therefore  it’s  hard  to  differentiate  computers  to  other  sources  as  the  elderly’s  information  sources.         19  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Reference:    [1]   Population   Division   of   the   Department   of   Economic   and   Social   Affairs   of   the  United  Nations  Secretariat,  World  Population  Prospects,  Hong  Kong  SAR    http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/P-­‐WPP/htm/PWPP_Population-­‐Age_65Plus.htm  Probabilistic  Projections:  Population  age  65  and  over  (thousands)  Population  projections  based  on  probabilistic  projections  of  total  fertility  from  the  2010  Revision,China    [2]   Population   Bulletin   63,   no.   4   (2008),   Warren   Sanderson   and   Sergei   Scherbov,  “Rethinking   Age   and   Aging,”   A   publication   of   the   Population   Reference   Bureau  informs   people   around   the   world   about   population,   health,   and   the   environment,  and  empowers  them  to  use  that  information  to  advance  the  well-­‐being  of  current  and  future  generations.  /  PDF.file.  [3]  Hong  Kong  Demographics  Information  2010  http://re-­‐discoverhongkong.com/966/hong-­‐kong-­‐demographics-­‐profile-­‐2010/  [4]  http://lib.hku.hk/hkspc/pathfinders/HKStatistics/Population.pdf    [5]http://www.gov.hk/en/residents/housing/socialservices/elderly/    [6]Boomers  Delusion  About  Health  In  Retirement  http://www.npr.org/2011/09/28/140853479/boomers-­‐delusion-­‐about-­‐health-­‐in-­‐retirement  [7]  News  report  http://news.xinhuanet.com/mrdx/2011-­‐07/11/c_13977458.htm  [8]  News  report  http://www.ltxjob.com/News/Newshow/201107071540145916311.html  [9]  News  report  http://trans.wenweipo.com/gb/paper.wenweipo.com/2010/08/01/HK1008010029.htm  [10]  News  report  http://news.sohu.com/20061127/n246642166.shtml  [11]The  Hong  Kong  Council  of  Social  Service  http://www.hkcss.org.hk/pra/policybulletin/pb03/PB_finalversion.pdf    PB_finalversion.pdf  [11]  Iris  Chi  and  Nelson  Chow  ,  HOUSING  AND  FAMILY  CARE  FOR  THE  ELDERLY  IN  HONG  KONG  ,PDF  .file.  [12   ]Hung   Wong   ,   Quality   of   Life   of   Poor   People   Living   in   Remote   Areas   in   Hong  Kong     ,PDF  .file.  [13]Prof.   Francis   K.   W.   Wong   Professor,   Department   of   Building   and   Real  Estate,Elderly  Housing  in  Hong  Kong–  Affordability  &  Preference,  PDF  .file.  [14]  E.  M.  C.  Lau,1  J.  Woo,2  H.  Chan,2  M.  K.  F.  Chan,1  J.  Griffith,3  Y.  H.  Chan,1  P.  C.  Leung4  1Department   of   Community   and   Family   Medicine,   Lek   Yuen   Health   Centre,   The  Chinese  University  of  Hong  Kong,  Shatin,  N.T.,  Hong  Kong  2Department  of  Medicine,  The   Chinese   University   of   Hong   Kong,   Shatin,   N.T.,   Hong   Kong   3Department   of  Diagnostic   Radiology   and   Organ   Imaging,   The   Chinese   University   of   Hong   Kong,  Shatin,   N.T.,   Hong   Kong   4Department   of   Orthopaedics   and   Traumatology,   The     20  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Chinese   University   of   Hong   Kong,   Shatin,   N.T.,   Hong   Kong,The   Health  Consequences   of   Vertebral   Deformity   in   Elderly   Chinese   Men   and   Women,  Clinical  Investigations  [15]Shui-­‐kum  Lam,  The  Health  of  the  Elderly  in  Hong  Kong  ,PDF  .file.  [16J   Woo,   Nutrition   and   health   issues   in   the   general   Hong   Kong   population,  PDF  .file.  [17]http://www.gov.hk/en/residents/housing/socialservices/elderly/elderlyservices.htm  [18]http://www.swd.gov.hk/en/index/site_pubsvc/page_elderly/sub_csselderly/id_socialcent/  [19]  http://www.hkrfp.org/public_html/event.php  [20]   The   Bauhinia   Foundation   Research   Centre,Health   Care   Study   Group,  Development   and   Financing   of   Hong   Kong’s   Future   Health   Care,Report   on  Preliminary  Findings  PDF  .file.  [21]   News   report   -­‐Hong   Kong   banks   help   provide   elderly   with   financial   options  http://asianbankingandfinance.net/lending-­‐credit/news/hong-­‐kong-­‐banks-­‐help-­‐provide-­‐elderly-­‐financial-­‐options  [22]  http://www.gov.hk/en/residents/education/continuinged/  [23]  http://www.ied.edu.hk/web/news.php?id=20090810  [24]  http://www.hkcs.org/edcb/ita/ita-­‐e.html         21  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Appendix:  1.  Survey  Form  -­‐  Data  Statistics        2.  Responses  Matrix  Question   Mrs.  Law   Mrs.  Chan   Mr.  Chan   Mr.  Chow   Remark  Do  you  think   Yes   Yes   Yes   Sure   [R1]  All  of  them  that   find  health-­‐related   health-­‐related  information  is   information  important  to   important  to  you?   them.     22  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Do  you  pay   No.   Yes.   Sometimes,   Sometimes,   [R2]  For  those  attention  to   Need  to   Want  to   want  to   it  helps  me   still  have  to  health-­‐related   work   know  more   know  basic   to  know   work  feel  have  information   every   about  some   informatio more  and   no  time  to  in  your  daily   day,  and   diseases.   n,  but  it   keep   spend  on  life?  Why  or   have  no   takes  time.   healthy.   health-­‐related  why  not?   time  to   information.   do  so.  Actively  or            passively?  When  gaining   Specific   Read   Mainly   Of  course   [R3]  Elderly  health-­‐related   one.   messages   read  about   focus  on   people  have  information,   and  articles   tips,   specific  one.   clear  target  do  you  focus   related  to   suggestion Every  one   when  facing  on  specific   my  disease.     s  for  daily   has  his  own   information,  one  or   life.  as  well   specific   and  usually  browse   as   background.   have  purpose  generally?   informatio and  motives.  Why?   n  about  What  kinds  of  Those   Informatio lectures   common   [R4]  They  focus  information   related   n  related  to   and   elderly   on  information  do  you  focus   to  my   high  blood   activities.   diseases.   that  is  close  to  on?   problem pressure,   their  daily  life,   s  or  my   heart  ache.   and  solutions   acquaint preventive  to   ances   their  diseases.     and   family.  Where  do  you   Radio,   Newspaper Newspaper [R5]  flyers,   Newspaper,  get   flyers,   ,  magazines   ,  flyers,   leaflets  and   leaflets,  information?   TV.   and  TV.   lectures,   lectures,  TV,   lectures  are  not   TV.   mentioned  in   friends  and   questionnaire   books.   survey.  Which  one  do     Magazines.   Newspaper   Newspaper,   [R6]  newspaper  you  prefer?   I  can  read   Convenient   friends  and   is  chose  by  Why?   repeatedly.   to  get.   books.   three  of   I  can  cut  and   interviewees  as   keep   the  preferred   newspaper   medium.   and  books.   [R7]  experience   Friends   sharing  plays   experiences   important  roles.   are  very     23  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information   important.  What   Program Programs,   Programs,   Programs,    health-­‐related   s,   advertisem advertisem advertisemecontents  do   advertis ent.   ent.   nt.  TV  show?     ement.  Do  you  watch   No,  do   Not   Seldom.   Sometimes.   [R8]  elderly  those   not  have   interested   Do  not   Watch   people  pay  less  contents?   time.   in  those   have  much   advertiseme attention  to  TV  Why  or  why   program.   time  to   nts  when  in   programs  not?   watch  TV.   the  break   compared  with   time  of   ads.   drama,  and   on  the  bus.  Would  you   No.   It  depends.   Hard  to   Definitely   [R9]  They  fail  to  follow   Have  to   Follow   follow.   impossible.   follow  the  suggestions   work   some   Hard  to   suggestions.  introduced  on   thereby   simple   follow  and  TV?  Why  or   hard  to   ones.   persist.  But  why  not?   follow.   it  has  value   for   reference.  Which   Seldom   Only  read   Only  read   Newspaper   [R10]  They  do  newspaper  do   read   free   free   display  in   not  stick  to  you  usually   newspap newspaper.   newspaper.   metro   specific  read?   er.   station.   newspaper,  but   consider  of  its   convenience.  Would  you   No.   No.   No.   No.   [R11]  They  do  actively  buy   Not   I  already   Free   I  would   not  buy  related   necessar have   newspaper   rather  buy   newspaper.  newspaper  or   y,  and   magazines   is  enough.   specific  magazine?   have  no   about   books.  Why  or  why   time  to   those  not?   read.   informatio n.  What  type  of   Advertis Countless   Advertisem Advertiseme [R12]  information   ements.   advertisem ents,   nts,  related   Advertisements  can  you  get   ents.   lecture  and   news.   leave  deepest  from   class   impression  to  newspaper?   informatio them  as   n.   health-­‐related   information   shown  on   newspaper.     24  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Would  you  go   No.   No.   No.   Have   [R13]  Lectures  to  lectures   It  takes   No  need  to   I  am  still   listened   are  not  so  introduced  on   time,   listen,  I   young  and   several   attractive  to  the   and  I   know   health.  The   times.   working  elderly  newspaper?   think   about  my   contents   It  takes   people.  Why  or  why   there  is   disease.   are  always   times,  not?   no  need.   about  some   normally   severe   2-­‐3  hours.  It   diseases.   depends  on   it  topic.  What  do  you   It   is   for     May   be   Beneficial.   [R14]  Most  of  feel  about  the   those   helpful.   them  hold  lectures?   who   positive   have   opinions  to   time.   lectures.  Are  there   Maybe   No  idea   Yes.   Yes,  every   [R15]  Lectures  many  elderly   time  there   are  still  an  people  in  the   are  lots  of   available  access  lecture?   elderly   for  elderly   people   people  in  Hong   asking   Kong.   questions.  Do  you  trust         Partially.   [R16]  Mr.  Chow  what  is  said   I  think  the   feels  in  the   introduction   promotions  of  lecture?  How   of  disease   specific  much?   causes  is   products  are   trustable,   not  true.   while  some   medicine   recommend ation  needs   to  be   rethink   independent ly.  Do  you  eat   Soup   Yes.   Yes.   Mainly  soup.   [R17]  Soup  is  health  care   I  have   regarded  as  food  or   many   health  care  food  products?   bought  by   in  Hong  Kong.  What  kinds  of   my   [R18]  Some  do  health  care   daughter-­‐i not  buy  health  food  or   n-­‐law.   care  products  products  do   by  themselves.     25  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  you  eat?  How  do  you   Sometim My   My   My  friends   [R19]  They  choose  health   es   children   children   and  my  own   choose  health  care   friends’   choose  for   choose  for   experience.   care  products  products?   recomm me.   me.   based  on   endation choices  and   s.   experiences  of   imitates  instead   of   advertisements.  Would  you   No.   No.       [R20]  Elderly  compare   But   would   people  seem  different   notice   not  care  much  products   which   one   about  brands  of  from  different   is  effective.   health  care  brands?   products.  Would  you   No.   No.   No.   Yes,  I  would   [R21]  Most  of  learn  new   No  need   I  have  live   Not  get   pay   them  do  not  recipe  for   and  no   in  Shanghai   used  to   attention  to   learn  new  soup?  Why  or   time.   for  forty   soup  here.   the  new  one   recipe.  why  not?     years,  and  I   to  see   [R22]  Soup  has   do  not  care   whether   different   about  soup   there  is   meanings  in   as  the   some   different   other  Hong   suitable  for   culture.   Kong   me  or  for   residents.  I   my  family.   buy  soup   package.  Where  and     Not  from     From   [R23]  how  do  you   TV   friends  and   Information  learn  new   program   shopkeeper about  healthy  recipe?   for  I  cannot   s  in  wet   recipe  is  not   catch  it  in   market.   gained  through   time.   TV,  but  other   people.  What  do  you   Both  of   Western   Both  of   It  would  be   [R24]  They  hold  think  about   them  are   medicine   them  have   better  if  we   neutral  Chinese   good  for   shows  its   their  pros   can  combine   attitudes  traditional   different   effect   and  cons.  It   these  two   towards  medicine  and   reasons.   faster  than   depends  on   types  of   western  and  western   Chinese   what  kinds   medicines.   Chinese  medicine?   traditional   of  disease  I   For   traditional  Which  one  do   medicine.   want  to   emergent   medicines.     26  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  you  prefer?   But  as  for   deal  with.   conditions,  I   illness  like   choose   gynecologi western   cal  disease,   medicine.   I  would   prefer   Chinese   traditional   one.  What  do  you   It  is  ok   It  is  clear   No   Clear  for  me   [R25]  They  think  about   for  me  to   enough  to   problems   to  know   have  no  big  medicine   make   understand with  the   basic   problem  with  instructions?   sense  of   .   instruction.   information   the  medicine  Are  they  too   the   of  the   instructions.  complex  to   instructi medicines.  understand?   on.  Does  doctor   No.   No.   No.     No.   [R26]  They  get  provide   They  do   But  it  is  not   But  the   They   really  limited  additional   not   bad  in   basic   become   information  information   spend   terms  of   informatio impatient   from  doctors.  help?   much   preventing   n  is   when  I  ask   time  for   patients   enough.   more   each   buy   questions   patient.   medicine   about  the   by   medicines.   themselves .  How  can  you   From   From   From   From   [R27]   Druggist  know  more   druggist.   druggist.   experienced   druggist.   is   the   primary  about  the   friends,   information  medicines?   druggist  and   source.   books.  Would  you  go   No.   It  depends   Depends   Yes.  Even  is   [R28]  They  to  doctor   It  cost   on  how   on  how   just  flu,   would  buy  when   time  and   severe  it  is.   severe  it  is.   there  are   drugs  instead  of  catching  a   money.   Normally   5-­‐6  kinds  of   going  to  doctor  cold  or  other   would  buy   medicines,   if  they  are  not  common   drug  from   go  to  see  the   severely  ill.  diseases?   drugstore   doctor  Why  or  why   first.   thereby  I  not?   can  get   some   information   about  that.     27  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  Do  friends   Yes.   Yes.   It   Yes.   Yes.   That’s   [R7]  share   helps   and   really  experience   provides   important  and   reference.   for   making  recommend   decision.  doctors  or  products?  Do  you  do   No.   Yes,  but   Yes.  I  do   Sometimes.    exercises?   seldom.  I   many  kinds   Just  have  a  What  kinds  of   play  table   of   walk.  Have  exercise  do   tennis  with   exercises,   try  to  learn  you  usually   my   such  as   Tai  Chi.  have?  Where?   husband  in   basketball,   the  elderly   Tai  Chi.   center  once   every   week.  How  do  you   No.   No.   I  learn  by   From  Tai   [R29]   They   also  learn  or   myself.   Chi  classes   get  practice   Sometime   in  the   health-­‐related  specific   watch   community.   information  exercise  like   videos.   through   videos  Tai  Chi?   and   community   classes,   activities.  Do  you  listen   Yes.   No.     No.  We  are   [R30]  Unlike  to  the  radio   Sometim not   the  result  of  while   es  read   permitted  to   survey,  radio  is  working?   newspap do  any   less  used  by  What  else?   er.   irrelevant   them.   things   during   working   hour.  What  do  you   Buying   As  usual.   Doing   Having  a   [R31]  Wet  usually  do   vegetabl Buying   exercises,   walk,   market  is  one  of  during   es  and   food,   having  rest,   enjoying   the  most  holidays?   meat  in   cooking,   talking   morning  tea.   common  place   wet   watching   with   for  elderly  to  go   market,   drama.   family.   every  day.   cooking,   having   rest.  Do  you  use   No.   Yes.   Yes.   Yes.   [R32]  Most  of     28  
  • Report  of  Research  and  Analysis                                                               Elderly  and  Health-­‐related  Information  computer?   Watching   Watching   Reading   them  have  the  What  do  you   TV  drama.   TV  drama   news.   experience  of  use  for?   and  news.   using  computer.  What  do  you   Not   No  need  to   Too   Both  have   [R33]  They  are  think  about   much   learn  how   complex  to   their  pros   not  interested  digital   related   to  use   learn.   and  cons.   in  learning  information   to  me.   computer.   Prefer   Digital   computer.  and  paper   Prefer   paper   version   [R34]  Some  see  version?   paper   version  as   have  more   the  advantages  Which  one  do   version,   it  is  more   available   of  using  you  prefer?   because  of   comfortabl information,   computer.  Why?   the  small   e  to  read.   while  paper   [R35]  Most  of   font  size  of   version  is   them  prefer   digital   easy  to  cut   paper  version   informatio and  keep.   considering  the   n.   font  size  and   preserving   problem.                       29