Introduction andHistory • Romanesque- “in the manner of romans”, but it is made around 1000-1200 AD instead of during the Roman Empire (27 B.C.– 393 A.D.). Time of great faith reinforced by superstition Illiteracy widespread, violence commonplace, bandits roam
Social Hierarchy:Emperor →Pope →King →Lord →Knight →Vassal →Serf Examples of Titles (Social orders): Prince, Duke, Earl, Sir, etc. Reign of Charlemagne ((9th c. A.D.) -his rule grew the Holy Roman Empire - Aix-la-Chapelle =court of Charlemagne for the rebuilding cultureTrade and pilgrimage routes linked European regions, cities,
Crusad> esr i s t i a n Ch wo r l d b e c o me s t h e a g g r e s s o r> 1s tCr u s a d e –1095> 4t hCr u s a d e
On Literatu• Beowulf – Anglo-Saxon epic about a hero’s adventure with re the man-eating monster, Grendel, and his mother• King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table –became the ideals of chivalry and courtly love• Song of Roland (French)- narrated the crusaders’ expedition against the Saracens
TheaterLiturgy – effectively disseminatedby dramas in churches andChristian Dramaeven in marketplaces Types: 1.Morality 2.Miracle 3.MysteryPhilosophyMonasticism (10th – 11th c.)-a mode of life whereby people livereligious vows, and follow some fixregulating how they spend their timas monks and women are known as n
Sculpture Lazarus in the Bosom of Abrah Parts of a Romanesque Portal West Portal of the Church ofPortal from the Church of West Portal South Ste. Foy at Conques Saint Pierre, Moissac St. Lazare at Narthex Portal from the Church of Ste. Madeleine, Vézelay Incarnation
Painting • Location: most common inside the churches • Theme: almost exclusively religious • Techniques and supports: On wall- mainly in Fresco On wood: altar frontals In codex: Miniature In clothes: tapestry
Romanesque architecture - term used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which evolved into the Gothic style beginning in the 12th century.• Romanesque architecture was the first pan-European architectural style since
Characteristics•massive solidity and strength•First Romanesque employed rubble walls, smaller windows and unvaulted roofs•Greater refinement
WALLS • massive thickness with few and comparatively small openings • double shells, filled with rubble brick -- Italy, Poland, much of Germany and parts of the Netherland limestone, granite and flint -- other areas the building stone --small and irregular pieces, bedded in thick mortar
sant’ambrogio, Milan San Vittore alle Chiuse,is constructed of Genga, Italy, ofbricks. undressed stone, has a typically fortress-like appearance.
PIER • An upright support, generally square, rectangular, or composite.
St. Andrew pier relief,cloister at Saint-Pierre,Moissac. Limestone, 6’ high. The Beheading of John the Baptist. Salome dances (center). To left, Herod’s attendants hold the silver platter with the head of John the Baptist.
Column - A cylindrical support, usuallystructural but often decorative. • Drum column - stone of cylinders Santiago de Compostela has large columns constructed of drums, with attached shafts.
Hollow core columns • they were constructed of ashlar masonry • the hollow core was filled with rubble • these huge untapered columns are sometimes ornamented with incised decorations. Durham Cathedral, England, has decorated masonry columns and the earliest pointed high ribs.
Capitals • round at the bottom • it sits on a circular column and square at the top • it supports the wall or arch • cutting a rectangular cube • taking the four lower corners off at an angle so that the block was square at the top • octagonal at the bottom • manuscripts illustrations of Biblical scenes and depictions of beasts and monsters, others are lively scenes of the legends of local saints.
Festive Corinthian capitals on the richly- The Corinthian order as used forappointed General Post Office, New York the portico of the Pantheon, Rome(McKim, Mead, and White, 1913) provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, Paired columns like through the medium of engravings. those at Duratón, near Sepúlveda, Spain, are a feature of Romanesque cloisters in Spain, Italy and southern France.
Altern ation the alternation of piers and columns. Sometimes the columns are inSt. Michaels, Hildesheim has multiples of two or threealternating piers and columns.
Barrel vault/tunnelvault The simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel which has been cut in half lengthwise Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all
Groin Vaults • for the less visible and smaller vaults • square in plan and is constructed of two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles • Groin vaults are frequently separated by transverse arched ribs of low profile Bayeux Cathedral, the crypt has groin vaults and simplified Corinthian capitals.
RibbedVault - a masonry vault with a relatively thin web and set within a framework of ribs.
Pointed ArchedVault To regulate the height of diagonal and transverse ribs, arches of the same diameter for both horizontal and transverse ribs were used, causing the transverse ribs to meet at a point.The nave of the abbeychurch of Saint-Georges deBoscherville has pointedtransverse ribs.