The animals worked harder than they ever had before to rebuild the windmill .
Animals begin to speak of Napoleon with a great deal of reverence, giving him the formal title of "our Leader, Comrade Napoleon."
Chapter 9 Summary
Although the animals faced another harsh winter, Squealer eases their minds .
Food rations for all of the animals are reduced (except for the pigs and dogs), but Squealer indicates that they have produced more food and were living more comfortably than ever before. The animals believe every word.
Chapter 10 Summary
It is the most shocking thing the animals have ever seen. It goes against everything that they have been taught up to then. Just as it seems that someone might object, the sheep break into a deafening chorus of “ Four legs bad, two legs better .”
All the commandments are gone, and all that is written there now is “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”
In a satire , the writer attacks a serious issue by presenting it in a ridiculous light or otherwise poking fun at it.
Orwell uses satire in Animal Farm to expose what he saw as the myth of Soviet socialism .
Thus, the novel tells a story that people of all ages can understand, but it also tells us a second story—that of the real-life Revolution .
The author used lots of animals to dig at some people.
Many critics have matched in great detail the story’s characters to historical persons, e.g., linking the power struggle between Napoleon and Snowball to the historical feuding between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trostky for control of the Soviet Union.
Napoleon: Throughout the novel, Napoleon’s method of “getting his own way” involves a combination of propaganda and terror that none of the animals can resist.
Napoleon’s greatest crime; however, is his complete transformation into Jones.
Characters and Their Historical Correlation
Critics also believe that
Old Major represents Karl Marx, who dies before realizing his dream.
Boxer and Clover as workers,
the sheep as the general public,
Squealer as Stalin’s government news agency,
the dogs as Stalin’s military-police,
Farmer Jones as Czar Nicholas II.
The farm’s neighbors, Pilkington and Frederick, are said to represent Great Britain and Germany while Mollie suggests the old Russian aristocracy which resists change.
As Clover and the other animals watch the arguments through the dining-room window, they are unable to discriminate between the humans and the pigs.
Russian Revolution Power
Joseph Stalin: Built his power behind the lines
Leon Trotsky: Was popular/charismatic, and famous for his speeches
Stalin out-maneuvers Trotsky and gains control .
Stalin starts to isolate Trotsky within the party because he is a threat .
Questions for reading comprehension
Orwell completed Animal Farm during what international conflict?
World War II
The Cold War
The Russo-Japanese War
The Great War
In what year did the Russian Revolution occur?
What character in Animal Farm represents Stalin?
Squealer's job is to distribute what among the animals?
Which of the following is not a slogan in Animal Farm?
"Four legs good, two legs better"
"All animals are equal / But some animals are more equal than others"
"War is peace / Freedom is Slavery / Ignorance is Strength"
"Long live Comrade Napoleon"
Question for Discussion
With what propaganda are students bombarded with each day through the means of media?
Students can become much more aware of the daily doses of political propaganda that surround them. Have students report each day during the Animal Farm unit on the rhetoric used today.
If the unit is given during an election year, encourage students to follow the various campaigns and candidates. What are the issues? How are they addressed?