The antebellum period
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

The antebellum period

on

  • 4,198 views

The 30 year period prior to the American Civil War.

The 30 year period prior to the American Civil War.

C. Bishop EdD

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,198
Views on SlideShare
4,181
Embed Views
17

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0

3 Embeds 17

http://www.edmodo.com 13
http://alverno.edmodo.com 3
http://bb9.fscj.edu 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

The antebellum period The antebellum period Presentation Transcript

  • The Antebellum Era The Road to Civil War
    • What makes a nation turn against itself to the point where it is willing to take up weapons and fight…
    • sometimes brother against brother?
  • SMILE!
    • Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre invented the box camera in 1839.
    Thanks to his process, we have a much clearer picture of events that happened in the Antebellum period than any before this historical time period.
  • Problem #1 Different Developing Economies
    • The Southern economy was primarily based on agriculture and the use of forced slave labor.
    • The Northern economy was becoming primarily based on the manufacturing of goods – chiefly fabrics from cotton grown in the South.
    Problem #1 Different Developing Economies
    • An odd system came into play:
    • The South grew the cotton, using slave labor.
    • They shipped it North for processing.
    Textile Mill, Lowell Massachusetts, circa 1845
    • Northern mills turned the raw cotton into cloth.
    • The Southern states and England
    • bought the cloth.
    • And Southern landowners needed more slaves and land to keep the cycle moving.
    • And Southern landowners needed more slaves and land to keep the cycle moving.
    • Not just a few acres.
    • Thousands of acres were constantly needed to be planted because growing cotton erases the minerals found in the soil.
    • A field could only be used for 7 years, then it had to “lie fallow” for 7 before it could be used again.
    • Growing cotton (and expanding slavery) soon became the basis of Southern life.
    • Not just a few acres.
    • Thousands of acres were constantly needing to be planted because growing cotton erases the minerals found in the soil.
    • A field could only be used for 7 years, then it had to “lie fallow” for 7 before it could be used again.
    • Growing cotton (and expanding slavery) soon became the basis of Southern life.
    • Not just a few acres.
    • Thousands of acres were constantly needing to be planted because growing cotton erases the minerals found in the soil.
    • A field could only be used for 7 years, then it had to “lie fallow” for 7 before it could be used again.
    • Growing cotton (and expanding slavery) soon became the basis of Southern life.
    • Not just a few acres.
    • Thousands of acres were constantly needed to be planted because growing cotton erases the minerals found in the soil.
    • A field could only be used for 7 years, then it had to “lie fallow” for 7 before it could be used again.
    • Growing cotton (and expanding slavery) soon became the basis of Southern life.
  • American Colonization Society
    • Beginning in 1815, Quaker Paul Cuffee founded a society that would help free black Americans to return to Africa.
    • (Sierra Leone).
    Best available picture
  • American Colonization Society
    • By 1820, the American Colonization Society was assisting free black Americans to return to Africa.
    • They established the country of Liberia
  •  
    • However, the reality for most Africans taken from their homes was very different.
    • Being captured and sold into slavery usually guaranteed a life of endless work.
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Problem #2 Lockdown
    • How do you hold millions of people against their will?
    • Nobody wanted to be a slave!
  • Early slave rebellions like the one by Nat Turner , a Virginia slave, in 1831, caused extreme fear and suspicion among Southern slaveholders. Fifty-five whites were murdered.
  •  
  • Slave Codes
    • Slave Codes were laws passed to limit the movement and education of slaves.
    • The idea was to lock them down so order could be maintained.
    • Examples of these include the ban on teaching a slave to read or write and requiring a “pass” if a slave was to be off the plantation.
  •  
  •  
  • Corporal Punishment
    • Were slaves really beaten and cruelly treated…or is that just “Hollywood History”?
    • This is a real picture and something caused these marks.
    • This is a real picture and something caused these marks.
    • First-hand accounts
    • from ex-slaves tell
    • stories of sometimes
    • brutal treatment… and
    • kind treatment. There
    • was probably some of
    • both.
  • Hard to Lock Down the Human Spirit!
    • The tighter the codes, the stronger resistance became.
    • Soon, individuals began risking their safety to get themselves and others to freedom.
    Harriet Tubman
  • What? Back to Africa? Nope. Just above something called the Mason-Dixon line . If a slave could get north of that line, they would be “free”.
  • The Underground Railroad Not a subway system!
    • People, white and black , worked along a system of hideouts to get slaves North to freedom.
  • Follow the “drinking gourd”. Also called the Big Dipper. Pointed North
  • All Aboard!
    • Using a series of safe houses, conductors helped runaways travel North.
    • Food, clothing, money, shelter, directions, whatever was needed, was supplied.
    • The penalty for helping a slave do this was a return to slavery or death to the runaway, and a fine for the Caucasian helper.
  • Levi and Catharine Coffin
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Make a Big Noise! Some folks helped just by being vocal about the problem.
    • Former slaves who were safely in the North, began to speak out about conditions in the South.
    • People began to notice.
    • And to listen .
    Sojourner Truth
    • Ain’t I A Woman?
    • "Wall, chilern, whar dar is so much racket dar must be somethin' out o' kilter. I tink dat 'twixt de niggers of de Souf and de womin at de Norf, all talkin' 'bout rights, de white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what's all dis here talkin' 'bout?"
    • "Dat man ober dar say dat womin needs to be helped into carriages, and lifted ober ditches, and to hab de best place everywhar. Nobody eber helps me into carriages, or ober mud-puddles, or gibs me any best place!" And raising herself to her full height, and her voice to a pitch like rolling thunder, she asked. 'And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! (and she bared her right arm to the shoulder, showing her tremendous muscular power). I have ploughed, and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man – when I could get it – and bear de lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen chilern, and seen 'em mos' all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?"
    • "Den dey talks 'bout dis ting in de head; what dis dey call it?" ("Intellect," whispered someone near.) "Dat's it, honey. What's dat got to do wid womin's rights or nigger's rights? If my cup won't hold but a pint, and yourn holds a quart, wouldn't ye be mean not to let me have my little half-measure full?"
    • "Den dat little man in back dar, he say women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wan't a woman! Whar did your Christ come from?" Rolling thunder couldn't have stilled that crowd, as did those deep, wonderful tones, as she stood there with out-stretched arms and eyes of fire. Raising her voice still louder, she repeated, "Whar did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothin' to do wid Him."
    • "If de fust woman God ever made was strong enough to turn de world upside down all alone, dese women togedder (and she glanced her eye over the platform) ought to be able to turn it back, and get it right side up again! And now dey is asking to do it, de men better let 'em." Long-continued cheering greeted this. "'Bleeged to ye for hearin' on me, and now ole Sojourner han't got nothin' more to say."
    • Others had such powers of speech that they won hundreds to their cause by traveling around telling their stories.
    • People would leave the auditoriums in tears, vowing to change the system.
    Frederick Douglass
    • Douglass’ newspaper, The North Star , sold thousands of copies and his autobiography, telling his story of escaping slavery, was a best-seller.
    Frederick Douglass
  • Not Just Former Slaves!
    • Even well-respected, white, middle class ladies were speaking out about this issue.
    • History calls them Abolitionists , because they wanted to abolish, or end, slavery.
    Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe
    • Stowe’s book about the life of a fictional slave named “Tom” became a runaway bestseller…
    • And helped to sway the conscience of a nation towards the idea that slavery must be stopped.
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Southern slaves were depicted in a wide manner of ways. Primarily as an object of pity.
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Stowe’s main character becomes someone you feel sorry for and care about. Then she brutally murders him off in a shocking way.
  • Especially when he puts a move on the beautiful, young slave-girl he’s just purchased. The evil slave owner, Simon Legree , is someone everyone would cheerfully love to kill.
  • Problem #3 Folks are Mad! And they’re choosing up sides!
    • By the mid 1800’s, billions of dollars in land, slaves and businesses were at stake in America.
    • Even though pressure was coming from the North to end slavery, no-one was closing their textile factories!
  • Problem #3 Folks are Mad! And they’re choosing up sides!
    • By the mid 1800’s, billions of dollars in land, slaves and businesses were at stake in America.
    • Even though pressure was coming from the North to end slavery, no-one was closing their textile factories!
  • The Government Gets Involved
    • The bottom line is that no President, prior to 1860, was willing to take the drastic steps to ensure that slavery died out.
    • How to do that? Forbid the spread of slavery to any new territories added as states.
    • The “Free” states would outvote the “Slave” states, and slavery would soon be choked to death.
  • The Government Gets Involved
    • The bottom line is that no President, prior to 1860, was willing to take the drastic steps to ensure that slavery died out.
    • How to do that? Forbid the spread of slavery to any new territories added as states .
    • The “Free” states would outvote the “Slave” states, and slavery would soon be choked to death.
  • The Government Gets Involved
    • The bottom line is that no President, prior to 1860, was willing to take the drastic steps to ensure that slavery died out.
    • How to do that? Forbid the spread of slavery to any new territories added as states.
    • The “Free” states would outvote the “Slave” states, and slavery could soon be choked to death.
  • Missouri Compromise , 1820
    • When Missouri petitioned the U.S.A. to join as a state, they asked to be allowed to have slaves.
    • No, said the Northern senators. Slavery West of the Mississippi River was prohibited.
    • There were an equal number of slave and free states in the Union.
    • Northern congressmen were opposed to having more “slave” than “free” states.
    • A compromise was reached:
    • Missouri could have slaves if the North could admit Maine to the Union on the same day and a geographic limit could be set to limit northern expansion of slavery.
    • There were an equal number of slave and free states in the Union.
    • Northern congressmen were opposed to having more “slave” than “free” states.
    • Why?
    • A compromise was reached:
    • Missouri could have slaves if the North could admit Maine to the Union on the same day and a geographic limit could be set to limit northern expansion of slavery.
    • There were an equal number of slave and free states in the Union.
    • Northern congressmen were opposed to having more “slave” than “free” states.
    • A compromise was reached :
    • Missouri could have slaves if the North could admit Maine to the Union on the same day and a geographic limit could be set to limit northern expansion of slavery.
  • 36°30´
    • For a while, all is calm.
    Both sides are suspiciously watching each other and becoming “sides”.
  • 1845 Texas asks to join the USA as a “slave” state.
  • Mexican/American War 1846
    • Texas had declared its freedom from Mexico in 1836, and decided in 1845 to join with the USA.
  • Remember the Alamo?
  • Even though America lost this battle, we eventually won the war and acquired Texas.
  • For a while, all is calm.
  • California Gold Rush , 1849 Near modern-day Sacramento, employees of John Sutter discovered gold while building a mill. Word spread around the world, and within one year , California had such a large population, they were applying for statehood.
  • Slave or Free?
    • People from all over the world came to California. They wanted it to be a free state. The South was upset because this would give the North extreme economic power.
    Chinese Immigrants Swedish Immigrants Mexican Immigrants Japanese Immigrants
  • Compromise of 1850
    • According to the Missouri Compromise, the area below 36, 30 was supposed to allow slavery.
    • A compromise was again struck:
    • Allow California to be admitted as a free state.
    • Move the line above which a slave must run to the Canadian border.
    • Allow bounty hunters to retrieve runaway slaves.
  • Compromise of 1850
    • A compromise was again struck:
    • Allow California to be admitted as a free state.
    • Move the line above which a slave must run to the Canadian border .
    • Allow bounty hunters to retrieve runaway slaves.
    • Imposed fines for harboring fugitive slaves even if this occurred in non-slave states.
    • Ban slave sales in Washington, DC
    • The Fugitive Slave Act .
  • Natural Barriers to Escape
    • 1
    • Can’t go West.
    • Large numbers of hostile Native peoples stand between you and protection.
    • The large amount of space prevents your trip, and there is no help along the way.
  • 1
  • Natural Barriers to Escape
    • 2
    • Can’t go Middle.
    • The Great Lakes form a natural
    • (and huge!)
    • barrier to your escape route.
  • 2
  • Natural Barriers to Escape
    • 3
    • Gotta go Right.
    • Groups like the Underground Railroad were operating along the right passage.
    • However, there would now be bounty hunters and people who might be willing to turn you in for a bounty .
  • 3
  •  
    • For a while, all is calm.
    Less time is passing between problems.
  • Popular Sovereignty
    • Other folks in America felt that the best way to solve the issue of the expansion of slavery was to let the people of a new territory decide themselves .
    • A new political party arose out of this in the election of 1854. They called themselves the “Know Nothing” party.
    • One newspaper writer said the name came from the idea that “what you don’t know, can’t hurt you”.
  • Bleeding Kansas
    • As settlers moved West from Missouri, some began to take their slaves with them.
    • At the same time, Northern settlers began moving into the state. Both groups were intent on staking a claim to the best farmlands.
    • Violence erupted when an Abolitionist,
    • John Brown, led a group Northerners
    • to kill 5 slaveholders.
    Remember the 32, 30 rule? Would people be allowed to do this? How could it be stopped?
  • Bleeding Kansas
    • As settlers moved West from Kansas, they began to take their slaves with them.
    • At the same time, Northern settlers began moving into the state. Both groups were intent on staking a claim to the best farmlands.
    • Violence erupted when an Abolitionist,
    • John Brown, led a group Northerners
    • to kill 5 slaveholders.
  • Bleeding Kansas
    • Violence erupted when an Abolitionist, John Brown , led a group of Northerners to kill 5 slaveholders.
    • Brown escaped, and went
    • underground. He continued to
    • plot and plan.
    • The fight erupted on the floor of the senate when antislavery proponent Charles Sumner was beat over the head by South Carolina's Senator Preston Brooks in May of 1856.
    • Sumner spent 3 years in recovery.
    • Brooks broke his cane.
    • Southernor’s sent Brooks new canes.
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
    • Could a slave who traveled
    • into “free” territory legally
    • claim that he was now free?
    • Scott sued his master’s widow for
    • freedom in a court case that made
    • it all the way to the Supreme Court.
    • He lost. Why?
    • For another year, all is relatively calm.
  • John Brown has been called the catalyst of the Civil War. What is a catalyst?
  • John Brown’s Raid, 1859
    • John Brown leads a daring raid on an Army supply depot at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia.
    • His plan? Steal weapons and arm the slaves to begin their own bid for freedom.
  • John Brown’s Raid, 1859
  • John Brown’s Raid, 1859
    • His plan? Steal weapons and arm the slaves to begin their own bid for freedom.
    • Brown was a big fan of Nat Turner .
  • Brown is hunted down and captured by a daring young soldier, Robert E. Lee , of Virginia.
    • Brown is hung for his actions.
    • In death, he becomes a martyr to the cause of anti-slavery.
    • Here is a white man willing to die to end slavery.
    • Are there any more out there?
    • Brown is hung for his actions.
    • In death, he becomes a martyr to the cause of anti-slavery.
    • Here is a white man willing to die to end slavery.
    • Are there any more out there?
    • Brown is hung for his actions.
    • In death, he becomes a martyr to the cause of anti-slavery.
    • Here is a white man willing to die to end slavery!
    • Are there any more out there?
    • Brown is hung for his actions.
    • In death, he becomes a martyr to the cause of anti-slavery.
    • Here is a white man willing to die to end slavery.
    • Are there any more out there?
    • I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away; but with Blood.
    • I had, as I now think, vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed; it might be done.
    • Brown’s Last Words, 1859
    • Prior to his hanging
  • The dogs on both sides are awake and snarling!
  • The Election of 1860
    • America was so fractured, there were 4 main candidates running for President.
    • Two men had the possibility of winning:
    • Abraham Lincoln
    • Republican and Northerner
    • vs.
    • Stephen A. Douglas
    • Democrat and Southerner
    • Oddly, Douglas won the popular vote, but Lincoln won the Electoral vote…and the Presidency.
    Lincoln Douglas Breckinridge
    • Lincoln had run as an anti-slavery candidate.
    • He received no votes in the entire South.
    • The South saw his election as a declaration of WAR on their way of life…maybe.
    • Lincoln had run as an anti-slavery candidate.
    • He received no votes in the entire South .
    • The South saw his election as a declaration of WAR on their way of life…maybe.
    • Lincoln had run as an anti-slavery candidate.
    • He received no votes in the entire South.
    • The South saw his election as a declaration of WAR on their way of life…maybe.
  • On December 20, 1860, (one month after the election of Lincoln) South Carolina seceded from the Union. Why? Over Slavery?
  • Was the Civil War really only about slavery? Take a look at this graph…
    • Before Lincoln was even sworn in as president, seven states had seceded from the Union: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas, forming a country called the “Confederate States of America” (CSA).
    The combination of light and dark greens show where slavery was legal at the time that The Civil War broke out. * Joined CSA later. * * * *
    • Secession Animation
  • White Class Structure in the South, 1860
    • The answer, at least for some people, had to be “no”.
    • The truth lies somewhere in between two ideals:
    • The rights of men to be free, instead of slaves, and
    • The rights of states to self-determine their fates, instead of being told what to do and when to do it. This is commonly called “states’ rights”.
    • The answer, at least for some people, had to be “no”.
    • The truth lies somewhere in between two ideals:
    • The rights of men to be free, instead of slaves, and…
    • The rights of states to self-determine their fates, instead of being told what to do and when to do it. This is commonly called “states’ rights”.
    • The answer, at least for some people, had to be “no”.
    • The truth lies somewhere in between two ideals:
    • The rights of men to be free, instead of slaves, and…
    • The rights of states to self-determine their fates, instead of being told what to do and when to do it. This is commonly called “states’ rights”.
    • Within four months of Lincoln’s inauguration, America was at war with ourselves, and the fate of our nation hang in the balance.
  •  
    • The Missouri Compromise was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. Prior to the agreement, the House of Representatives had refused to accept this compromise, and a conference committee was appointed.
    • A bill to enable the people of the Missouri Territory to draft a constitution and form a government preliminary to admission into the Union came before the House of Representatives in Committee of the Whole, on February 13, 1819. An amendment offered by James Tallmadge of New York (which was named the Tallmadge Amendment ), which provided that the further introduction of slaves into Missouri should be forbidden, and that all children of slave parents born in the state after its admission should be free at the age of 25, was adopted by the committee and incorporated in the bill as finally passed on February 17, 1819, by the house. The United States Senate refused to concur in the amendment, and the whole measure was lost.
    • During the following session (1819–1820), the House passed a similar bill with an amendment, introduced on January 26, 1820 by John W. Taylor of New York, allowing Missouri into the union as a slave state. The question had been complicated by the admission in December of Alabama, a slave state, making the number of slave and free states equal. In addition, there was a bill in passage through the House (January 3, 1820) to admit Maine as a free state.
    • The Senate decided to connect the two measures. It passed a bill for the admission of Maine with an amendment enabling the people of Missouri to form a state constitution. Before the bill was returned to the House, a second amendment was adopted on the motion of Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois, excluding slavery from the Missouri Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north (the southern boundary of Missouri), except within the limits of the proposed state of Missouri.
  • The Missouri Compromise, 1820
    • The Mexican–American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
    • American forces quickly occupied New Mexico and California, then invaded parts of Northeastern Mexico and Northwest Mexico; meanwhile, the Pacific Squadron conducted a blockade, and took control of several garrisons on the Pacific coast further south in Baja California. After Mexico would still not agree to the cession of its northern territories, another American army captured Mexico City, resulting in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
    • American territorial expansion to the Pacific coast was the goal of President James K. Polk, the leader of the Democratic Party. However, the war was highly controversial in the U.S., with the Whig Party and anti-slavery elements strongly opposed. Heavy American casualties and high monetary cost were also criticized. The major consequence of the war was the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $18 million. In addition, the United States forgave debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico accepted the Rio Grande as its national border, and the loss of Texas. The political aftermath of the war raised the slavery issue in the U.S., leading to intense debates that pointed to civil war.
  • The Mexican Cession, 1848
    • The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five bills, passed in September 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846–1848).
    • Texas surrendered its claim to New Mexico, which it had threatened war over, as well as its claims north of the Missouri Compromise Line, transferred its crushing public debt to the federal government, and retained the control over El Paso that it had established earlier in 1850, with the Texas Panhandle (which earlier compromise proposals had detached from Texas) thrown in at the last moment.
    • California's application for admission as a free state with its current boundaries was approved and a Southern proposal to split California at parallel 35° north to provide a Southern territory was not approved.
    • Two new territories, New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory could in principle decide in the future to become slave states (popular sovereignty).
    • The Southern states demanded a strong Fugitive Slave Act.
    • Slave ownership remained legal in Washington, D.C.
    • Slave trade was banned in Washington D.C.
  • The Compromise of 1850
    • The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through Popular Sovereignty if they would allow slavery within each territory. The act was designed by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois. The initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to open up many thousands of new farms and enable the creation of a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad.
    • It became a problem when popular sovereignty was written into the proposal so that the voters of the moment would decide whether slavery would be allowed. The result was that pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down, leading to a bloody civil war there.
    • The conflicts within the two new territories are historically called, “Bleeding Kansas”.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • The United States presidential election of 1860 was held on November 6, 1860, for the office of President of the United States and the “final straw” for the outbreak of the American Civil War. The nation had been divided throughout the 1850s on questions surrounding the expansion of slavery and the rights of slave owners.
    • In 1860, these issues finally came to a head. As a result of conflicting regional interests, the Democratic Party broke into Northern and Southern factions, and a new Constitutional Union Party appeared. In the face of a divided opposition, the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured enough electoral votes to put Abraham Lincoln in the White House with very little support from the South.
    • Within a few months of the election, seven Southern states, led by South Carolina, responded with declarations of secession, which was rejected as illegal by outgoing President James Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln. Four additional Southern states seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter.
  • The Election of 1860
    • The Confederate States of America — South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas — formed a "permanent federal government" in Montgomery, Alabama. In response to a call by Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Fort Sumter and other lost federal properties in the South, four additional slave-holding states — Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina — declared their secession and joined the Confederacy.
    • Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions (volunteer forces) from those states. Also aligned with the Confederacy were the Five Civilized Tribes and a new Confederate Territory of Arizona Efforts to secede in Maryland were halted by armed militia. Delaware, though of divided loyalty, did not attempt it. West Virginia separated from the Confederate state of Virginia in 1863 and aligned with the Union.
  • The 11 Confederate States of America The 20 United States of America