INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERSThe students will be able to :1) define the computer2) define the computer hardware3) label or name the computer hardware4) identify 4 main functions of computer hardware5) classify the computer hardware according to theirfunctions6) define the computer software7) identify 2 types of software and their functions8) define the Operating System9) identify 2 categories of Operating System10) list the Operating System according to the categories11) explain how the computer works
1) What is a computer ? A computer is a device that able to interprate instruction in the form of digital data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instruction on how data is to be processed. Shortly computer is a device that accepts input, processes data, store data and produce output. For more details, explore CD “Introduction to Computer “. Computer System consists of : ◦ a) Computer Hardware ◦ b) Computer Software.
1.1) Computer Hardware Hardware is the physical aspect of computers, telecommunications and other information technology devices.
4 Types of Hardware Device PROCESSI NG MEMOR YMous STORAG e E Printer Floppy Disk Hard Disk
1) Input Devices ◦ The computer accepts input. Using an input device to input such as letters, numbers, instructions and etc ◦ Example of input devices : Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick, Scanner, Touch pad, Touch Screen 2)Processing Devices ◦ The computer processes data by using Central Processing Unit (CPU).In microcomputer, the CPU is a single integrated and circuit called a microprocessor. ◦ The microprocessor retrieves the inputs, and then process it’s by following the instructions. The result will temporarily held in memory. From memory the result can be output or stored. ◦ Example of microprocessor : 3) Output Devices ◦ The computer produces output. Using output devices, the computer produces the result of processing. ◦ Example of output devices: Printer, Monitor 4) Storage Devices ◦ The computer stores data. When data is not needed for immediate processing, it is stored on disk or tape. ◦ Example of storage devices: floppy disk, compact disk, hard disk, magnetic tape
1.2) Computer Software Software is general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices. 2 Types of Computer Software : ◦ System Software ◦ Application Software
1.2.1) System Software System software is the category software containing programs that perform tasks essential to the efficient functioning of computer hardware. System software includes the programs that direct the fundamental operations of a computer, such as displaying information on the screen, storing data on disks, sending data to the printer, interpreting commands typed by users, and communicating with peripheral devices. There 2 subcategories of System Software: ◦ Operating System An Operating system is the software that control the computer’s use of its hardware resources such as memory and disk storage space ◦ Utilities Utilities are designed to augment the operating system by providing a way for a computer user to control the allocation and use of hardware resources
Categories of Operating System : ◦ Standalone Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7 Ubuntu (Linux) Mac OS ◦ Networking Windows Server 2003, 2008. Fedora Linux Unix Utilities ◦ Some utilities are included with the operating system, device drivers, they perform tasks such as preparing disk to hold data, providing information about the files on disk, and copying data from one disks to another. ◦ Example: Winzip, WinRAR (compressing file) AVG, AVIRA, AVAST, F-SECURE, KASPERSKY – Antivirus K-Lite Codec Pack – Media codec for PC
1.2.2) Application Software The computer is a multipurpose machine. It is application software that enables the computer to become a multipurpose machine and to perform many different tasks. Application software helps you produce document, perform calculations, manage financial resources, create graphics, compose music, play games, maintain files on information, and so on.
Types of ComputerApplicationTypes Tasks SoftwareWord Processing Produce documents : Microsoft Word, Word letters, reports etc Perfect, OpenOfficeSpreadsheet Perform analyze data, Microsoft Excel, Lotus graphical. 1-2-3Database Store data, organize Microsoft Access, information Dbase, FileMaker ProPresentation Provide tools to make Microsoft Powerpoint, presentation slidesWeb development Design and customize Adobe Dreamweaver web pagePhoto Editing Edit, add effect to Adobe Photoshop, photos GIMPProgramming To make an Visual Basic, PHP, application JAVAE-learning Provide self learning Authorware, software Courselab
How The Computer WorksThe Computer INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT STORAGE Network INTERNE T
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