Ciett Economic Report 2014

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The Ciett Economic report provides a comprehensive overview of the private employment services industry around the world. The 2014 report is based on some key data available from 2013, and more in depth data over the year 2012.

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Ciett Economic Report 2014

  1. 1. Economic Report 2014 Edition (Based on data of 2012/2013)
  2. 2. 2 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report CONTENTS Table of 4 Introduction 6 The key facts and figures 8 The private employment services market in 2012/2013 26 The private employment services industry 20 Agency work as leading indicator of the economy 1 3 2
  3. 3. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 3 32 The profiles of agency workers and their assignments 44 Satisfaction and motivation of agency workers 4 5 52 About Ciett 54 About “The Way to Work” 56 Ciett National Federation Members 58 Glossary of used terms, acronyms and country codes
  4. 4. 4 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report Dear reader, It is our pleasure to present you with the 2014 annual Ciett economic report. This report will provide you with a comprehensive overview of the agency work industry around the world. It combines some key data that was available from 2013 with more in depth data from 2012. As the International Confederation of Private Employment Services, Ciett represents a sector that is today the Way to Work for more than 36 million workers around the world. Since its establishment in 1967 Ciett has been providing data about the industry, while this is the 7th economic report. The picture that emerges over the years is one of a robust industry that clearly relates to market volatility. Even so much so, that agency work is considered to be a leading economic indicator. Considering this, it is promising that the US Staffing Employment Index is at its highest point in the past five years, just as the number of agency workers in Japan, while the European Agency Work Business Indicator has also started an upward trajectory. Together these three markets represent 82% of the worldwide market. These cautious signs of economic recovery are welcome news not only for our industry, but also for millions of workers and jobseekers around the world. Agency work has proven to be a strong enabler of labour market transitions – from unemployment into work, and from temporary work into long lasting careers. Linked to this, Ciett and its members presented in 2011 the Way to Work – A job for every person and a person for every job. The Way to Work consists of 5 global pledges by the private employment services around the world, over the course of five years (2011-2016) to: INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 5 Support 280MILLIONPEOPLE in their job life Help 75MILLIONYOUNGPEOPLE enter the labour market UP-SKILL65MILLIONPEOPLE, giving them more work choices Create 18MILLIONMOREJOBS SERVE13MILLIONCOMPANIES with the right talents to succeed You can read more about the Way to Work and our pledges on pages 54-55. We hope you enjoy this report in its entirety, but with befitting pride, we would like to draw your special attention to chapter 5, digging into satisfaction and motivation of agency workers. After all, what is more rewarding to see than that on average 80% of workers would recommend agency work to their familiy and friends? Sincerely, Fred van Haasteren, Ciett President Annemarie Muntz, Eurociett President Denis Pennel, Ciett & Eurociett Managing Director
  6. 6. KEY FACTS FIGURES& AGENCY WORK in GLOBAL ANNUAL SALES REVENUE € 299.3 Bn US 28.9% EUR 36.5% 16.6% JP 11.5 million jobs 36MILLION WORKERS inagencywork worldwide Infull-time equivalent SHARE OF GLOBAL MARKET 2012 6 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report For more information, see chapter 1 For more information, see chapter 3 For more information, see chapter 3
  7. 7. JAPANUSA EUROPE PENETRATION RATES 1.4% 2.0% 1.6% 80% would RECOMMEND AGENCY WORK to family or friends (avg.over6countriessurveyed) 137,300Agencies 203,500Branches 624,500InternalStaff 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 7 For more information, see chapter 1 For more information, see chapter 5 For more information, see chapter 3
  8. 8. developments in 2012/2013 SERVICES MARKET THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT 1 8 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report
  9. 9. This chapter combines some recent (2013) figures with more in depth data over the year 2012. This combination shows that just as the global economy, the private employment services industry has been through some rough times, but that IN 2013, THE BIGGEST MARKETS – THE USA, EUROPE AND JAPAN – ALL SHOWED CAUTIOUS SIGNS OF RECOVERY. November 2013 November 2013 Q3 2013 Y-O-Y GROWTH PENETRATIONRATES EUR 1.4% EUR 1.6% US 6.9% US 2.0% JP 26% JP 1.4% 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 9
  10. 10. 10 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 1 THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN 2012/2013 USA market grows in 2013 The US Staffing Employment Index was set at 100 in 2006. The agency work sector reached 102 in November of 2013, which is its highest position in six years. Exactly 12 months before that, the index stood at 95. Staffing had grown 6.9% y-o-y in November 2013. The index has not yet reached the same level as before the 2008 crisis though. Employing on average over 2.9 million agency workers each business day in 2012, the USA remains the single biggest market for agency work around the world. USA: US Staffing Employment Index (Set at 100 on 6/12/2006) 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 July2006 Oct.2006 Jan.2006 April2007 July2007 Oct.2007 Jan.2007 April2008 July2008 Oct.2008 Jan.2008 April2009 July2009 Oct.2009 Jan.2009 April2010 July2010 Oct.2010 Jan.2010 April2011 July2011 Oct.2011 Jan.2011 April2012 July2012 Oct.2012 Jan.2012 April2013 July2013 Oct.2013 Source: American Staffing Association growth 6.9% Y-O-Y IN NOVEMBER 2013
  11. 11. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 11 European market shows cautious upward trend in 2013 In Europe, the monthly Agency Work Business Indicator, showing the year on year growth in the number of hours worked in a range of European countries, shows an upward trend. In October 2013 the first positive growth since December 2011 was recorded at 0.6%; in November this accelerated to 1.4% growth. European Agency Work Business Indicator: Evolution of hours worked, year-on-year change 60% 40% 20% 0% -20% -40% Jan.2007 April2008 July2008 Oct.2008 Jan.2008 April2009 July2009 Oct.2009 Jan.2009 April2010 July2010 Oct.2010 Jan.2010 April2011 July2011 Oct.2011 Jan.2011 April2012 July2012 Oct.2012 Jan.2012 April2013 July2013 Oct.2013 Source: Ciett national federations European average 1.4% Y-O-Y growth IN NOVEMBER 2013 no -7.0% de -6.7% ch -0.7% fr 1.5% nl 1.0% be 4.8% it 9.0% dk 14.0% pl 19.3%
  12. 12. 12 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 1 THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN 2012/2013 In 2013 Japanese market hits record high since 2008 The absolute number of agency workers in Japan has reached 1.1 mln in Q3 of 2013, a growth of 26% compared to Q3 2012. Q1 of 2013 showed a record high with 1.24 mln since Q4 of 2008. The downturn between 2008 and 2013 was caused by the economic crisis as well as restrictive regulation on the use of dispatched (agency) workers. Based on the number of agency workers (in 2012), Japan is the fifth market in the world. By turnover however, Japan ranks second with 17% of total annual sales revenue. Please note that for comparison an index (USA), year on year growth (European Agency Work Business Indicator) and absolute numbers (Japan) are three different indicators, which cannot be compared one on one. The Japanese ministry of Health, Labor and Wel- fare provides alternative figures to the Japanese ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Post and Telecommunications. The latest availa- ble figures there are for 2011: 1,321,892 (FTE). Japan: Number of agency workers x 1000 (FTE) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Jan.2002 April2002 July2002 Oct.2002 Jan.2002 April2003 July2003 Oct.2003 Jan.2003 April2004 July2004 Oct.2004 Jan.2004 April2005 July2005 Oct.2005 Jan.2005 April2006 July2006 Oct.2006 Jan.2006 April2007 July2007 Oct.2007 Jan.2007 April2008 July2008 Oct.2008 Jan.2008 April2009 July2009 Oct.2009 Jan.2009 April2010 July2010 Oct.2010 Jan.2010 April2011 July2011 Oct.2011 Jan.2011 April2012 July2012 Oct.2012 Jan.2012 April2013 July2013 Oct.2013 Source: Japan Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications 26% Y-O-Y growth IN Q3 2013
  13. 13. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 13 Penetration rate developing differently across regions The penetration rate is the amount of agency workers as a share of the total working population. In different regions, different trends can be observed. This is due to economic reasons as well as regulatory influences. Since 1996 penetration rates in these three key markets have been converging to a certain extent. In 2008 all markets experienced a significant decrease due to the economic crisis. The market in the USA has so far seen the best recovery among the three. European average excludes Russia. If included, average would be 1.2% Historic series European average was revised Agency work penetration rate in key markets 1996-2012 2,5% 2,0% 1,5% 1,0% 0,5% 0,0% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2205 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Ciett national federations; ILO - ILOSTAT Database, 2013. eur 1.6% jp 1.4% us 2.0% US 2.0% EUR 1.6% JP 1.4%
  14. 14. 14 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 1 THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN 2012/2013 Source: Ciett national federations 36 8,246,000 EUR CL(5) 9,600 AR 85,300 RU(5) 303,700CA(6) 425,000 KR(5) 462,400 CO 595,600 JP 2,504,200 BR 7,104,000 US 11,500,000 ZA 2,210,900 MX 1,644,300 UY(5) 71,400 AU 436,000 NZ 100,000 PE(5) 374,000 CN(2) Almost 36 million people worked in agency work in 2012 The total number of agency workers in 2012 is significantly lower than in 2011 (1) . With 11.5 mln workers, the USA employs the largest number of people in 2012. Brazil is still second, as in 2011, but with less than 60% of the amount of workers it employed in 2011. South America and Europe both represent around 23% of the total amount of workers. The Asia/Pacific region employs another 10%. (1) Based on 43 countries (2) Number of workers for China was not included due to a lack of reliable and comparable data. Estimates for China are around 27 million workers (Source: Staffing Industry Analysts). (3) UK calculates total number of agency workers on a given moment. (4) Bulgaria: FTE's. (5) 2011. (6) 2010 World: Total number of individuals employed million workers
  15. 15. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 15 Source: Ciett national federations LV 1,300 EE 5,000 LT(3) 7,700 BG(2) 10,000 GR 12,000 LU 18,570 MK(3) 49,000 SK 49,700 IE 70,000 DK(3) 93,400 NO 99,900 FI 100,000 UK(1) 1,128,500 SE 135,100 CZ 190,000 SI(3) 211,200 RO(3) 220,000CH 297,200 101,500 HU AT(3) 324,400 BE 352,000 PT(3) 352,000 ES 410,600 IT 470,000 PL 509,300NL(3) 767,100 DE 877,600 FR 2,000,000 RU(3) 303,700 Europe: Total number of individuals employed (1) UK calculates total number of agency workers on a given moment. (2) Bulgaria: FTE's. (3) 2011.
  16. 16. 16 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 1 THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN 2012/2013 World: Daily average number of agency workers (FTE) EUROPE 4.1 MILLION 35% ASIA/PACIFIC 1.8 MILLION 20% NORTH AMERICA 3.0 MILLION 25% AFRICA 1.2 MILLION 10% US 2,910,000 CL 2,200 NZ 7,800 RU(2) 92,300 CA(5) 99,000 AU 327,000 IN 500,000 BR 592,000 JP 900,000 ZA 1,220,200 AR(5) 69,100 CO(5) 514,200 PE(5) 85,000 MX 137,000 UY(5) 16,200 KR(5) 106,600 Agency workers filled 11.5 million full-time jobs in 2012 In 2012, around the world 11.5 million workers were employed daily as an agency worker (1) . That is a slight decrease from 2011 (12.4 million). Considering the bigger decrease in the total amount of workers, this means that on average, the number of hours for each agency worker has increased. (1) Based on 46 countries (2) Russia is part of European total (3) Germany: total number of individuals (4) UK calculates total number of agency workers at a given moment. (5) 2011. Source: Ciett national federations
  17. 17. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 17 LV 300 LT 2,000 EE 4,000 HR 4,300 GR 6,900 BG 10,000 DK 14,700 RO 16,200SK(4) 18,500 TR 20,000 NO 25,000 FI(4) 29,000 SI(4) 48,000 FR 525,100 DE(2) 873,400 UK(3) 1,128,500 MK(4) 49,000 SE 61,100 HU(4) 68,000 CH 73,300 AT 78,400 ES 78,800 PT(4) 80,000 PL 159,600 IT 207,000 NL 227,000 IE 26,000 BE 84,800 LU 5,700 CZ 45,000 RU(1) 92,300 Europe: Daily average number of agency workers (FTE) SOUTH AMERICA 1.4 MILLION 10% WORLD 11.5 MILLION 10%100% Source: Ciett national federations (1) Russia is part of European total (2) Germany: total number of individuals (3) UK calculates total number of agency workers at a given moment. (4) 2011.
  18. 18. 18 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 1 THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN 2012/2013 World: Agency work penetration rate, 2005-2012 RUSSIA 0.1% 9.2% 1.6% 0.1% 11.9% 1.4% 2.9% 0.4% 0.6% 2.0% 0.3% 0.6% 2.9% 0.5% 0.6% 0.4% 0.5% 1.0% SOUTH AFRICA USA CANADA MEXICO CHILE URUGUAY EUROPE(2) INDIA CHINA(3) SOUTH KOREA JAPAN AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND ARGENTINA BRAZIL PERU COLOMBIA 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Ciett national federations; ILO - ILOSTAT Database, 2013. 0.9% world AVERAGE PENETRATION RATE Many markets relatively stable Penetration rates are quite stable in most markets around the world. South Africa is a big exception, with a growth from 7.7% to 9.2%. Most other markets show either only minimal growth or a decline in penetration rate in 2012. Most notably, penetration rates have gone down in Brazil and in Europe. The global average has gone down from 1.0% to 0.9% (1) . (1) Based on 46 countries. Global average excludes China due to lack of reliable data. Including China, average would be 2.0%. (2) European average excludes Russia. If included, average would be 1.2%. Historic series Euro- pean average was revised (3) China estimate Staffing Industry Analysts
  19. 19. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 19 Europe: Agency work penetration rate, 2005-2012 PORTUGAL FRANCE LUXEMBOURG NETHERLANDS CZECH REP. LITHUANIA LATVIA ESTONIA HUNGARY AUSTRIA POLAND FINLAND NORWAY DENMARK CROATIA BULGARIA MACEDONIA GREECE ITALY IRELAND BELGIUM GERMANY ROMANIA SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SPAIN SWEDEN SWITZERLAND TURKEY UK 1.4% 0.5% 3.8% 1.0% 0.5% 2.2% 0.03% 0.6% 0.9% 1.2% 1.3% 0.1% 0.2% 1.0% 0.3% 0.2% 2.4% 0.2% 0.3% 1.7% 2.7% 1.9% 1.9% 2.0% 0.9% 0.8% 1.8% 0.5% 0.8% 1.7% RUSSIA 0.1% 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Ciett national federations; ILO - ILOSTAT Database, 2013. 1.6% Europe AVERAGE PENETRATION RATE
  20. 20. A LEADING INDICATOR AGENCY WORK AS 2of the economy 20 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report
  21. 21. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 21 In times of economic recovery, available work is often first turned into jobs by agency work. THIS IS WHY AGENCY WORK IS A LEADING ECONOMIC INDICATOR: a rise in GDP will more or less coincide with a rise in the number of hours worked by agency workers. Total employment levels will often pick up and follow the same trend– only after several months. The following graphs also show that agency work is a catalyst rather than substitute of job growth. PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES HAVE DEVELOPED AS PART OF THE SOLUTION TO MEET AN INCREASED VOLATILITY IN LABOUR DEMAND AND TO SUPPORT ORGANISATIONS IN ADAPTING TO THE IMPACT THAT EACH CYCLE HAS ON THEIR EMPLOYMENT LEVELS. European Commission European Social Situation Quarterly Review, March 2012
  22. 22. 22 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 2 AGENCY WORK AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF THE ECONOMY Agency work returns to positive growth as unemployment growth slows down In Q3 2013, EU unemployment levels rose by 4.9% compared with the same period in 2012. This means a slowdown in the negative trend. In the meantime, the growth of hours worked by agency workers is nearing zero, which is an improvement from previous periods. This data continues to display an inverse relationship between unemployment levels in the EU and the amount of agency work being carried out. Recent months have displayed negative growth, while at the same time, year on year unemployment levels have risen. In other words, a rising number of agency work hours generally occurs when unemployment goes down. 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% 30% -40% Jan.2008 April2008 July2008 Oct.2008 Jan.2009 April2009 July2009 Oct.2009 Jan.2010 April2010 July2010 Oct.2010 Jan.2011 April2011 July2011 Oct.2011 Jan.2012 April2012 July2012 Oct.2012 Jan.2013 April2013 July2013 Oct.2013 EVOLUTION OF AW HOURS WORKED - EUROPE Y-O-Y CHANGE IN UNEMPLOYMENT (EU 28) Europe: Evolution of number of hours worked by agency workers versus average EU 28 unemployment change (year on year) Source: Ciett national federations; Eurostat
  23. 23. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 23 USA: Agency work precedes general employment trend The agency work industry will usually respond quicker to economic trends – both positive and negative - than general employment. For example, in the 2009 recession, agency work started growing again in September, which was about 6 months before general employment. The flexibility that agency work offers gives businesses an opportunity to turn newly available work into real jobs. This also means that agency work can be considered a leading economic indicator. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics uses the term Temporary help services rather than agency work. 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 150,000 120,000 90,000 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2205 2007 2009 2011 2013 AGENCY WORK TOTAL NONFARM EMPLOYMENT Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Recessions (shaded periods) USA: Total employment versus agency work, in thousands
  24. 24. 24 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 2 AGENCY WORK AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF THE ECONOMY Europe: agency work mirrors economic growth In Q3 of 2013, agency work in Europe declined by 0.5%, which was the best result since 2011. Coincidentally, GDP development in Europe also saw its best result since 2013, with 0.3% growth. These figures show a continuing pattern between the year on year growth rate of EU 28 GDP and the evolution of the number of hours worked by agency workers in Europe. This reflects that agency work is not a substitute companies use in bad times, but a useful service that will be used more if the economy prospers. Europe: evolution of number of hours worked by agency workers (year-on-year) versus evolution of GDP volume EU28 6% 4% 2% 0 -2% -4% -6% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% Jan.2008 April2008 July2008 Oct.2008 Jan.2009 April2009 July2009 Oct.2009 Jan.2010 April2010 July2010 Oct.2010 Jan.2011 April2011 July2011 Oct.2011 Jan.2012 April2012 July2012 Oct.2012 Jan.2013 April2013 July2013 Oct.2013 EVOLUTION OF AW HOURS WORKED - EUROPE EVOLUTION OF GDP VOLUME - EU28 Source: Ciett national federations; Eurostat
  25. 25. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 25 Agency work is a leading economic indicator The agency work industry is considered to be hyper-cyclical, meaning that it follows the same trends as employment and GDP, while troughs are deeper and peaks are higher. Since changes in the amount of agency work usually occur simultaneously with changes in GDP and before changes in general employment, agency work is an important indicator of what the nearby future will bring. USA: Evolution of agency work compared to GDP and total employment Source: National Bureau of Economic Research, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis and U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 AGENCY WORK GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT NONFARM EMPLOYMENT Recessions (shaded periods)
  26. 26. 26 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report services INDUSTRY 3THE Private Employment
  27. 27. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 27 Private employment services offer their broad range of services around the world. Although activities may differ according to local situations, people are always at the core of their work. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for agencies to have dedicated and EXPERT STAFF AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, where they can be in touch with jobseekers as well as with the companies they serve. 137,300 agencies 203,500 branches 624,500 internalstaff
  28. 28. 28 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 3 THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE INDUSTRY 17,000 50,000 120,000 US 4,484 NZ 79 500 3,680 AR 170(1) 214(2) 2,560(1) PE 194(1) 112(2) 3,142(1) CL 595 221 CO 750 2,000 CA 800 250 3,511 MX 1,398 2,356 35,340 BR 1,813(1) 1,983(2) 9,000(1) KR 2,329 4,272 16,139 ZA 3,300 7,000 15,000 AU 49,000(5) CN 20,000 150,000 JP 20 1,279 RU Source: Ciett national federations World: number of private employment agencies, branches and internal staff Private employment services operate a close- knit network around the world In 2012, there were almost 137,300 private employment agencies around the world, which is about the same as in 2011. These had in total 203,500 local branches, where 624,500 internal staff were available to find a job for every person, and a person for every job. This means that private employment services have a very widespread network of labour market specialists covering many corners of the earth. Local branches ensure a deep knowledge of the local labour market, while there are many regional, national and international networks that help workers gain a broader perspective. (1) 2011 (2) 2010 (3) 2009 (4) Only members represented (5) Source: Staffing Industry Analysts 137,300 agencies 203,500 branches
  29. 29. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 29 Source: Ciett national federations Europe: number of private employment agencies, branches and internal staff 18,180 14,009 93,360 52 61 470(2) BG 60 70 170 EE 102 109 315 LV 129(3) 66 655 RO 210 4,000 IE 250 1,274 6,400 BE 265(1) 750(2) PT 300 50 1,500 TR 302 880 ES 355(3) 465(2) SI 481(4) 5,845 34,000(1) NL 500(1) 2,500 FI 530 1,300 5,060 SE 867 3,877 HU 700 900 2,298 NO 966 1,136 DK 1,155 194(2) SK 1,297 1,952(1) 400(2) AT 1,490 1,700 3,800 CZ 1,500 6,900 20,000 FR 3,971 4,100(1) PL 6,694 11,218 55,000 DE UK 97 2,669 11,000 IT 45 75 309 LU 17 22 85 HR 10 11 155 GR 27(3) MK 32 40 159 LT 624,500 internalstaff (1) 2011 (2) 2010 (3) 2009 (4) Only members represented (5) Staffing Industry Analysts
  30. 30. 30 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 3 THE PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE INDUSTRY Percentage of global annual sales revenue in 2012 1.8% BR 1.9% IN 5.3% AU 16.6% JP 28.9% US 3.7% NL 10.5% UK 6.1% FR 6.8% DE 1.9% IT 3.5% CA USA grows at the expense of Europe The USA is still the biggest market in the world, with about 28.9% of total annual sales revenue. This is up from 23% last year. Europe now represents 36.5% of the world market, which is down from 41% last year. Canada was a growing market in 2012, while the market in Brazil severely shrunk, resulting in only 1.8% of the total annual sales revenue. 4 299.3 Bn Globalannualsalesrevenuein2012 Source: Ciett national federations US BR IT IN NL AU FR DE UK JP REST OF WORLD: 18.4% CA
  31. 31. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 31 Global annual sales revenue up since 2012 The total agency work sector was worth 1 299.3 Bn in 2013, up from 1 259 Bn in 2012. The top 10 firms took up about 27.5% of the total, the top 3 represented 17.9% of global annual sales revenue. Top 10 firms sales revenue in 2013 – billion of 4 Source: “Largest Global Staffing Firms 2013”, Staffing IndustryAnalysts 2.9 2.8 2.0 20.5 17.1 16.1 7.4 4.9 4.5 4.2 Adecco Randstad M anpow er Allegis GroupRecruit Hays PLC Kelly ServicesUSG PeopleRobertHalfTem pstaff
  32. 32. 32 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report The Profiles of AGENCY WORKERS 4
  33. 33. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 33 People doing agency work have very diverse backgrounds. Often, the type of people doing agency work depends on the country, and the sector or the company looking for agency workers. However, it is clear that agency workers are relatively young. This is not surprising, since agency work is often seen as an important stepping stone onto the labour market. As such, AGENCY WORK SUPPORTS PEOPLE IN SEVERAL IMPORTANT TYPES OF TRANSITIONS IN THE LABOUR MARKET: from education to work, from unemployment to work, and from short term employment into longer lasting careers. The importance of smooth transitions is growing in a changing world of work. For companies, being able to efficiently adapt to changing workloads is the most important reason to use agency workers. TODAY, ABOUT HALF OF THE GLOBAL WORKFORCE IS ENGAGED IN WAGED EMPLOYMENT, BUT MANY DO NOT WORK FULL TIME FOR A SINGLE EMPLOYER. THE SUPPOSEDLY “ATYPICAL” HAS BECOME TYPICAL; THE “STANDARD” HAS BECOME THE EXCEPTION. Mr Guy Ryder, ILO Director General in his speech at the 2013 International Labour Conference on the future of work. 61% OF AGENCY WORKERS ARE under 30 WERE EMPLOYED before, after AGENCY WORK ON AVERAGE, 32% 68%
  34. 34. 34 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 4 THE PROFILE OF AGENCY WORKERS AND THEIR ASSIGNMENTS Gender balance of agency workers 50 50 50 50 32 68 36 64 45 55 56 44 48 52 51 49 78 22 74 26 50 50 43 57 72 28 60 40 72 28 52 48 62 38 70 30 48 52 42 58 45 55 62 38 72 28 52 48 55 45 54 46 40 60 43 57 45 55 US MX AR BR ES ZA IT GR 41 59HU AT CH BG FR LU PL BE UK NL DE CZ NO SE FI LV EE LT AU NZ JP RU FEMALE MALE AVERAGE AGENCY WORKER genderbalance Gender balance varies greatly, depending on types of use of agency work Gender balance among agency workers depends on many aspects, such as the socio-economic fabric of society, and economic history or tradition. For example, in some countries agency work is mostly done by women who might drop out of the labour market once they start families (e.g. Japan), or by mothers who want to take care of their family and want a flexible work next to that. Typically, countries where agency workers are mostly employed in the services sector tend to have more female agency workers, while countries where agency work is used more in the construction or manufacturing sectors have more male agency workers. Source: Ciett national federations 54% 46%
  35. 35. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 35 Agency workers tend to be young In most countries, the majority of agency workers is under 30. Worldwide, on average 61%. South Africa, India and Finland are striking examples of this trend. South Africa has only 2% of workers over 30, India 18% and Finland 11%. On the other hand, some exceptions include Spain, Germany, Luxembourg, France, Japan and New Zealand. Typically, most of these countries with older agency workers have a well established agency work sector. In these countries, agency work is generally considered to be a good and viable alternative to other types of employment. (1) Germany: Categories are: 20; 20-29; 30-39; 40-49; ≥50 (2) Poland: Categories are: 25; 25-50; 50 (3) Italy, Netherlands, Norway: bottom category is: 25. Age of agency workers BE BG CZ EE FI FR DE(1) GR IT(3) LV LU NL(3) NO(3) PL(2) RO ES SE CH UK AR BR CN CO IN JP MX NZ ZA US › 45 31 - 45 26 - 30 21 - 25 ‹ 21 NO DATA Under30 WORLDWIDE61% Source: Ciett national federations
  36. 36. 36 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 4 THE PROFILE OF AGENCY WORKERS AND THEIR ASSIGNMENTS Agency work helps unemployed find jobs and remain in employment People who start doing agency work out of unemployment will often remain employed after their assignment. Germany, South Africa, Greece and Sweden are the strongest examples of this stepping stone function of agency work. In South Africa, 60% of people starting agency work were unemployed before, while only 8% of people return to unemployment. The industry has a strong track record in providing labour market transitions from unemployment to work, as well as from work to long term careers. Many examples, including Norway, Portugal and France show that the amount of agency workers who remain in employment after agency work is far higher than those who were employed before agency work. So agency work is not only a short time solution, but provides a stepping stone into long term employment. Employed / unemployed before after agency work FR NO DE BR CZ CH NL ZA GR SE BE LU PT 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 42 8 67 65 56 59 73 81 61 77 69 71 20 36 49 51 21 33 44 18 43 38 56 19 27 26 12 60 34 33 26 25 17 15 15 14 8 8 6 5 BEFORE AFTER % of agency workers that are employed (either with a temp, fixed-term or open-ended contracts) before and 12 months after temping % of agency workers that are officially registered as unemployed before and 12 months after temping Source: Ciett national federations BEFOREBEFORE AFTERAFTER 32% 35% 68% 14%Unemployed Employed
  37. 37. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 37 Agency workers are medium to high educated On average, 27% of agency workers completed higher education, which is more than the still significant group of 23% of agency workers without secondary education. This shows that agency work can play an important role in helping both low- and high- skilled workers to get valuable experiences on the labour market. Educational attainment level of workers high-to-low HIGH [COMPLETED HIGHER EDUCATION] MEDIUM [COMPLETED SECONDARY EDUCATION] LOW [NOT COMPLETED SECONDARY EDUCATION] UNKNOWN / OTHER Source: Ciett national federations 19% 28% 3% 4% 5% 7% 8% 10% 15% 15% 49% 50% 70% 89% 42% 30% 65% 67% 29% 18% 25% 4% 50% 60% 20% 18% 19% 16% 19% 19% 23% 30% 30% 32% 33% 39% 22% 46% 46% 60% 40% 42% 59% 45% 59% 35% 12% 10% 30% 26% 9% 2% 37% 39% 45% 50% 50% 52% 54% 49% 43% 48% 40% 40% 43% 26% 14% 18% 5% 10% 10% 5% 20% COMPLETED HIGHER EDUCATION COMPLETED SECONDARY EDUCATION DID NOT COMPLETE SECONDARY EDUCATION 27% 50% 23% HUDE FR GR AG NL MX ZA RO SE CZ EE AU LU NZ BG BR US NO FI RU IN ES
  38. 38. 38 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 4 THE PROFILE OF AGENCY WORKERS AND THEIR ASSIGNMENTS Agency workers are relatively evenly distributed in low, medium and high skilled jobs On average, 42% of agency work requires medium skill levels. Low skilled work accounts for about 35%, high skilled work for 23%. The skill level required often has a relation to the sector where agency work mostly takes place. Luxembourg for example has a big share of agency work in the construction sector, and in Argentina many agency workers work in manufacturing, and both countries have a larger share of low skilled work. Skill level required for temporary agency worker jobs Source: Ciett national federations HIGH SKILLED MEDIUM SKILLED LOW SKILLED 23% 42% 35% HIGH [COMPLETED HIGHER EDUCATION] MEDIUM [COMPLETED SECONDARY EDUCATION] LOW [NOT COMPLETED SECONDARY EDUCATION] UNKNOWN / OTHER 1% 1% 5% 8% 9% 10% 17% 17% 20% 5% 12% 40% 40% 86% 40% 58% 6% 50% 94% 87% 55% 52% 5% 50% 25% 77% 30% 1% 20% 29% 30% 32% 35% 40% 43% 50% 60% 31% 30% 49% 54% 40% 41% 40% 20% 39% 40% 19% 11% 20% 16% 10% HULU ZAAG BR LTES CZ EE NO SERO GR MXAU NZ BG
  39. 39. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 39 70% of temporary agency work assignments are over 1 month The length of individual assignments vary greatly accross countries, but on average, only 30% of assignments are under one month duration, while 41% is over three months. Naturally, an agency worker can do multiple consecutive assignments. Average length of agency worker assignments Source: Ciett national federations 50 32 18 36 23 41 40 3525 39 9 52 22 12 66 30 25 45 30 4030 42 9 43 25 73 2 5 92 3 2 97 214 4244 53 2819 60 2020 37 18 45 5 80 15 36 17 47 50 2030 30 70 14 7 20 10 70 9 79 12 AR AU BR BG CZ EE FI FR GR IT JP LV LU MX NL NZ RO ZA ES SE UK US LONG-TERM [›3 MONTHS] MEDIUM-TERM [1-3 MONTHS] SHORT-TERM [‹1 MONTH] AVERAGELENGTHOFAW assignments 1 MONTH 1-3 MONTHS 3 MONTHS 30% 29% 41%
  40. 40. 40 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 4 THE PROFILE OF AGENCY WORKERS AND THEIR ASSIGNMENTS Most agency workers employed in services and manufacturing In most countries, agency workers primarily work either in services (on average 38%) or manufacturing (33%). Both of these sectors have gained somewhat in importance since 2011. In some countries, a large proportion of agency work is classified as “other”, relating to different data collection methodologies. This distorts the picture. (1) 2010 Agency worker employment by sector Source: Ciett national federations AR AU AT BR BG CO CZ DK EE FR DE GR IT LV LU MX NL NO RO RU ZA ES SE CH(1) HU AGRICULTURE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SERVICES CONSTRUCTION MANUFACTURING OTHER AGRICULTURE MANUFACTURING CONSTRUCTION PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONSERVICES 3% 33% 9% 7% 38%
  41. 41. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 41 46% of agency workers are employed by companies with less than 100 employees All kind of companies use agency workers. Approximately half of the agency workers work in companies that have over 100 employees. Companies with less then 10 employees hire approximately 12% of all agency workers. Differences between countries are significant here. While in Italy or Latvia small businesses are the biggest group of companies hiring agency workers, in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic or Romania the biggest group consists of companies larger than 500 employees. Both economic and regulatory factors explain the differences. Size of companies using agency work Source: Ciett national federations AR BR BG CZ EE DE GR IT LV LU MX RO ZA ES 1-9 EMPLOYEES 10-49 EMPLOYEES 50-99 EMPLOYEES 100-499 EMPLOYEES MORE THAN 500 EMPLOYEES 1-9 10-49 50-99 100-499 ›500 EMPLOYEES 12% 16% 18% 28% 31%
  42. 42. 4 THE PROFILE OF AGENCY WORKERS AND THEIR ASSIGNMENTS 42 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report Reasons for hiring agency workersCompanies cite flexibility and temporary demand as main reasons to use agency work Although there are many factors that play a role in a companies’ decision to hire an agency worker, the most important reasons include the possibility to effectively deal with peaks in the work load, and replacing staff absent due to sickness, maternity leave etc. In research done in the USA, Germany, Sweden and the UK other regularly cited reasons are short term projects, often requiring specific skills, or as a way to test out potential new permanent workers. Another interesting factor is that staffing agencies provide workers in an easy and efficient way, resulting in lower costs and less bureaucracy. Source: (1) American Staffing Association Client Survey, 2005, (2) Zeitarbeit in Deutschland –Treiber für Flexibilität und Wachstum, IW Consult GmbH, 2011, (3) REC JobsOutlook 2013 aggregate data, (4) PERSONALINHYRNINGEN I SVERIGE, En studie av 600 arbetsgivares anlitande av bemanningsföretag 2012, Bemanningsföretagen (Swedish Staffing Association), 2012. PERCENTAGE OF BUSINESSES WITH 25+ EMPLOYEES THAT CITE AS A MAIN REASON FOR HIRING AGENCY WORKERS: (1) HOW IMPORTANT WOULD YOU SAY THAT AGENCY WORK IS FOR YOUR ORGANISATION? IMPORTANT TO VERY IMPORTANT (3) REASONS THAT ARE “IMPORTANT TO VERY IMPORTANT” FOR COMPANIES TO HIRE AGENCY WORKERS (2) WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REASONS DID YOU HAVE FOR HIRING AGENCY WORKERS? (4) Labour costs of hiring Replace a regular job to test workers Keep running costs down Flexibility; short notice adaptation of capacity Replace absent permanent staff (sick leave, mater- nity leave, …) Meeting peaks in demand Responding to growth The size of the workforce should be rapidly adaptable bureaucracy involved in hiring staff Availability ofworkers Absorbactivityfluctuation (seasonal,unexpected, economiccycle) Covering shortterm staffleave Managing fast changing organisa- tional requirements Managing uncertaintyduring economicdownturn Trying out workers Staff special short term projects Providing short term access to key strategic skills 80% 84% 59% 52% 42% Difficult to find any other way 33% Company needed a special expertise 32% It is easier and involves less adminis- tration than employing 30% 82% 64% 61% Companyhadtemporary workpeaksandit requiredextrastaff 63% Tosubstitute absent or sick employees 51% There was a rush 49% A time-limited project requiring temporary staffing 37% 34% 72% 68% 59% 84% 73% 43% 34% 21% US UK DE SE
  43. 43. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 43 Alternatives to agency work Agency work mostly not a substitute for permanent workers In a study done by the Boston Consulting Group and Ciett, 74% of companies reported that they would not consider hiring permanent workers as an alternative to agency work. In 62% of the cases there would be no job creation as companies chose internal flexibility or not to do the work at all. This shows that private employment services, and agency work in particular, are an engine of job creation and economic growth. Agency work gives employers the opportunity to turn available work into jobs. Source: Ciett Boston Consulting Group 2011, Adapting to Change Internal flexibility solution 54% Hire permanent workers 26% Other external flexibility solution 12% Not do the work 8% NO JOB CREATION (62% ) NO SUBSTITUTION (74% ) 62% OF AGENCY WORK JOBS wouldnot HAVE BEEN CREATED WITHOUT ACCESS TO AGENCY WORK
  44. 44. 44 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report Satisfaction motivation of AGENCY WORKERS 5
  45. 45. Previous chapters have shown that agency work contributes to economic growth, helps to bring about labour market transitions, and provides an answer to business needs for adaptability. At the center of this all however, IS A PERSON’S CHOICE TO WORK AS AN AGENCY WORKER. This chapter explores the reasons people have to make this choice, and if they are happy with their job as an agency worker. Research shows a large variety of reasons, but remarkable consistency in agency workers high job satisfaction. OF WORKERS ARE SATISFIED TO verysatisfied OF WORKERS would recommend AGENCY WORK 83% 80% 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 45
  46. 46. 46 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 5 SATISFACTION AND MOTIVATION OF AGENCY WORKERS Would you recommend Agency work to a family member or a friend? 80% of agency workers would recommend it to their families or friends Research from a range of countries shows that agency workers are on average very satisfied with their work. On average, 83% of agency workers report that they are satisfied or very satisfied. This clearly shows that working through an agency is a conscious and deliberate choice for a vast majority of the workers. OF WORKERS would recommendAGENCY WORK 80% NOYES OTHER BE (2012) CO (2013) FI (2012) NO (2012-13) SE (2011-12) US (2006) 82% 93% 87% 88% 64% 67% 8% 7% 13% 12%17% 18% Source: Ciett national federations
  47. 47. SATISFIED OTHER VERY SATISFIED 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 47 Percentage of agency workers who are satisfied with their work BE (2012) NO (2012/2013) FI (2012) US (2006) CO (2013) SE (2011/2012) FR (2013) Source: Ciett national federations 23% 18% 42% 46% 42% 35% 30% 53% 49% 48% 48% 39% 57% 48% 49% OF WORKERS ARE SATISFIED, 34% ARE verysatisfied83%
  48. 48. 48 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report 5 SATISFACTION AND MOTIVATION OF AGENCY WORKERS Top 3 reasons for choosing agency workThere are many reasons to choose agency work Agency work can provide in a multitude of specific needs that an individual worker might have. For workers, it can provide flexibility both in hours, location and duration of employment, or it can provide them with access to the labour market that they might otherwise not have. Financial reasons Couldn’t find a permanent job Flexibility of schedule This was the only type of work I could find I can choose the working hours and location Being an agency worker is easier than getting a different kind of job I want to see different work places and acquire different experiences As a stepping stone to permanent work Looking for different professional experiences before settling for one To obtain experience/ training I want to use it to find a permanent job I can earn additional income Want to see different workplaces and gain all-round work experience Work as agency worker is easier to get than other work 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Better than being unemployed 1 Agency work allowed me to find work quickly It will lead to permanent employment It is hard to get a direct contract Otherwise I would be out of work Agency work is a good gateway to working life The agency offered an interesting assignment 1 1 1 1 1 1 BE (2012) FR (2013) US (2006) CO (2013) NO (2012-13) FI (2012) SE (2011-12) Source: Ciett national federation members
  49. 49. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 49 The Netherlands: Agency worker satisfaction with the employment agency Source: Inflow Survey Facts figures on temporary employees, ABU, 2009 Information on legal or fiscal matters Speed and suitability of jobs offered Information on the assignment/company (in advance) Support in administrative formalities Correctness of the contracts offered Contact with employment agency staff Payment by the employment agency 11% 20% 16% 18% 19% 28% 27% 44% 49% 55% 57% 60% 51% 53% 31% 19% 19% 16% 12% 13% 11% 9% 8% 7% 6% 6% 5% 6% 5% 4% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% EXTREMELY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL UNSATISFIED EXTREMELY UNSATISFIED 73% Private employment agencies offer a professional service to businesses and workers Private employment services are experts on the local labour market, and help workers not only find a position, but also employ them, deal with all sorts of administrative issues, and pay them for their work. It is the agency that has full responsibility for the employment relation with the worker, not the user company. 20% ARE extremelysatisfied, 53% ARE SATISFIED
  50. 50. ANNEXES 50 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report
  51. 51. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 51
  52. 52. 52 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report As the international confederation of private employment services, Ciett is the authoritative voice REPRESENTINGTHE INTERESTSOFTHEAGENCYWORKINDUSTRY across the world. Founded in 1967, Ciett consists of 49NATIONALFEDERATIONS of private em- ployment agencies and eight of the largest staffing companies worldwide: Adecco, GI Group, Kelly Services, ManpowerGroup, Randstad, Recruit, Trenkwalder and USG People. ABOUT CIETT
  53. 53. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 53 Its members gather over 200,000 BRANCHES and employ more than 11.5MILLIONAGENCYWORKERS on a daily average (FTE). Its main objective is to help its members conduct their businesses in a LEGALAND REGULATORYENVIRONMENTthat is positive and supportive. Ciett is divided into SIXREGIONAL ORGANISATIONS: Africa/Near East, Northern Asia, Southern Asia, North America, South America [CLETTA], and Europe [Eurociett].
  54. 54. The way to work; a job for every person, a person for every job is the unified vision for the global private employment services industry. It reflects the industry’s unique position in building better labour markets and providing work opportunities and hope to millions of people every day. Directing the WAYTOWORK being a labour market entry point, encouraging transitions, enhancing people's skills Offering a new WAYTOWORK providing labour contractual diversity to meet work-life balance and individual constraints Giving people a great WAYTOWORK delivering decent and quality jobs Helping people to organise the WAYTOWORK matching skills and jobs better and faster The values of the private employment services. industry are centred around people, because work is an essential part of life and identity. These values demonstrate the industry’s commitment to advancing people and businesses through work: QUALITY: The industry promotes ILO core conventions and decent work and calls for appropriate regulation to be adopted on private employment services. The industry works to raise self regulation and quality standards and is committed to fighting rogue and untrustworthy providers in order to get rid of abuses and illegal practices. INCLUSIVENESS: The industry is committed to engaging in constructive dialogue with all relevant stakeholders – governments, trade unions, NGO, academics - to ensure every voice is heard. We are an open industry, willing to develop an inclusive society by increasing labour market participation and diversity. SERVING: As a professional services industry, we are driven by customer satisfaction, be it companies or individuals. We are here to support our customers in their diverse needs and expectations, helping them to adapt to change and to realise their ambitions. FREEDOM: We provide more work opportunities for more people, therefore increasing freedom of choice in the labour market. We give people the freedom to choose when, where and how they work. ABOUT THE WAY TO WORK 54 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report
  55. 55. CIETT, THE VOICE OF LABOUR CHOICE THE WAY TO WORK A JOB FOR EVERY PERSON, A PERSON FOR EVERY JOB SUPPORT 280 MILLION PEOPLE IN THEIR JOB LIFE HELP 75 MILLION YOUNG PEOPLE ENTER THE LABOUR MARKET UP-SKILL 65 MILLION PEOPLE, GIVING THEM WORK CHOICE CREATE 18 MILLION MORE JOBS SERVE 13 MILLION COMPANIES WITH THE RIGHT TALENTS TO SUCCEED PEOPLE - QUALITY, FREEDOM, INCLUSIVENESS, SERVING The private employment services industry has the COLLECTIVEPOWERTO BRINGABOUTPOSITIVECHANGE to labour markets and act as a bridge to social and economic progress. As such, in 2011, CIETT’SMEMBERS HAVEMADEFIVEPLEDGES regarding their contribution over the next five years to individuals and companies in the labour market. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 55
  56. 56. CIETT MEMBERS 56 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report AFRICA / NEAR EAST Morocco South Africa Zambia NORTHERN ASIA China Japan South Korea SOUTHERN ASIA Australia India New Zealand Nepal Singapore NORTH AMERICA Canada Mexico USA EUROPE Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey UK SOUTH AMERICA Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Perú
  57. 57. 2014 Economic Report / Ciett / 57
  58. 58. 58 / Ciett / 2014 Economic Report Temporary agency work Both at international and EU level, agency work is legally defined and recognised. In ILO Convention on private employment agencies (C181, 1997) as well as in the EU Directive on temporary agency work (2008/104/EC), the three- party relationship is precisely characterised: “Services consisting of employing workers with a view to making them available to a third party, who may be a natural or legal person (usually referred to as a “user company”) which assigns their tasks and supervises the execution of these tasks” Private employment services (industry) Agency work is usually one of several other HR services provided by recruitment and employment agencies, along with permanent recruitment, outplacement, training, executive search, skills assessments and more. The broad range of these services are called private employment services. The agency provides a professional service to a user company by taking over (a part of) the recruitment and HR process. In this sense, private employment services are comparable to other professional services such as accounting, security or cleaning. Daily average number of agency workers (FTE) Total number of hours worked by all agency workers in a country over a period of one year divided by the average number of hours worked over a period of one year by a worker with a full-time job with an open-ended contract Penetration rate Daily average number of agency workers [in full-time equivalents] divided by the working population [as defined by the ILO as follows: “The employed comprise all persons of working age who during a specified brief period, such as one week or one day, were in the following categories: a) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or b) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work).” ARGENTINA AR MACEDONIA MK AUSTRALIA AU MEXICO MX AUSTRIA AT MOROCCO MA BELGIUM BE NEPAL NP BRAZIL BR NETHERLANDS NL BULGARIA BG NEW ZEALAND NZ CANADA CA NORWAY NO CHILE CL PERÚ PE CHINA CN POLAND PL COLOMBIA CO PORTUGAL PT CZECH REPUBLIC CZ ROMANIA RO DENMARK DK RUSSIA RU ESTONIA EE SINGAPORE SG FINLAND FI SLOVAKIA SK FRANCE FR SLOVENIA SI GERMANY DE SOUTH AFRICA ZA GREECE GR SOUTH KOREA KR HUNGARY HU SPAIN ES INDIA IN SWEDEN SE IRELAND IE SWITZERLAND CH ITALY IT TURKEY TR JAPAN JP UK UK LATVIA LV USA US LITHUANIA LT ZAMBIA ZM LUXEMBOURG LU GLOSSARY OF USED TERMS ACRONYMS COUNTRY CODES (1) (1) The International Organisation for Standardisation ISO: the international standard for country codes ISO 3166
  59. 59. Tour Taxis building Avenue du Port 86c - Box 302 B 1000 - Brussels info@ciett.org www.ciett.org Follow us on @Ciett_waytowork Design:www.inextremis.beMP4679

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