A Difficult Past- How the Americas Change<br /><ul><li>Countries work towards common goals to gain control, independence, and unity.
Small Changes can have a big effect</li></ul>On the unfolding of History.<br />Ciera Molloy<br />
The Americas in the 19th Century<br /><ul><li>When the United States began expanding westward the United States forced indigenous native Americans into marginal lands. They also forced natives to relocate. </li></ul>From 1837-1838 Cherokees were forcefully removed from the eastern Woodlands of Oklahoma on “The Trail of Tears”<br /><ul><li>Native American Tribes resisted to euro- american settlers encroaching on their lands. Tribes like the Sioux, Pawnee, and Apache possessed fire arms and in 1876 annihilated U.S. forces in the battle of Little Big Horn.
The last large conflict was the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890 where U.S. forces machined gun 200 Sioux Indians men, women, children, and babies.
Westward Expansion also created tension between the United States and Mexico. United States accepted Texas as a new state which led to the Mexican American War (1845- 1848).
With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 the United States paid Mexico 15 million dollars for Texas north of the Rio Grande, California, and New Mexico.
The westward expansion of the United States politically unified Canada in fear of the U.S. expanding into Canadian domain.
The expansion helped defuse internal Canadian conflicts and British granted Canada independence in the British North American Act of 1867 which unified Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick as the Dominion of Canada.</li></li></ul><li>Countries work towards Unity & Indepedence<br /><ul><li>The Dominion of Canada gained control over all internal affairs and the British kept control over foreign affairs until 1931.
John Macdonald became Prime Minister and purchased the Northwest Territories from the Hudson Bay Co. in 1869 and persuaded Manitoba British Colombia, and Prince Edward Island to join the Dominion.
Creole Elites agreed on claiming the Latin American lands for agriculture and ranching from the Indigenous peoples and establishing Euro-American hegemony in Latin America.
Argentine and Chilean forces took modern weapons to conquer indigenous populations of South America. By 1870 colonists had gained control of the most productive lands and forced indigenous people in marginal lands.
Creole Elites were still very divided in the newly independent states. After Independence military leaders gained control such a Juan Manuel de Rosas who ruled Argentina (1835-1852). Rosas called for regional autonomy and worked to centralize government. To restore order and push his agenda he used force and fear tactics.
After Mexico was defeated in American Mexican War a liberal reform led by Benito Juarez was an attempt to reshape Mexican Society. La Reforma attempted to limit power of the military and Catholic Church. Followers called for tierra y libertad “land and liberty”.
The Constitution of 1857 established the ideals of La Reforma and worked to redistribute the land from rich to poor to broaded the base of land ownership to improve living conditions.
Mexican Revolution (1911- 1920) middle class Mexicans joined with peasants to over throw dictator Porfirio Diaz. Revolution led Emiliano Zapata and Francisco ( Pancho) Villa and ended shortly after Zapata died in 1919 and government forces regained control.
Constitution of 1917 addressed concerns of revolutions. Provided land redistribution , universal suffrage, state supported education, minimum wage and maximum hours for workers. Lastly, restrictions on foreign ownership of Mexican property.</li></li></ul><li>The Little Ice Age<br />In the 14th century over a period of 10 years the temperature dropped four degrees triggering a series of unfortunate events through out the world that had a lasting effect of 500 years.<br />During Medieval times in Europe the Little Ice Age caused agriculture to die which led to a great famine and crime increased. After the sixth year 1.5 million died due to starvation or famine related disease.<br />Little Ice Age spawned disease and contributed to the rapid spread of the Bubonic Plaque that cause 25 million deaths.<br />In 1563 Europeans began accusing men and women of witch craft 50,000 men and women were burned at the stake because of the horrible weather conditions that persisted.<br />1000 A.D. Vikings colonize Greenland during “Warm Period” . Once the Little Ice Age hit they could not grow food, sustain live stock, or survive off marine life once the water froze. They did not adapt survival techniques from the Inuit Peoples and died out.<br />Soldiers of Napoleon were retreating from Russian when L.I.A. hit. <br />Out of 130,000 soldiers only 4,000-5,000 made it out of the city of <br />Vilnius in Lithuania. They died of starvation, froze to death, and other related illnesses.<br />1776 Washington prepares to cross the Delaware River to surprise attack British in Trenton in hopes of gaining a victory to regain control ofthe Revolutionary War. The Delaware River froze and threatened Washington’s surprise attack.<br />1815-1816 “Year with out a Summer” – Snow fell in places in Europethat didn’t usually have snow. In north eastern United sates snow fell in June, July, and August.<br />In Europe Caused food shortages, riots, mass exodus to U.S.<br />The cause of the Little Ice Age is yet to be determined.<br />
Louisiana Purchase<br />1762- Treaty of Fontainebleau- France gave the Louisiana Territory to Spain- Spain saw his land as a protective buffer for their silver mines.<br />Americas began spreading into Spanish Louisiana to use the Mississippi River and to export from Port New Orleans.<br />1784- Spanish close the Mississippi River o foreigners to control the profitable New Orleans. This creates a threat of division between the U.S. Union and colonists threaten to join Spain if access to the Mississippi and New Orleans is not restored.<br />1800- Third Treaty of Lldefonso- Secret treaty between France and Spain where France traded the Spanish Louisiana for a Palace in Italy. <br /> Napoleon 30,000 men to San Dominique to regain control of the colony and suppress the slave revolt. San Dominique contributed to 2/3 of French Foreign trade. He also plans to take Louisiana and claim New Orleans. <br />Jefferson finds out about Napoleon’s plans and considers it a threat to the U.S. stability.<br />Napoleon can not regain control of San Dominique. Yellow Fever kills majority of men and slaves use guerilla tactics.<br />Ice storms block Napoleon’s fleet from leaving port in Holland to take Louisiana. His mission is a failure.<br />1803- France needs funds and sells the Louisiana Purchase for 15 million dollars and the United States doubles in size.<br />
19th Century Cattle Frontier<br />1829- Brazil Southern Frontier- Violent fights over disagreements<br />1831- Republica Oriental del Uruguay came into existence but Brazil and Uruguay are still rivals. Warfare on the Brazil Uruguay border continues. The Brazilian- Uruguayan border was a cattle frontier and meat was a main part of the diet. Men would fight to the death over disagreements and slice the throats of their enemies the same way you would slaughter an animal. <br />Guerra Gaucha- Cavalry guerrilla warfare where most rebels fought with lances and boleadoras. To save ammo they executed prisoners by slicing their throats ear to ear called the degiiello. <br /> Uruguay- 1867- pop. 25,000 – 31 Murders- 1886- 763 arrested for robbery- 1,591 assaults- 127 murders<br />1860’s- Brazilian province of Rio Grande de Sul- 1,987 criminal cases<br />Violence became a part of the culture and violence for show became a part of everyday life. Men did not want to look weak in front of others and to save their pride would fight to the death in most cases.<br />Pulperia violence was more about killing it was a way for men to express themselves and through violence gain honor. The system of honor was how men were perceived by their class. This determined how they succeeded. <br />Gaucho Culture included many competitions with knives to fight for honor.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom : Antietam<br />Battle of Antietam – September 17, 1862<br />The battle took place on Antietam creek.<br />Robert E. Lee- Confederate commander is on a wining streak. The south has had two victories at “Seven Days” and “ Second Bull run”<br />Lee did not need to invade the North but he wanted to persuade population that the war was not worth it and to side with the South.<br />British worried about Civil War because the South was there cotton supplier. The Civil War interrupts cotton supply in the Trans Atlantic Trade.<br />The British want to intervene and support the South for economic reasons but as country that does not support slavery they can not support a slave nation.<br />Abraham Lincoln can not find a compromise between the North Union and South Confederacy. <br />Lincoln decides we need to be a Free nation and abolish slavery. He drafts the Emancipation Proclamation.<br />Secretary of State- Seward- advised Lincoln that the Union needs a victory in the Civil War before the Emancipation Proclamation would be taken seriously.<br />
As fate would have it…<br />Lee’s confederate Army marches into Maryland. Hoping to persuade population and take the capital. This does not happen.<br />Lee marches into Fredericks, Maryland on Sept. 7th.<br />September 9th 1862- Fredericksburg, Maryland- Lee issues “Special Orders No. 191”. This Is a detailed description to divide army into four sections and take Harpers Ferry, a union garrison that threatened the South’s supply line and communication. The next day the armies divide and depart.<br /> George McClellan- Cautious Union Commander- Marches in Fredericksburg, Maryland on September 13- Corporal Barton W. Mitchell finds Confederate General Lee’s special orders. McClellan knows Lee’s army is divided and the locations. McClellan does not make decisive action and Lee is notified of the leak of information.<br />September 15th- Confederate troops under Stonewall Jackson take Harpers Ferry & Lee prepares for the Union attack at Sharpsburg, Maryland. Same day McClellan arrives on the East side of Antietam creek.<br />McClellan began taking action the next day but made commanding mistakes and did not organize army effectively giving Lee opportunities to move his armies around.<br />
McClellan does not take control<br />McClellan does not take decisive action and war breaks out at Antietam. The first part of the mainly takes places in a cornfield. There is great confusion, chaos, disorganization, and could not see. Union troops outnumbered the South and they keep pushing the confederates south. This first phase of the battle lasts three hours from dawn- 9 a.m, and results in 9,000 killed/wounded on both sides.<br /> Lee’s army retreats and post up on a sunken road that provided cover and was considered a strong defensive position.<br />Lee has 40,000 men McClellan as 60,000<br />McClellan’s troops fight through and get alongside the sunken road and forces confederates to retreat.<br />McClellan does not send in reserves to finish off Lee’s army and they escape.<br />McClellan has Union troops under General Burnside on his left flank southern sector along Antietam.<br />Fighting Breaks again at “ Burnside Bridge” Lee has less then 4,000 troops compared to Burnsides 13,000 and Lee had no reserves. Lees army begin retreating and Burnside tries to cut off retreat and takes Sharpsburg, MD. <br />Surprisingly A.P. Hills Confederate troops come up from the south and clash with Burnsides troops stalling Union advancement.<br />
Antietam changes history<br />September 18th-The following day Lee’s armies escapes because McClellan over estimates the number of troops and is to cautious to do anything. <br />This is not a decisive victory for the Union because McClellan did not capture Lee’s army never the less it was considered a Union but the people. Technically it was a draw.<br />Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation which replaces slavery with freedom. The proclamation freed slaves in the south. The war then becomes a war for freedom.<br />Slaves begin joining the Union Armies.<br />Before Antietam European powers were on the verge of recognizing the South as an independent nation because of their wining streak. <br />British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston was on the verge of intervening if the south would have had one more victory.<br />The battle at Antietam stalls European intervention and Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation made It impossible.<br />Lincoln removes McClellan from office because he let Lee’s armies get away and did not take decisive action.<br />Lee went on to have more successes and continue to war against the Union.<br />
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