American Urbanization & New York City Ciera Molloy
The Country & The City1609-1825 September 2, 1609- Dutch hired explorer Henry Hudson to find new trade routes he discovered the New York harbor which began the colonization of present day New York. Dutch see this as a desirable place to make profits and establish a trading post and in 1624 colonists begin arriving. The fur trade business became popular and a war to beat the British in profits began. New York was seen as a place of opportunity for business, development of new ideas, and had a variety of people and religions from the beginning. New York was the birth place of democracy The end of the 19th century New York was the largest growing city. The city learned how to tolerate each other as individuals because of the different ethnicities and cultures that were in one place at one time. Island of Manhattan was first inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. As the demand for more control over the land grew Europeans bought the land from the Lenape and begin persecuting the tribes. The Dutch West India Co. owned North America and was a very successful company for 200 years. The company founded New Amsterdam-present day Manhattan- Bark Cabins, crude huts, and a main road Broadway were built. Other Settlements such as Breuckelen and the Bronk’s were also under development. African slaves imported to clear land for white farmers. 1643- As tensions between colonist and Indians grew the Dutch and Indians went to war in what was called “ The Year of the Blood”. Colonies begin to fail, moral is low, and drunkenness is on the rise.
The Country and The City The Dutch appoint Peter Stevenson to transform New Amsterdam. Stevenson creates new laws and taxes to give people order and created an economic bases for financial prosperity. 1653- Stevenson transformed New Amsterdam by building new houses, a school, and a wall to keep out hostile Indians and British. The New Amsterdam labor shortage allowed anyone willing to work to enter. The population became very diverse and there was fear of not being able to control such a diverse population. The Jews were also allowed to enter and practice their religion. This was the beginning of separation between church and state. August 27, 1664- British sail into harbor and Stevenson is forced to surrender city and retire to a nearby farm. August 29, 1664- British rename New Amsterdam New York after the Duke of York. Reorganized and renamed Islands around harbor ( ex. Queens, Richmond, Kings) New York became a very profitable trading post it was connected to routes of trade and stretched around the the globe. Slavery was widely used and exploited. Uprisings by slaves was not uncommon and in 1741 blacks and slaves were being accused of crimes and hanged. 1763- Economic depression hits New York and British begin taxing. 1765- the Stamp tax was established which triggers the Revolutionary War. 1774- Alexander Hamilton works strongly to incite the colonists to rebel. A year later war breaks out and people begin to flee the city. 1783- Colonists have victory and Washington leads his troops back into New York to begin redeveloping.
The Country and The City ( Cont’d) - New York become the first capital and George Washington is sworn in as the first President. 1790- Economic programs cause dispute and the Government bank goes bankrupt and the capital is moved.
New York becomes a symbol for America always changing and redeveloping itself. Entrepeneurs begin developing new ideas and the first steam boat is launched. Boat Service schedule is created making transportation reliable and exploration eaier.
John Jacob Aster becomes wealthiest man in America buying Manhattan real estate . New York continues to grow and create wealth. Developing examples for the world.
New York Begins rapiding expanding North and population is growing. This causes the need to reestablish a foundation and organize islands.
1811- Grid plans were created to make a giant metropolis. The city is leveled, grid plots created, and streets renamed for easy navigation.
The grid plans make is easy to buy and sell real estate creating commercial spaces. The plans also made it easy for immigrants to navigate through the city making it easy to get to work.
The City was transformed into a Uniform Democratic City.
City of Tomorrow 1929-1941 New York manages to rebuild and redevelop saving changes from the past and revolutionizing the future. 1930’s- The depression begins fewer then two million unemployed. The next year eight million unemployed and the effects are very visible in New York. There is no government relief, massive evictions, encampments start up along river and in parks called Hoover vills. These were make shift shanty towns. The banks fail, manufacturers lay off workers, suicide on the rise, and long food lines. Over a million were on relief rows for food.Children and Mothers eating out of dumpster. Protests and strikes begin calling for government action and holding government responsible for the welfare of the people. Some protests end in battles with the police. President Hoover did nothing to help the depression. Next President Roosevelt disperses relief funds that were pocketed by head officials and associates. No money given to people. James J. Walker- New York Mayor- very corrupt and did nothing for the city. He put city into massive debt and was only interested In money for himself. Walker is investigated by Samuel Seaberry and Roosevelt forces walker to resign.
Political reform take place to try and help New York out of the depression and end city corruption.
Fiorello La Guardia – elected as mayor and reforms city getting rid of corruption and is for the people. He elects qualified officials based on merit and qualifications. La Guardia rides along with police, tells off banker, and expands public service. Mayor reconstructs city with money from Roosevelt.
The New Deal- converge local and national services- constructed in New York- Held government responsible for providing services to people. Service programs created, jobs created, public works begin building roads, hospitals, houses, etc.
Robert Moses- Long Island State Park Commissioner built roadways opening up possibilities for cities. Connecting cities and roads to beaches and parks. Transformed the region of cities
Cars start being produced for rich people toys. In the 1920’s The car becomes used more widespread and demand to expand roads increases.
Moses then moved on to rebuilt New York and in 1934 worked with La Guardia to rebuild New York’s infrastructure. He also built roads through New York connecting islands and built highways along Hudson establishing a new transportation system.
City of Tomorrow (cont’d) Later the effects of road expansion are apparent. Traffic jams and congestion created. -Moses creates a system where voice of people didn’t matter because he was making people rich through toll bridges. Moses wants power through money and tries to monopolize the real estate in New York. La Guardia still holds authority as mayor and blocks Moses and capitalizing on the real estate. Harlem was a racially ethnic community and turns into a racial slum after depression. Neighborhoods begin to be segregated by New Deal
Home Owners Loan Corporation begin mapping out neighborhood based on racial ethnicity and establishing values on neighborhoods. Black and ethnic communities segregated and only like ethnicities provided loans to move into the same ethnic community. This degrades and lower the values of these communities. Tensions rise and riots break out. Black men are arrested. Racial Equality still does not become a priority.
1934- La Guardia Airport built connecting air traffic
1930- New York World Fair opens with corporate exhibits and showcases new products and the future of America. Fair is demolished and scraps used to build military weapons for war.
A Merger that puts New York on Top AOL, worlds leading internet company merges with Time Warner, worlds leading media-entertainment co. AOL controls 55% of merge New York is the headquarters for AOL Time Warner Merger re-establishes New York as cultural economic center of worlds most influential nation New York used to have great economical advantages because of its ports location and growing capital markets. The Errie Canal was built to control exports to Europe. New York has always had the ability to envision the future and stay on top. With the inventions of electricity, telephone, movies, and wireless radio New York developed successful technological companies like General Electric. New York was home to the three major networks as well. The internet changed business and disperse wealth in new industries and creating new sources of wealth. This makes it difficult to capitalize on wealth. New York no longer has advantage based on their physical location making E- Space location important. Internet ruined Network monopoly and internet beat out the major New York network stations. Merging AOL and Time Warner in New York show New York trying to remain economically in control.
Immigrants & Cities 1870-1920- The United States transformed from an Agrarian to an Urban Society thru technological development and the growth of industry which created a demand for labor. This was the bases for immigration to the United States. Immigrants clustered into ethnic communities. The United States was one of the only countries at the time to accept immigrants as part of its national identity. Great Atlantic Migrations – from 1870 to 1914 the U.S. allowed the largest number of immigrants in it’s history. European peoples also migrated to Agentina, Canada, and Brazil. These countries also provided work for immigrants. The transpacific migration of the Chinese also helped blend cultures of the world in America. Most immigrants were males looking for work. For every three immigrants one returned home unsatisfied of the opportunities presented. Some immigrants followed family and built ethnic communities called Chain Migration. America accounted for 3/5 of all European immigration at the time with out any major social disruptions. This redefined what it meant to be American and the idea of the American “Melting Pot”.
Patterns of the Trans-Atlantic Migration The new ideas created by Immigration led to anti-immgration movements and immigrants became scapegoats for the cause of crime, poverty, and industrial urban problems. 1924- Immigration quotas are enforced and the great depression slow immigration to the United States. The patterns of the Trans Atlantic migration has been proven to be constant to and from Europe to North and South America. Where to migrate to and when depended on different variables like available jobs, income sources, housing, and migrate population fluxuated. Immgrants came from Great Britian, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, France, Russia Germany, Sweden… The transition from ship to steam boat and transportation schedules sped up immigration Port cities like Ellis Island made changes to accommodate the rush of immigrants into the country and transport them to other cities. There were oppurtunities in farming, mining, construction of the railroad and buildings, industrial work … Seasonal migration became popular to follow the demand for work in different areas. America had a lot land that encouraged small land ownership which gave migrants another reason to migrated. Different Migrants were good for different jobs and directed different places creating stereotypes.
The mix of cultures led to interracial marriages. Immigration influenced many American cities. Specific ethnicities would migrate to specific locations developing communities (Ex: Chinese in Georgia, Italians in Florida) Sex rations of immigrants varied depending on race and time period. Women were housewives, mothers, and also were working women. Earning wages as seamstresses, operations at boarding houses, and migrant women held domestic service jobs. Women returned to Europe less frequently than men and contributed to the consistency of immigration. Tensions over immigration continued to be an issue and fears of high numbers of immigrates continued. Racial ideas were imposed on the native white American population. Americas felt like they were losing their country to foreigners and restrictions began to be implemented. The World War put a temporary stop to immigration. Native Americas were unprepared to understand the traffic of Migration at the time and it’s peoples.