National cemeteries landscape

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  • Survey Decisions – base on existing condition….?
  • Overgrown Scene
  • Well maintained site DS [Mt. Auburn Cemetery)
  • Current map – map that locates plots, self guided tour map, historic map, or aerial photo – such as google earth.
  • Inventory and record location of landscape features – noting their condition. [Paper inventory, mapping details, plant inventory, data entry DS Students doing surveys] Paper inventory/assessment – paper mapping or – electronic/GPS (such as iphone app) `
  • For most cemeteries, you will probably be able to find at least some Historic documentation. Types of documentation that are helpful to understand the cemeteries historic condition include….. Places to find these records include the cemetery office, local historical societies and libraries, antique shops, and ebay.
  • Types of records you might find at the cemetery office include plot records, meeting minutes, maintenance forms, and perpetual care agreements.
  • You might also find original planting plans, such as the plan depicted. If the cemetery was designed by a famous landscape gardener or architect, plans may be in archival collections associated with the individual. Planting plans may show original plantings, bed designs, and pathways.
  • Historic cemetery maps may be located at the cemetery, in old atlas’s, and in cemetery guidebooks. Some maps are very detailed, such as this plan from Wood Lawn cemetery in NY. The map depicts roads & trails, topography, vegetation, water features, and buildings.
  • One of the best resources are historic photographs, especially those that depict a broad view of the landscape. These photos provide an image of the landscape’s character – the abundance or lack of vegetation, fencing, signage, and other features.
  • Postcards can also be rich in detail. These are especially important for the larger 19 th century rural cemeteries that attracted a lot of visitors. You are likely to find a number of cards showing different views.
  • Steroviews were also popular tourist souvenirs, and they were often sold in sets, so if you find one you can, with a bit of hunting, probably Find more.
  • Cover and contents DS
  • Existing historic roads and entrance Missing roads and paths – road traces still visible New buildings, potential historic building Cemetery expansion – lower c. 1930 map does not include trees – can’t compare
  • Insert image of plan DS
  • Vegetation removals and replanting Drainage issues Fencing and gate repairs
  • Landscape Issue picture JC
  • Trees provide…shade, canopy, character, can be commemorative…aesthetic Can also impact the condition of ….
  • Tree hazard diagram DS Targets - Fixed: building, monuments, road or path, Movable: bench A tree with serious defects is not a hazard - Unless it is within striking distance of a target
  • Dead branches – also known as widowmakers – are an accident waiting to happen. They can fall in the slightest breeze. Branch stubs, the result of poor pruning or storm damage - invite disease that further weakens the limb – making it a likely candidate to fall during a storm.
  • Crack – a deep crack or a crack that extends completely through the trunk is extremely dangerous Decay – decaying trees can be prone to failure. The seriousness of the decay is based on the ratio of healthy wood to the decayed wood. Cankers – sinking or missing bark. Presence of a canker increases the chance of the stem breaking near the canker Week Branch Unions are the result of two or more upright stems growing so close together that bark grows between the branches.
  • Defects in the root system may not be as apparent as those found in the trunk or the crown of a tree. The location of a tree and what is occurring around it are good indications that the root system might be under stress. – Roots depicted injured by automobile tires – tree on the side of a road. Lack of open soil around trees, or soil so compacted the roots are not able to absorb enough air and water. Severed roots and grade changes that occur during construction and Soil Compaction. Visible indications include twig dieback, off-color or smaller than normal tree leaves, mushrooms growing around the base of the tree trunk. Trees growing under these conditions are more likely to uproot in a storm.
  • Low light/moisture – more biological growth Consideration – remove or thin tree? May need separate maintenance schedule for monuments under shade
  • Monuments and the terrain need to be protected during tree work. Ground – ruts and collapsed graves, Monuments – falling branches. (method and protective covers) Certified arborist Ask what their plan is to protect the terrain and monuments
  • Picture examples, discovery, dormant, where to look At the base of monuments…also in areas where its hard to mow – along coping and fence lines, between tightly spaced features
  • Picture examples,
  • Slower, narrower, more hands-on
  • Damage to monuments – Damage to tree trunks
  • Picture examples,
  • Less time consuming Affects historic character Stones – herbicide salt effects– NCPTT study
  • Cherry laurel/holly? Species – non-native, rapidly reproducing exotics – invasive. Will vary from area to area. Some species that are desirable ornamentals in one Planting zone are invasive in others. Consult local lists of invasive species…such as…. Especially important to recognize volunteer plants when cleaning up an overgrown cemetery. Better to error on the side of retaining an invasive than to remove a planted/memorial plant. Also, identify plants that are typically found in cemeteries in your area, and understand that some species that are invasive may also have been planted in the cemetery. Smaller plants of the same species scattered throughout the cemetery may be volunteers from the originally planted plant. Location – Growing directly adjacent to, or within/on top of other features– (mowed down in open areas) Species – non-native, rapidly reproducing exotics – invasive. Will vary from area to area. Some species that are desirable ornamentals in one Planting zone are invasive in others. Consult local lists of invasive species…such as…. Especially important to recognize volunteer plants when cleaning up an overgrown cemetery. Better to error on the side of retaining an invasive than to remove a planted/memorial plant. Also, identify plants that are typically found in cemeteries in your area, and understand that some species that are invasive may also have been planted in the cemetery. Smaller plants of the same species scattered throughout the cemetery may be volunteers from the originally planted plant.
  • Location – Growing directly adjacent to, or within/on top of other features– (mowed down in open areas) Remove soon – or bigger problem later
  • Cutting back alone will not work – will sprout from stump. Best way is to remove the entire plant by the roots. If not possible, cut back and apply herbicide to the top of the stem, being careful not to spread the herbicide onto desirable plant material or adjacent monuments or other historic features.
  • Round-up Pulling -
  • Roots uplifting or displacing markers and box vaults
  • Nashville National Cemetery – temporary grave marker. Originals Stored until tree dies or is removed.
  • National cemeteries landscape

    1. 1. Addressing Landscape Maintenance in Cemeteries
    2. 2. Landscape Documentation <ul><li>Existing Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Start with a Base Map </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection – project goal </li></ul><ul><li>. Restoration – time period </li></ul><ul><li>. Preservation – existing features </li></ul>
    3. 3. Current Conditions
    4. 4. Current Conditions
    5. 5. Start with a Base Map Roads Entrances Buildings Sections/Plots Vegetation
    6. 6. Data Collection
    7. 7. Landscape Documentation <ul><li>Historic Information </li></ul><ul><li>Cemetery Records </li></ul><ul><li>Planting Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Handbooks and Guidebooks </li></ul>
    8. 8. Cemetery Records
    9. 9. Planting Plans Planting Plan for fancy grave top, Rose Hill Cemetery c. 1900
    10. 10. Maps
    11. 11. Images Photographs
    12. 12. Images Postcards
    13. 13. Images <ul><li>Glass Slides & </li></ul><ul><li>Stereoview Cards </li></ul>
    14. 14. Handbooks and Guidebooks
    15. 15. Landscape Documentation Compare the Historic to the Current Condition Greenbush Cemetery, Lafayette, IN. Javaholic [Flickr]
    16. 16. Making a Plan <ul><li>Plan based on… </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature prominence & significance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Wish List </li></ul>
    17. 17. Making a Plan
    18. 18. Landscape Issues <ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Bulbs & Perennials </li></ul><ul><li>Vines </li></ul><ul><li>Lawns </li></ul>
    19. 19. Trees
    20. 20. Hazardous Trees
    21. 21. Hazardous Trees Hazardous Trees HAZARD NOT A HAZARD
    22. 22. Hazardous Trees- Canopy
    23. 23. HAZARDOUS TREES- Trunks Cankers Decay Cracks Weak Branch Unions How to Recognize Hazardous Trees, United States Department of Agriculture
    24. 24. Hazardous Trees - Roots Lack of soil Roots damage by vehicles Mushrooms at base of trunk
    25. 25. Trees - Shading
    26. 26. Trees – Pruning & Removal
    27. 27. Trees
    28. 28. Perennials & Bulbs
    29. 29. Lawn Where Your Money Goes…
    30. 30. The Problem … Lawn
    31. 31. Lawn – Mower Damage Penman2s, More Mower Damage, http://www.flickr.com/photos/ penman2/16753322/
    32. 32. Lawn When and Where to Mow
    33. 33. Lawn
    34. 34. <ul><li>Herbicides </li></ul>Lawn - Trimming
    35. 35. String Trimmers Lawn - Trimming
    36. 36. <ul><li>Which is the </li></ul><ul><li>invasive plant? </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul>Invasive Plants
    37. 37. Invasive Plants
    38. 38. <ul><li>Herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Hand pulling </li></ul><ul><li>Tools- weed wrench </li></ul>Invasive Plants - Removal
    39. 39. Invasive Plants - Removal
    40. 40. Invasive Plants - Removal
    41. 41. Invasive Plants - Removal
    42. 42. Invasive Plants - Removal
    43. 43. Trees & Monuments
    44. 44. Trees & Monuments
    45. 45. Trees & Monuments
    46. 46. Trees & Fencing
    47. 47. Questions ?

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