Optimising for Cultural
Learning
Chris Read

An Experience Report

Velocity EU 2013

Friday, 15 November 13

@cread
Learning
• We are what we repeatedly
do. Excellence, then, is not
an act, but a habit.
(Aristotle)

Velocity EU 2013

Frid...
Learning

• To know and not to do is not
yet to know. (Zen Saying)

Velocity EU 2013

Friday, 15 November 13

@cread
Cultural Learning
• Learning through

observation or interaction
with others. (Lehmann,
Feldman & Kaeuffer, 2010)

Velocit...
Cultural Learning
• Allows individuals to acquire

skills that they would be
unable to independently gain
over the course ...
3 Recent Biology Research
Papers...
Downloaded from rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org on October 30, 2013

Why Copy Others? ...
Cumulative cultural dynamics and the
coevolution of cultural innovation and
transmission

• Developed Game Theory Model “f...
Social learning and evolution: the cultural
intelligence hypothesis

• “The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues ...
Why Copy Others? Insights from the Social
Learning Strategies Tournament

• “...it remains unclear why copying is profitabl...
Summary for us non
Biologists:
• Humans are built for Cultural Learning
• Age of what we’ve learnt matters
• We’ve got to ...
Business Environment
• Team Structure (Belbin, etc)
• Team Lifecycles (Tuckman, Linstead)
• Team Interactions
• Business U...
Flat Org Structure
• No “corporate ladder”
• No pre defined pay bands.
• Teams Organised Around
• Service
• Business Unit
V...
Mobility
• Make it easy to change roles
• Colocate related teams and individuals
• Make it easy to access the right people...
Knowledge Sharing
• “Borrowing” people
welcomed

• Working with vendors
(mainly hardware)

• Telepresence & office visits
•...
Specific Examples

Velocity EU 2013

Friday, 15 November 13

@cread
Tickets
• Introduced by new IT management team to establish order
• Actively blocked communication between teams
• Reduced...
Breaking Down Silos
• Adding social interactions and new groups around concepts
breaks things down

• Shared automation/de...
Do Not
• Spend all your time learning - you need to apply what you’ve
learned

• Take anything to extremes

Velocity EU 20...
Innovate to Survive

Velocity EU 2013

Friday, 15 November 13

@cread
Focus on the Goal

Velocity EU 2013

@cread
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ronnie_O%27Sullivan_PHC_2011-2.png

Fri...
Don’t Limit Learning

Velocity EU 2013

@cread
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Milky_Way_Galaxy.jpg

Friday, 15 Nov...
Thank You

Velocity EU 2013

Friday, 15 November 13

@cread
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Optimising for Cultural Learning - Velocity EU 2013

999

Published on

Cultural learning allows individuals to acquire skills that they would be unable to independently over the course of their lifetimes (Van Schaik & Burkart, 2011). In this talk I'll examine how things like management structure, role definition and incentives impact this process, and share some tips on how you can use it to improve the culture in your organisation.

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
999
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Optimising for Cultural Learning - Velocity EU 2013

  1. 1. Optimising for Cultural Learning Chris Read An Experience Report Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  2. 2. Learning • We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. (Aristotle) Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  3. 3. Learning • To know and not to do is not yet to know. (Zen Saying) Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  4. 4. Cultural Learning • Learning through observation or interaction with others. (Lehmann, Feldman & Kaeuffer, 2010) Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  5. 5. Cultural Learning • Allows individuals to acquire skills that they would be unable to independently gain over the course of their lifetimes. (Van Schaik & Burkart, 2011) Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  6. 6. 3 Recent Biology Research Papers... Downloaded from rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org on October 30, 2013 Why Copy Others? Insights from the Social Learning Strategies Tournament L. Rendell, et al. Science 328, 208 (2010); DOI: 10.1126/science.1184719 doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02096.x Cumulative cultural dynamics and the coevolution of cultural innovation and transmission: an ESS model for panmictic and structured populations L. LEHMANN*, M. W. FELDMAN  & R. KAEUFFERà *Institute of Biology, University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland ˆ ˆ  Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA àDepartment of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis Carel P. van Schaik and Judith M. Burkart Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2011 366, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0304, published 28 February 2011 If you wish to distribute this article to others, you can order high-quality copies for your colleagues, clients, or customers by clicking here. Permission to republish or repurpose articles or portions of articles can be obtained by following the guidelines here. The following resources related to this article are available online at www.sciencemag.org (this information is current as of April 9, 2010 ): Keywords: When individuals in a population can acquire traits through learning, each individual may express a certain number of distinct cultural traits. These traits may have been either invented by the individual himself or acquired from others in the population. Here, we develop a game theoretic model for the accumulation of cultural traits through individual and social learning. We explore how the rates of innovation, decay, and transmission of cultural traits affect the evolutionary stable (ES) levels of individual and social learning and the number of cultural traits expressed by an individual when cultural dynamics are at a steady-state. We explore the evolution of these phenotypes in both panmictic and structured population settings. Our results suggest that in panmictic populations, the ES level of learning and number of traits tend to be independent of the social transmission rate of cultural traits and is mainly affected by the innovation and decay rates. By contrast, in structured populations, where interactions occur between relatives, the ES level of learning and the number of traits per individual can be increased (relative to the panmictic case) and may then markedly depend on the transmission rate of cultural traits. This suggests that kin selection may be one additional solution to Rogers’s paradox of nonadaptive culture. References This article cites 77 articles, 13 of which can be accessed free Abstract cultural accumulation; cultural transmission; individual and social learning; innovation; kin selection; relatedness. "Data Supplement" http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/suppl/2011/02/25/366.1567.1008.DC1.ht ml "Audio Supplement" http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/suppl/2011/02/28/366.1567.1008.DC2.ht ml Introduction Learned traits and in particular cultural traits are nongenetically determined phenotypes that are acquired during an individual’s lifespan. They are not only characteristic of humans but are also expressed by many vertebrates (Laland & Janik, 2006). For instance, chimpanzees use sticks to catch prey and stones to crack nuts; and macaques wash potatoes and apples, unwrap and consume caramels, and can learn a whole spectrum of other feeding behaviours (Lefebvre, 1995; Whiten et al., 1999; Dugatkin, 2004). Some birds are able to learn new songs but they can also acquire techniques to bait fish, batter or drop different types of prey on different substrates, use caps to carry water, use twigs to push Correspondence: Laurent Lehmann, Institute of Biology, ˆ University of Neuchatel, Switzerland. Tel.: 032 718 2234; fax: 032 718 3001; e-mail: laurent.lehmann@unine.ch 2356 Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections behaviour (462 articles) evolution (646 articles) Email alerting service Friday, 15 November 13 This article cites 30 articles, 9 of which can be accessed for free: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/328/5975/208#otherarticles This article appears in the following subject collections: Psychology http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/collection/psychology Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top right-hand corner of the article or click here nuts, and pull fishing lines to get fish under water (Lefebvre et al., 2002). There are two basic ways by which an individual may learn a new trait (Rogers, 1988). First, the trait can be learned individually. Here, an individual interacts with its environment and learns the trait by trial-and-error, lucky accident, insight, or deduction. This can be viewed as cultural innovation, and this process may also depend on the number of traits already carried by the individuals in the population. Alternatively, a trait can be learned socially, in which case an individual obtains the trait by imitating or copying it from another individual in the population. This is cultural transmission. This second case is likely to involve social interactions between individuals in the population, and errors in transmission may further increase the rate of innovation of cultural traits. Cultural innovation is to cultural evolution what mutation is to biological evolution: without innovation, cultural traits and therefore cultural transmission would not exist. In humans, these features may have led to the ª 2010 THE AUTHORS. J. EVOL. BIOL. 23 (2010) 2356–2369 JOURNAL COMPILATION ª 2010 EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY To subscribe to Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B go to: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/subscriptions Velocity EU 2013 Supporting Online Material can be found at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/328/5975/208/DC1 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1567/1008.full.html#ref-list-1 Article cited in: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1567/1008.full.html#related-urls Subject collections Updated information and services, including high-resolution figures, can be found in the online version of this article at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/328/5975/208 Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on April 9, 2010 Supplementary data Science (print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published weekly, except the last week in December, by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. Copyright 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. The title Science is a registered trademark of AAAS. @cread
  7. 7. Cumulative cultural dynamics and the coevolution of cultural innovation and transmission • Developed Game Theory Model “for the accumulation of cultural traits through individual and social learning” • “...in panmictic populations, the ES level of learning and number of traits tend to be independent of the social transmission rate of cultural traits and is mainly affected by the innovation and decay rates.” • “By contrast, in structured populations, where interactions occur between relatives, the ES level of learning and the number of traits per individual can be increased (relative to the panmictic case) and may then markedly depend on the transmission rate of cultural traits.” Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 J. EVOL. BIOL. 23 (2010) 2356–2369 @cread
  8. 8. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis • “The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. ...The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer.” • “...subjects acquire particular behaviours or skills faster when exposed to skilled role models than they do in a control situation, in which they can independently explore and eventually learn the skill individually” Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2011 366, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0304, published 28 February 2011 @cread
  9. 9. Why Copy Others? Insights from the Social Learning Strategies Tournament • “...it remains unclear why copying is profitable and how to copy most effectively. To address these questions, we organized a computer tournament in which entrants submitted strategies specifying how to use social learning and its asocial alternative (trial and error)...” • “However, social learning can also cost time and effort, and theoretical work reveals that it can be error-prone, leading individuals to acquire inappropriate or outdated information in nonuniform and changing environments” • “The winning strategy (discountmachine) relied nearly exclusively on social learning and weighted information according to the time since acquisition.” Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 Science 9 April 2010: Vol. 328 no. 5975 pp. 208-213, DOI:10.1126/science.1184719 @cread
  10. 10. Summary for us non Biologists: • Humans are built for Cultural Learning • Age of what we’ve learnt matters • We’ve got to put our learning in to practice • Without direction and guidance, humans will probably go in the wrong direction Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  11. 11. Business Environment • Team Structure (Belbin, etc) • Team Lifecycles (Tuckman, Linstead) • Team Interactions • Business Unit Interactions • Group Training • Common Goal & Language Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  12. 12. Flat Org Structure • No “corporate ladder” • No pre defined pay bands. • Teams Organised Around • Service • Business Unit Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 • Upper Management Access • Incentives based on • Individual < • Team < • Organisation @cread
  13. 13. Mobility • Make it easy to change roles • Colocate related teams and individuals • Make it easy to access the right people Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  14. 14. Knowledge Sharing • “Borrowing” people welcomed • Working with vendors (mainly hardware) • Telepresence & office visits • Conference Attendance • Open Source Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  15. 15. Specific Examples Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  16. 16. Tickets • Introduced by new IT management team to establish order • Actively blocked communication between teams • Reduced visibility of service teams of needs of the clients • Now used internally by some teams to track backlog conversations are primary interface Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  17. 17. Breaking Down Silos • Adding social interactions and new groups around concepts breaks things down • Shared automation/dev team for those too small for their own • Communities of Practice - Wikis, Discuss • Embedded Planted Engineers • Encourage flow across communities in synthetic groups Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  18. 18. Do Not • Spend all your time learning - you need to apply what you’ve learned • Take anything to extremes Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  19. 19. Innovate to Survive Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  20. 20. Focus on the Goal Velocity EU 2013 @cread http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ronnie_O%27Sullivan_PHC_2011-2.png Friday, 15 November 13
  21. 21. Don’t Limit Learning Velocity EU 2013 @cread http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Milky_Way_Galaxy.jpg Friday, 15 November 13
  22. 22. Thank You Velocity EU 2013 Friday, 15 November 13 @cread
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×