Nutrition strategies for optimal hockey performance
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Nutrition strategies for optimal hockey performance Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Nutrition Strategies for Optimal Hockey Performance & Injury Prevention Chris Osmond MSc, BPE, CSCS, FAST, NCCP (Olympic Weightlifting) Strength & Conditioning Coordinator (Player Development) Medicine Hat Tigers Hockey Club
  • 2. Presentation Outline Importance of nutrition (performance-injury prevention-rehab) Macronutrient Periodization – carbohydrates, protein, fat Daily energy consumption (total calories) Performance enhancement & injury prevention-recovery tips: Strategy 1: Pre-game/Post-game Nutrition Guidelines Strategy 2: Nutrient Timing (Meal Planning) Strategy 3: Avoiding dehydration Strategy 4: Follow the “10 Habits of Highly Successful Eating” Reading nutrient labels accurately
  • 3. Why is nutrition important? X-FACTOR! Glycogen depletion patterns during ice hockey performance. Methods = 8 male varsity ice hockey players (NCAA 1) were studied during 4 hockey games to investigate the depletion pattern of glycogen (carbohydrate) in the quadriceps muscle group. Results = Muscle glycogen declined an average of 60%.
  • 4. Why is nutrition important? Research also indicates that nutrition can effectively assist hockey athletes recover from injury. Athletes must target 3 different nutritional angles to support recovery from injury: Angle 1: support & manage acute inflammation. Angle 2: support immune function. Angle 3: support long-term tissue healing & regeneration
  • 5. Macronutrient Periodization Macronutrients = nutrients that are required in significant amounts to allow for normal functioning of the body. Specific macronutrients include: 1.Carbohydrates (60% DTC) 3. Fat (25% DTC) 2.Protein (15% DTC) 4. Water Each of these macronutrients play a critical role in hockey performance, injury prevention & recovery.
  • 6. Macronutrient Periodization Micronutrients = nutrients that make up macronutrients. The building blocks of macronutrients consists of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, amino acids, trace minerals, and antioxidants. Hockey players must have a daily supply of micronutrients to run their metabolism, along with all other bodily functions that facilitate energy development, recovery from exercise, repair & growth, protein synthesis, hormonal regulation, blood pressure during exercise, just to name a few.
  • 7. Macronutrient Periodization Basic functions of macronutrients (energy substrates): Carbohydrates: 1.Provides 4 kcal/gram (1 gm of CHO=4 kcals). 2.2 types: Complex/natural carbohydrates & simple sugars. 3.Energy and muscular fuel source (from starch, sugars, and veggies). 4.Cholesterol & fat control (from dietary fiber). 5.Nutrient & water absorption. 6.Immediate fuel source (for intense activity). Off-Season = (3-7 grams/kg) In-Season = (5-12 grams/kg) Post-Season (Transition) = (3-4 grams/kg)
  • 8. Macronutrient Periodization Protein: 1.Provides 4 kcal/gram (1 gm of PRO=4 kcals) 2.Delivery of essential amino acids (body can’t make them) 3.Essential for building new muscle tissue (growth & injury repair). 4.Essential for maintaining existing muscle tissue (normal wear & tear from competition & training). 5.Fluid balance (helps control water level inside & outside cells. 6.Transports substances in the blood (vitamins, minerals, fat). Off-Season = (1.5-2.0 grams/kg) In-Season = (1.5-2.0 grams/kg) Post-Season (Transition) = (1.2-1.8 grams/kg)
  • 9. Macronutrient Periodization Fat: 1.Provides 9 kcal/gram (1 gm of FAT=9 kcals) 2.Delivery of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, & K). 3.Delivery of essential fatty acids (FA body needs but can’t make Omega 3 & Omega 6 fatty acids). 4.Essential for energy & muscular fuel (low-intensity aerobic). 5.Hunger control. 6.Substance in many hormones. Off-Season = (0.8-2.5 grams/kg) In-Season = (1.0-1.5 grams/kg) Post-Season (Transition) = (1.0-1.2 grams/kg)
  • 10. Macronutrient Periodization Basic functions of micronutrients: Vitamins: Type 1: Water soluble (can’t be stored in body-must be replaced daily). Vitamin C: citrus fruits, cherries, veggies B1 (Thiamine): whole grain cereals, beans, pork B2 (Riboflavin): dairy products, eggs, dark leafy greens B3 (Niacin): milk, turkey, chicken B5 (Pantothenic Acid): whole grains, dark leafy greens, fruits B6 (Pyridoxine): high protein foods, whole grains, eggs Folic Acid: dark leafy veggies (broccoli, spinach), OJ B12 (Cobalamin): foods of animal origin
  • 11. Macronutrient Periodization Vitamins: Type 2: Fat soluble (carried in fat solute = hockey players never utilize an excessively low fat meal plan < 20%). Vitamin A: animal liver, egg yolks, fortified dairy products, fish oils. Vitamin D: UV rays=sunlight, fish oils, milk. Vitamin E: nuts, eggs, polyunsaturated & monounsaturated oils (safflower oil, canola, olive oil). Vitamin K: vegetable oils, dark & leafy green veggies.
  • 12. Macronutrient Periodization Minerals: Minerals are used in almost every metabolic function in the body. Mineral functions include: Sustain bone density (resistant to fracture). Maintains relative acidity & alkalinity of blood & tissue ( critical for endurance performance). Serves as bridges for electrical impulses that stimulate muscular movement. The above functions are extremely important for hockey athletes. Low density bones=↑ risk for stress fractures. Poor acid-base balance = poor endurance, poor nerve & muscle function = poor coordination.
  • 13. Macronutrient Periodization Minerals: SO....Hockey player’s diet must be rich in minerals! Major Minerals: Calcium: dairy products, dark green leafy veggies, legumes. Phosphorus: all high protein foods, whole grains, dark green leafy veggies, carbonated beverages. Magnesium: Milk & milk products, meat, nuts, whole grains, dark leafy veggies, fruits. Electrolytes (Sodium-Potassium-Chloride): Sodium=salt, pickles, pretzels, crackers, cheeses, soy. Potassium=citrus fruits, potatoes, veggies, milk, meat, fish. Chloride=table salt
  • 14. Macronutrient Periodization How can a hockey athlete consume a meal plan that is rich in both vitamins and minerals: 1.Eat a wide variety of colourful fruits & veggies. 2.Eat fresh fruits & veggies (when in season). 3.Don’t overcook veggies – eat raw whenever possible. 4.If cooking – lightly steam, sautee..never boil veggies. 5.Use a multi-vitamin (that includes minerals). 6.Smoothies (fruits, berries etc). 7.Pack food with you.
  • 15. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Strategy #1: Pre-game & Post-Game Fuel Options Pre-Game Guidelines: 1.3-4 hours prior to event to allow for optimal digestion & energy supply. 2.500-1000 calories. 3.High complex, natural carbohydrate (low GI), moderate protein, & low fat food choices. 4.Liquid meal OK, especially if the event begins within 2-3 hours. Liquid meal will move out of stomach by game time. Include water.
  • 16. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Pre-Event Meal Plan I (approximately 500 calories) Milk, skim Lean meat or equivalent Fruit Bread or substitute Fat spread 1 cup 2 ounces 1 serving (1/2 cup) 2 servings 1 teaspoon Pre-Event Meal Plan II (approximately 900 calories) Milk, skim Cooked lean meat or equivalent Fruit Pasta or baked potato Bread or substitute Vegetable Fat spread Dessert: Angel food cake or plain cookies 2 cups 2 ounces 1 serving (1/2 cup) 1 cup or 1 medium 2 servings 1 serving (1/2 cup) 1 teaspoon 1 piece 2 cookies
  • 17. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Strategy #1: Pre-game & Post-Game Fuel Options Goal: To maximize the athlete's recovery via replenishing energy stores and fluid levels within the first hour after the game, which should improve the athlete's recovery time from 72 hours (without post-game nutrition) to within 24 hours. Fast and adequate recovery is crucial so that athlete can compete and/or train within the next day or two after the game with minimal effects on performance. Guidelines: 3 parts to post-game recovery process.
  • 18. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Part 1 - Recovery Drink - Within 15 minutes After Game The recovery drink will begin restoring the athlete's energy levels (glycogen stores). ====================== Part 1 Recovery Drink - Alternative #1 Sports drink (Gatorade) ====================== Recovery Drink - Alternative #2 Smoothie (in a blender mix milk, low fat yogurt/ice cream, mixed fruit frozen/fresh, and water) ======================
  • 19. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Part 2 - Fluid Replacement - Within 15 minutes After Game In order to determine the amount of fluid that needs to be replaced, the athletes should weigh themselves before and after the game. Drink 2 cups of fluid (sports drink or water) for every pound lost. ====================== Part 2 Fluid Replacement 2 cups of water or sports drink for every pound lost Note: The recovery drink above counts as part of your fluid replacement. ======================
  • 20. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Part 3 - Post-Game Meal - Within 1 Hour After Game This meal will help further restore glycogen levels and begin muscle repair. This meal is going to be very high in carbohydrates. It's within the first 2 hour window when the majority of CHO ingested will go straight to muscle energy stores, with very little going to fat stores. Depending on the size of the athlete, consume 100 to 400 grams of CHO during this important meal. Post-Game Meal - Alternative #1 Pasta (1.5 cups - 322 calories) Filet Mignon Salad Multi-Vitamin Supplement Post-Game Meal Alternative #2 Whole wheat bread (4 slices-270 calories) Chicken Breast Salad Multi-Vitamin Supplement
  • 21. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Strategy #2: How to avoid dehydration Water is an important nutrient for the athlete. Athletes should start any event hydrated and replace as much lost fluid as possible by drinking chilled liquids at frequent intervals during the event. Chilled fluids are absorbed faster and help lower body temperature. Table 2: Recommendations for hydration. Pre-event meal 2-3 cups water (16-24 oz) 2 hours before 2-2 1/2 cups water (16-20 oz) 1/2 hour before 2 cups water (16 oz) Every 10-15 minutes during the event ½-1 cup (4-8 oz) water & (2 oz sports drink) After event 2 cups (16 oz) fluid for each pound lost Next day Drink fluids frequently (it may take 36 hours to rehydrate completely).
  • 22. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Strategy #3: Game-Day Nutrition Plan (Nutrient Timing) BEFORE GAME: 1.Start Hydrated: • Start hydrating 24 hours prior to game • Check urine colour (mellow yellow – good/apple juice – see Mikki) • 2-3 hours before game – drink 400-600 ml (5-7 ml/kg) • During warm-up: drink another 240 ml (~8 gulps) 2.When & What to Eat: • Emphasize carbohydrates • Drink sports drink 30-60 minutes before game to “top-up”. • 3-4 hours prior for pre-game meal. • Optimal carbohydrate intake = x weight (kg) = ??
  • 23. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Strategy #3: Game-Day Nutrition Plan (Nutrient Timing) DURING GAME: 1.Stay Hydrated & Energized: • Hydrate with water (4-8 oz) and sports drink (2 oz) every 15 minutes. • Stay in your hydration zone: Drink at least 400-800 ml of fluid each hour (water & sports drink). Ensure sports drink has sodium. • Drink more if you sweat more. • Ice is cold, but your body isn’t; heavy pads and helmets + intense exercise = a lot of sweat lost. MUST REPLACE!
  • 24. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Strategy #3: Game-Day Nutrition Plan (Nutrient Timing) AFTER GAME (Recovery starts as soon as you step off the ice): • Replace Carbohydrate = Consume a high GI carbohydrate beverage or snack within 15 minutes. • Replace fluids = 16 oz for every pound lost in sweat. • Consume recovery meal = High carbohydrate, high protein (25-30 grams/kg), low-moderate fat meal within 1 hour of game completion. • See table for carbohydrate requirements for recovery nutrition.
  • 25. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Body weight lb kg 100 lb (45 kg) 110 lb (50 kg) 120 lb (55 kg) 130 lb (59 kg) 140 lb (64 kg) 150 lb (68 kg) 160 lb (73 kg) 170 lb (77 kg) 180 lb (82 kg) 190 lb (86 kg) 200 lb (91 kg) 210 lb (95 kg) CHO gms needed after 50- 75 55-83 60-90 65-98 70-105 75-113 80-120 85-128 90-135 95-143 100-150 105-158 Cals needed after 200-300 220-332 240-360 260-392 280-420 300-452 320-480 340-512 360-540 380-572 400-600 420-632
  • 26. Strategies for performance, injury prevention & recovery Strategy #4: Follow the “10 Habits of High Successful Eating” 1.Eat every 2-3 hours. 2.Eat complete lean protein with every feeding opportunity. 3.Eat veggies with each feeding opportunity. 4.Eat veggies and fruit with any meal; starchy CHO only after exercise. 5.Eat healthy fats daily (1/3 saturated-1/3 monounsaturated-1/3 polyunsaturated). 6.Don’t drink beverages with more than 0 calories. 7.Eat whole foods instead of supplements when possible. 8.Plan ahead and prepare feedings in advance. 9.Eat a wide variety of good foods (always) 10.Plan on breaking these rules 10% of the time.
  • 27. Reading nutrition labels accurately