The Design Process For FRC Team 1592 Bionic Tigers Mr. Christopher Bearden Patriot Systems Engineering email@example.com Twitter: @C_Bearden 321-777-2369
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Purpose• Describe the engineering process used by industry• Relate the engineering process to the FRC
Developing a System 5 Major Phases Analysis Design Build Test Support • Strategy • Requirements = Design Reviews Analysis • Preliminary Design • Detailed Design • Fabrication • Integration • Design Testing • Validation • Defects • UpgradesIdeas Prototypes Finished Product
Analysis Design Build Test Support What will be our execution strategy for this work? Specialities 1. Mech Eng - Pneu, Propulsion, Fluids Roles & Responsibilities 2. Software Eng - Operating Sys, Algorithm, Embedded 1. How are we organized to 3. Elect Eng - execute the work? Radar, Power, Communications 2. Who is in charge of who? 4. Architects 3. Who is responsible for what? 5. Chemical Engs 6. ……..possibly many more! Staffing Development 1. Who is available? Process Execution 2. Do employees have the1. Design reviews Strategy necessary experience? (Program Plan) 3. Should we hire someone?2. Parallel activities 4. Should we give some work3. Schedule to another company? Tools & Equipment Location of Work 1. Software – Lab View or C++ 1. Where will the work be performed 2. Engineering – Pro E or Autodesk (U.S. Or Overseas)? Inventor 2. Do we adequate facilities at those 3. Machine shops locations? 4. Electronic manufacturing
Analysis Design Build Test Support What are we supposed to be building? Types of RequirementsSources of Functional Performance Physical Interface ServicesRequirements1. Customer What must How well must it What size, How will Besides theSpecifications this product perform this weight, people use product,2. Marketing do? task? color it? What what else3. SafetyStandards must it makes it must be4. Meetings be? work with delivered5. Company Stds other (training,6. Industry Stds products? documents, Industry maintenance, etc.)?1. Game Rules Same Same Same Same Same2. Team Strategy3.4. Robot Manual Awards FIRST Robotics Competition5. Arena6. Meetings
Analysis Design Build Test SupportExamples of Requirements1. Minibot must ascend a metal pole and impact a sensor disk. (Functional)2. …..must climb the tower < 10 seconds (Performance)3. Sponsors logo’s will be displayed on HostBOT (Physical)4. A driver station will be used to control the HostBOT (Interface)5. HostBOT will not cross the vertical plane of an opponents zone (Services – Operator Training)
Analysis Design Build Test SupportWhat are the major pieces of our robot system? ROBOT “System” Operator Driver Station “System” implies people, equipment Host Bot and documentation Need a design concept to Chassis get started Manipulator MiniBot MiniBot Launcher Block Diagram
Analysis Design Build Test SupportWhat are the ALL the pieces of our robot system? Breakdown Diagram
Analysis Design Build Test SupportRequirements Brainstorming • Technical teams meet to define the requirements for subsystems and assemblies – Functional – Performance – Physical – Interface • Example 1. The D/S allows an operator to control the HostBOT - Given 1a. There will be touch sensitive slider control to vary the HBOT speed from 0 to MAX – Brainstorming Session • Assign responsibility for requirements • Software • Mechanical • Electrical • Allocate requirement to the design • Which Subsystem or Assembly does this belong to?
Analysis Design Build Test SupportPreliminary Design Goal: Identify and assess alternatives for each of the ROBOT subsystems (D/S, MiniBOT, etc). Choose one.Step 1: Technical teams meet to propose solutions to the design problem. Example: MiniBOT Design Concepts Alternative #1: Use magnetic force to attach MBOT to the metal tower and propel it upwards with an electric motor to impact the disk. Alternative #2: Use a spring-loaded mechanism that clamps the MBOT to the metal tower when the MBOT impacts the tower.Step 2: Evaluate the alternatives. Step 2a. Test the concepts using a mock-up or a model.
Analysis Design Build Test Support Example: Alternative #1 Mock-Up Tape magnets to wood chassis; attach wheels; size it for the tower. Knowing that the MBOT will need a motor, wheels, battery pack – find that weight and add it to the mock-up – say 5lbs. Test 1: What # and weight of magnets would it take to hold 5lbs upright against the tower? - How does this change as weight is added? Test 2: How close to the tower must the magnets be? - How does this change as distance changes? Test 3: Do magnets affect the operation of the electric motor? - What separation distance is needed? Test 4: Will the MBOT travel in a straight line up the tower? - How could this be corrected?
Analysis Design Build Test Support Step 2b: Consider the design constraints a. Volume of MBOT is restricted to 12” x 12” x12” b. MBOT must not weigh more than 15lbs c. No more than 2 motors d. Powered only by 12VDC battery e. Allowed materials Step 2c: What are the risks of this approach? Ex: What if ……..the MBOT falls off the tower after impacting the upper disk? Can this risk be mitigated somehow?
Analysis Design Build Test Support Step 3: Compare the alternatives Alt #1 Alt #2 Alt #3 Performance 4 secs 5 secs 9 secs Risk High Medium Low Cost $ 100 $ 500 $100 Color Criteria: Performance: if time <= 5 secs (Green) >5<= 10 secs (Yellow) >10 secs (Red) Cost: <= $100 (Green) >$100 <= $400 (Yellow) > $400 (Red) Step 4: Select an alternative
Analysis Design Build Test Support Step 5: Add design-level requirements to the existing requirements. Example: Add what was learned from testing the mock-up. Step 6: Create a Preliminary Layout Diagram Wheel Wheel Gears Motor Battery Kill Pack Magnets Sw Wheel Wheel 12” max
Analysis Design Build Test SupportDetailed Design Goals: Identify specific parts and materials. Specify how these parts interact. Step 1: Identify the mathematical word problems and solve them. Example: What gear design will propel a 5 lbs MBOT up the tower at a speed of X inches/second using an electric motor with an output power of……..a rotational speed of ……..and 4” diameter wheels? Step 2: Identify parts - Consider the design constraints from the Robot Manual - Make it or buy it? -- Cost limits imposed by FRC ($400 per part) -- May need a detailed drawing if “make” - Add parts information to the “Breakdown Diagram” - Are there any “long lead” parts?
Analysis Design Build Test Support Step 3: Design the interfaces What SW or HW must be added to the design to make the pieces fit and function together ? - HOSTBOT -- Manipulator Assy -- Chassis Assy -- MiniBOT Launcher Assy -- MiniBOT Assy Step 4: Create the drawings and digital models - Layout Drawings - Electrical Schematics - Fabricated Parts
Analysis Design Build Test SupportThe Build Phase Goals: Have a completed Robot system (including SW) that is ready for testing. Step 1: Drawings are released to machine shop (machinists, microelect, etc). Step 2: Purchase Requests are released (a specialist in Industry). Step 3: Transportation requirements are defined; materials are purchased; crates are constructed. Step 4: Parts are received and put into kits (a box or a shelf location) Use the Breakdown Diagram MiniBot Manipulator Chassis Assy MIniBot Assy Launcher Assy Kit Kit Kit Assy Kit Step 5: Kits are assembled. Step 6: Assemblies are integrated.
Analysis Design Build Test SupportThe Test Phase Goals: Test the performance limits of the product. Verify the product meets the customer’s original set of requirements . Developmental Testing - How fast, how high, how far? - Determining the safety limits - Breaking points Validation - Prove to the customer that the product meets or exceeds their original requirements - Product ships when the customer is satisfied
Analysis Design Build Test SupportThe Support Phase Goals: Design new features for a fielded product. Fixing defects that were discovered by users. A new feature (i.e. requirement) sends you all the way back to the Analysis Phase! ** What’s the implication here?**** Types of defects - Software bug - Parts that break too often -- Environment (heat, humidity) -- High usage -- Poor quality Replacement parts (or software) no longer made
Analysis Design Build Test Support Waterfall Development Process How is Software different?Process phases can be the same but different diagrams and products than HW.SW development methods and tools very different than HW. - Object Oriented Design - Architecture Development Languages - AGILE development - Service Oriented Architectures Analysis - SW Architecture (versus Block Diagram) Design - Adding more detail to SW architecture - Designing the interfaces to HW items - Designing screen layouts - Data structures, algorithms and sequencing Build - Writing and deploying code - Version control - Completing the SW architecture by integrating its pieces
The Last Word 80% of catastrophes discovered here Analysis Design Build Test SupportBut they were caused here!
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