Week 7 Using The Social Web For Social Change - Elluminate (#bgimgt566sx)


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Presentation for the live Elluminate session for week 7 of the BGI (Bainbridge Graduate Institute) course "Using the Social Web for Social Change". Topic "Motivations for Participation and Change" including Science of Influence, Influence & Ethics, Cialdini’s Six Principles, BJ Foggs Persuasive Design Process, etc.

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Week 7 Using The Social Web For Social Change - Elluminate (#bgimgt566sx)

  1. 1. Using the Social Web for Social Change Week 7 – Elluminate Session E November 2, 2009: 7pm PT
  2. 2. Quote of the Day “Doing my best to wrestle down the demons into a chokehold and observe them wiggle to be free, I feel the elation of courage, looking fear in the eye and then watching the demon evaporate into a thin wisp of reconfigured energy.” Mauri — Mauri Parks Parks
  3. 3. Week 7: Motivations for Participation and Change Opening Circle Review Last Week & Upcoming Week Social Change Projects Science of Influence Agenda Cialdini’s Six Principles Influence & Ethics Persuasive Design Process
  4. 4. Type a sentence into the chat window about: Opening Circle how you are feeling tonight something about your BGI Beat blog something you learned this week a concern
  5. 5. Everyone now has a personal learning journal PLJ & Blogs and a BGI Beat blog. Some really good content being created here. The trick now is to keep motivated to continue to create and add content and to incrementally improve the blog as needed.
  6. 6. I’ve been very jazzed about the videos you Videos created and shared last week. I’m already seeing lots of interest in the videos, with many people taking a peek. Thanks!
  7. 7. Week 7 Motivations for Participation and Change
  8. 8. Last Week’s Assignments Post 1 thoughtful post, 1 commentary post, 1 link post, plus 2 comments in other blogs Find Video Identify and bookmark 3 videos that exemplify social change At least one ideally should be in your BGI Beat Create Video ~30 seconds minimum Either a video intro to your blog A video intro to your LinkedIn profile A video response to a video on YouTube Creativity encouraged Video may be private, but this is discouraged
  9. 9. Readings & Media Heavy of readings this week due to preparation for Intensive Topics are Motivations for Change Persuasion & Influence Conservation Psychology Design & Simplicity This is last week of heavy required readings. Future weeks will mostly be suggested readings.
  10. 10. Next Week’s Assignments Post in BGI Beat Blog 1 thoughtful post 1 commentary post on topic from related blog 1 link post with related links Post in Fellow Student Blogs 2 comments in their blogs Pre-Elluminate Personal Learning Journal post These assignments will be the same ever week except for the week after the last Intensive! This should give you time for your Social Change Projects.
  11. 11. Social Change Projects Learning to change the world by doing
  12. 12. Types of Social Change Projects Social Video ~3 minutes of scripted, edited video careful about copyright for broadest distribution Event Climate Change Day “Lunch for Good” Educational Resource web page teacher tools Open to your imagination
  13. 13. The Science of Influence
  14. 14. The Science of Influence The science of influence goes back to Aristotle recording his principles of persuasion in his work Rhetoric As this science of has evolved, the nature of influence, compliance and persuasion has become more empirically tested We have the results of decades of testing, by thousands of scientists who study human behavior, which has yielded a rich body of knowledge This has become a key part of the science of Social Psychology
  15. 15. Definitions The study of Influence is focused on the methods and capacity for effecting a particular change in human Behavior, Attitude, or Belief Inducing a change in behavior is called Compliance Inducing a change in attitude is called Persuasion Inducing a change in belief is called Education or Propaganda
  16. 16. Subjects of Influence Influence is said to be employed by an Agent or a Practitioner Influence is applied upon a Target The tactics of influence and the message are called the Advocacy
  17. 17. Compliance Studies of compliance are focused specifically on changes in behavior Compliance doesn’t require the target to agree with the advocacy Instead, compliance just requires the target to perform the behavior Often a quick fix rather then a long term solution. A single action, a single sale, rather then a change of heart Yet sometimes compliance is best tactic with one-time advocacy goals
  18. 18. Persuasion Studies of persuasion are focused on changes in attitude, to win “the heart and mind” of the target Persuasion is more difficult to induce, as it often requires emotion-based tactics The effects of persuasion last longer because the target accepts and internalizes the advocacy However, connection between changes in behavior (compliance) and changes in attitude (persuasion) are not necessarily closely correlated
  19. 19. Education & Propaganda The study of effecting change in belief can be called the study of education but it is closely related to the study of propaganda Central to both education and propaganda is the role of influencing the knowledge that the target believes to be true Beliefs are things known or believed to be true, as opposed to attitudes, which are more emotional evaluations Beliefs are precursors to both attitudes and behavior, but are often created after the fact to defend those beliefs and behaviors we already own
  20. 20. Disciplines of Influence Marketing – study of how to influence the connection between a consumer need to a specific product or service Advertising – a sub-discipline marketing, focused more on the compliance act of a sale Rhetoric – study of educational and persuasive discourse Law – influence through both courts and governance
  21. 21. Thought Control The dark side of the science of influence is that these tactics can be used for coercive manipulation At the least coercive level they can be use to sell a product More coercive are those that can change behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs against the targets interest Most coercive are those that can replace identity. These are the cult and brainwashing tactics
  22. 22. Bad Information In learning about influence, there is a lot of bad information out there The science is relatively young, starting in the 50’s, but only maturing the in 90’s with neuroscience tests Much common wisdom and various approaches to influence contain half- truths and falsehoods Avoid stories, anecdotes, testimonials Beware subliminal and hypnosis Look for verifiable evidence and verifiable expertise
  23. 23. Tactics of Influence A number of researchers have attempted to define a taxonomy of the different tactics of influence Starting in the 60’s, tactics of influence included such categories as reward, punishment, explanation, etc. Eventually these lists of tactics grew very large, with categories as narrow as allurment, flattery, guilt, ingratiation, threat, etc. One list >160 Many of these tactics are not ethical
  24. 24. Marwell & Schmitt Marwell & Schmitt in 1967 did Aversive Stimulation one of the first taxonomies of Moral Appeal influence, with 16 categories: Positive Self-Feeling Reward Negative Self-Feeling Punishment Positive Altercasting Positive Expertise Negative Altercasting Negative Expertise Altruism Liking/Ingratiation Positive Esteem of Others Gifting/Pre-giving Negative Esteem of Others Debt
  25. 25. Six Principles of Ethical Influence
  26. 26. Robert Cialdini In the 80’s & 90’s, social psychologist Robert Cialdini tested many of these tactics of influence and measured their success in compliance and persuasion From the results of these experiments he narrowed these large lists to down to 6 broad categories of tactics These categories were the most effective, yet also had the property of being more ethical
  27. 27. Six Principles of Ethical Persuasion Robert Cialdini’s Six Principles of Ethical Persuasion Reciprocity Commitment & Consistency Social Proof (Consensus) Liking Authority Scarcity
  28. 28. Reciprocity People feel obligated to repay, in kind, what they receive. After giving someone a favor, they will be favorably compelled to comply with a reasonable request. Thus the prevalence of free samples It can spur unequal exchanges Favors don’t have to be tangible, just attention is a form of favor
  29. 29. Commitment & Consistency People don’t like making choices, so once they have made even a small one there is commitment to continue. Even if the original incentive or motivation is removed after they have already agreed, they will continue to honor the agreement. People respond to others who are consistent in their messages. If you are constantly giving the same messages to people and acting in a consistent way, they will respond positively.
  30. 30. Social Proof (Consensus) We decide what is correct by noticing what other people think is correct. People are more willing to comply with a request based on the degree that others are performing it. If people see others doing an action, they assume that it must be the correct thing to do. Uncertainty amplifies social proof. Some of this is largely unconscious.
  31. 31. Liking People prefer to comply with requests of, or be persuaded by, people that they like. People feel comfortable if they see similarity or like the things that you are associated with. The more similar someone appears to be in opinions, personality, background, or lifestyle, the more likely you will comply with requests. Time and history is a factor.
  32. 32. Authority We are raised to respect authority. We easily confuse the symbols of authority with substance. People invariably act more positively if they have respect for the authority of the person who is giving them information. In addition to the titles and trappings of authority, knowledge and trustworthiness are factors in credibility. People will tend to obey authority figures, even if they are asked to perform objectionable acts – “milgram experiment”
  33. 33. Scarcity People love freedom, and if that freedom is threatened or limited, they will take action. If people are given a perceptions of scarcity (including scarcity of time), it will generate demand. People are much more interested in something if they feel that it is about to run out. Possibility of loosing something is more powerful motivator than gaining.
  34. 34. Kevin Hogan Kevin Hogan in his book Psychology of Persuasion has 10 categories, closely related to Cialdini’s Reciprocity Time Contrast Friends Expectancy Consistency Association Scarcity Conformity Power
  35. 35. Skeptical on Hogan There is a lot that Kevin Hogan writes about that I’m skeptical about, he has less rigor then Cialdini However, two of his laws are useful additions to Cialdiani’s 6 Law of Time Past experience can override present People favor the present over future Law of Contrast When two different things are placed near to each other in space or time, they are perceived as being more different
  36. 36. Compliance tactics are not as enduring as Persuasion tactics Enduring Change (Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Petty & Wegener 1999)
  37. 37. Influence & Ethics
  38. 38. Continuum of Influence Education Advertising Propaganda Indoctrination Thought Control Relationship & Limited consensual Instruction & An authority Authoritarian & Authoritarian, Exchange relationship; logical emotional attempts to persuade hierarchical but also hierarchical, without thinking is manipulation which the masses. consensual & target awareness, for encouraged. target can ignore. contractual. indefinite time. Deceptiveness Infrequently Selective Exaggeration, Infrequently Deceptive deceptive if teacher information, selective, may be intentionally has no agenda. sometimes deceptive. deceptive. deceptive, often selective. Methods Instructional; Mild to heavy Heavy persuasion, Coercive compliance Unethical program of indoctrination can persuasion. compliance tactics. (punishment) influence. occur when the condoned. teacher has an agenda.  Goals Productive & capable Sale of product or Political power & A cohesive & Perpetuation of the citizenry, service. control. effective group. group for money or actualization. power. Indoctrination, if an agenda exists. Margaret Thaler Singer’s Note that upon examination, the continuum Taxonomy of Levels of defies simple right-or-wrong categorizations. Even some forms of indoctrination can be ethical Influence
  39. 39. Alignment with Other Courses Enlightened Marketing Ethics (Murphy) Non-malfeasance knowingly do no harm Non-deception do not misrepresent or deceive Protect the vulnerable not just children or elderly Distributive justice systems with consequences that create fair trade Stewardship social duties to the common good
  40. 40. Persuasive Design Process
  41. 41. BJ Fogg Dr. BJ Fogg is a Stanford professor and author who specializes in the study of using computer technologies to influence behavior, sometimes called Captology In particular, he studies mobile persuasion, persuasion using social networks, persuasion using video, and peace innovation He is a member of my social network and reader of my blog
  42. 42. Study of the use of computers as a Captology persuasive technology – as a facilitator, as a medium, and an as a social actor.
  43. 43. BJ Fogg’s Eight Step Persuasive Design Process technology has been su audience. Until then, I audience. For example, He recommends starting with persuade users to adopt b audience who has demon team wants to persuade testable, small and less ambitious designers will increase th people who already exerc Design teams have so ma changes in behavior change (i.e. new persuasive technolog In fact, choosing the wro the design project, especi in later steps, once a de compliance over persuasion) that is working, they wil and bring in users who ar The next consideration i people are with technolo Once a design team has discovered a other adventurous souls mistake to target an audi beginning to use the tec approach that works, then iterate and building a persuasive tec or interactive TV. The be those who enjoy using tec improve on it to make it more In some cases, the first t completed in reverse determine the target beha a project to motivate te persuasive different behavior (e.g., project to persuade olde amount to ensure a secure a team to back up to “Perfection is the enemy of the good” combination of behavio foundation for the subseq Step 3: Find what “Ship early and often” Once a design team ha audience to target, it’s tim team must determine w performing the target be “Fail fast” grade aren’t brushing th As another example, if al why not? The answers to such que of the following three cat • lack of motivat Figure 1: Eight steps in early-stage persuasive design • lack of ability choosing the audience that is most likely to be receptive to the • lack of a well-t
  44. 44. Select a simple behavior Choose a simple behavior to target a simple or basic behavior testable or measurable it can be an approximation of a larger objective simplicity should be focus team should not be afraid to be perceived as “timid”
  45. 45. Receptive Audience Choose a receptive audience identify a target audience that is already receptive to the simple behavior change remember the audience probably already has some familiarity with technology you can expand the audience to those who are less receptive later sometimes you have to return to the behavior change step once you know your audience
  46. 46. Barriers Find what is preventing the target behavior is it lack of motivation? find a Cialdini’s influence tactic that will motivate them a lack of ability? then facilitate the behavior by educating or showing an example or a lack of a well-timed trigger? these are the often the easiest – teach them to connect to an existing stimulus If both a lack of motivation and ability, consider changing a different behavior
  47. 47. Figure 2: All three factors in the Fogg Behavior Model have subcomponents. Evaluating the Audience You need either high motivation orsixhigh ability The three core motivators I explained previously seem to account work together. As I see it, simplicity has six parts. These parts quite well for what motivates human behavior. Other models exist. relate to each other like links in a chain: If any single link breaks, Many people in psychology, marketing, and related fields have first, the chain fails. In this case, simplicitytolost. then then use emotion is spark, or educate & Barriers proposed different ways to view motivation (for references, see www.BehaviorModel.org). But for the purposes of persuasive Timethrough facilitation, or connect a signal design, I find my three-element approach to be the most useful. The first element of simplicity is time. If a target behavior requires time and we don’t have time available, then the behavior is not Elements of Simplicity (Ability) simple. For example, if I need to fill out an online form that has The next major factor in the FBM is ability. Optimizing this factor 100 fields in it, that behavior is not simple for me because I can move users across the behavior activation threshold. But usually have other demands on my time.
  48. 48. Choose Channel Choose an appropriate technology channel which channel is best depends on behavior, audience, and barrier training people to use a technology channel is difficult, so avoid at beginning email leverages different generations then twitter or facebook
  49. 49. Examples Find relevant examples of persuasive technology try to find 9 examples 3 that achieve a similar behavior 3 that have a similar audience 3 that use a similar channel examine which of Cialdini persuasion tactics each operate under
  50. 50. Imitate Imitate successful examples figure out what the “secret sauce” is don’t be afraid of doing something similar to what has worked before don’t be afraid to be derivative the internet culture is accepting of reuse and remix but someplace give attribution if you learned something see if there are Cialdini persuasion tactics you can add
  51. 51. Test and Iterate Test and iterate quickly start with low expectations prototype on paper or with a presentation tool (Keynote is great!) show to a small group try small variations and quick tests “perfection is the enemy of the good” “ship early and often” “fail fast”
  52. 52. Expand on Success Expand on success consider how to scale up more difficult behavior different barriers a new or broader audience small changes, vary one or two attributes at a time “everything big starts small”
  53. 53. Questions? Feedback? ChristopherA@LifeWithAlacrity.com NO ELLUMINATE NEXT WEEK: Next Elluminate Session H November 16, 2009: 7pm PT