Tactics of
Persuasion &
  Influence
February 6th, 2010
The Science of Influence
 The science of influence goes back to
 Aristotle recording his principles of
 persuasion in his wo...
Subjects of Influence
 Influence is said to be employed by
 an Agent or a Practitioner
 Influence is applied upon a Target
 T...
Definitions
 The study of Influence is focused
 on the methods and capacity for
 effecting a particular change in human
 Beh...
Compliance
Studies of Compliance are focused
specifically on changes in Behavior
Compliance doesn’t require the
target to a...
Persuasion
 Studies of Persuasion are focused on
 changes in Attitude, to win “the heart
 and mind” of the target
 Persuas...
Education & Propaganda
The study of effecting change in Belief
can be called the study of education but it
is closely rela...
Disciplines of Influence
 Marketing – study of how to influence
 the connection between a consumer need
 to a specific produc...
Thought Control
The dark side of the science of
influence is that these tactics can be
used for coercive manipulation
At th...
Bad Information
 In learning about influence, there is a
 lot of bad information out there
 The science is relatively young...
Tactics of Influence
 A number of researchers have
 attempted to define a taxonomy of
 the different tactics of influence
 So...
Marwell & Schmitt
 Marwell & Schmitt in 1967 did    Aversive Stimulation
 one of the early taxonomies of   Moral Appeal
 i...
Tactics of Influence
 Eventually these lists of tactics grew
 very large, with categories as narrow
 as allurment, flattery,...
Six Principles
of Ethical
Influence




                 photo source: Amazon.com
Robert Cialdini	

 In the 80’s & 90’s, social psychologist
 Robert Cialdini tested many of these
 tactics of influence and ...
Robert Cialdini	

 These tactics emphasize compliance
 i.e. “yes” rather then persuasion
 These tactics were the most
 eff...
Six Principles of
Ethical Persuasion
 Robert Cialdini’s Six Principles
 of Ethical Persuasion                             ...
Reciprocity

                          Reciprocity



           Scarcity                       Liking



                ...
Reciprocity
 People feel obligated to repay, in
 kind, what they receive
 After giving someone a favor, they
 will be favo...
Non-Tangible Gifts
 Favors              Attention
 Information         Advice
 Trust               Compliments
 Empathy   ...
Liking

                          Reciprocity



           Scarcity                       Liking



                     ...
Liking
 People prefer to comply with
 requests of, or be persuaded by,
 people that they know or like
 People feel comfort...
Liking through Similarity
 Similarity is a key to initiate liking
 An informal conversation to discover
 common interests ...
Liking through Praise
 Praise initiates liking — we like those
 who praise us
 We are very good at identifying false
 flatt...
Liking through Cooperation
 We like those whom we cooperate
 with
 The act of discovering shared
 interests is a form of c...
Liking through Attractiveness
 We must not deny that some portion
 of liking comes through
 attractiveness
 However, the a...
Liking through Liking Back
 It is often better for the persuasion
 practitioner to find a reason why to
 like and appreciat...
Social Proof (Consensus)

                          Reciprocity



           Scarcity                       Liking



   ...
Social Proof (Consensus)
 We decide what is correct by
 noticing what other people think is
 correct.
 People are more wil...
Social Proof (Consensus)
 Increased by
   Same behavior of multiple people (5% is
   an important threshold)
   The people...
Authority

                             Reciprocity



              Scarcity                       Liking



            ...
Authority
 We are raised to respect authority.
 Authority is not just someone’s title or
 position, but also their knowled...
Trappings of Authority
 Given insufficient or uncertain
 information, it is easier to initiate a
 decision if it is recomme...
Commitment & Consistency

                         Reciprocity



          Scarcity                       Liking



     ...
Commitment & Consistency
 People don’t like making choices, so
 once they have made even a small one
 there is commitment ...
Kinds of Commitments
Commitments are more persuasive
when they are
  Public (private goal 14%, public 86%)
  Voluntary & A...
Scarcity

                            Reciprocity



             Scarcity                       Liking



               ...
Scarcity
 People love freedom, and if that
 freedom is threatened or limited,
 they will take action.
 If people are given...
What makes Scarcity
 Things are scarce if they are unique
 or uncommon
 Time scarcity is useful, but quantity
 scarcity is...
Tactics
 Why do these tactics work?
   We are overwhelmed with information,
                                              ...
Tactics
 How do you choose?
                                      Reciprocity


                        Scarcity          ...
Tactics
 How do you choose?
   Form or improve relationships
                                                   Reciprocit...
Tactics
 How do you choose?
   Form or improve relationships
                                                   Reciprocit...
How do you choose?
How do you choose?
  Form or improve relationships
                                                  Re...
Influence &
Ethics
Continuum of Influence
               Education               Advertising          Propaganda             Indoctrination   ...
Enlightened Marketing Ethics
 Enlightened Marketing Ethics (Murphy)
   Non-malfeasance
     knowingly do no harm
   Non-de...
Last Chance for “Tactics of
Persuasion & Influence”
                                                                       ...
Persuasive
Design
Process
BJ Fogg
 Dr. BJ Fogg is a Stanford professor
 and author who specializes in the
 study of using computer technologies
 to ...
Study of the use of computers as a
Captology   persuasive technology – as a facilitator,
             as a medium, and an ...
BJ Fogg’s Eight Step
Persuasive Design Process
                                                                           ...
Select a Simple Behavior
 Choose a simple behavior to target
   a simple or basic behavior
   testable or measurable
   it...
Receptive Audience
 Choose a receptive audience
   identify a target audience that is already
   receptive to the simple b...
Barriers
 Find what is preventing the target
 behavior
   is it lack of motivation?
      find a Cialdini’s influence tactic...
Choose Tactic
 Form or improve relationships
   Reciprocity
   Liking
 Dealing with the unknown and
 uncertainty
   Social...
Choose Channel
Choose an appropriate technology
channel
  which channel is best depends on
  behavior, audience, and barri...
Examples
Find relevant examples of persuasive
technology
  try to find 9 examples
    3 that achieve a similar behavior
   ...
Imitate
 Imitate successful examples
   figure out what the “secret sauce” is
   don’t be afraid of doing something
   simi...
Test and Iterate
 Test and iterate quickly
   start with low expectations
   prototype on paper or with a
   presentation ...
Expand on Success
Expand on success
  consider how to scale up
  more difficult behavior
  different barriers
  a new or br...
Questions?
       Feedback?
ChristopherA@LifeWithAlacrity.com
               Slides at
     slideshare.net/christophera
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Tactics of Persuasion & Influence (BGIedu)

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Topic "Tactics of Persuasion & Influence" including Science of Influence, Cialdini’s Six Principles, Influence & Ethics, BJ Foggs Persuasive Design Process, etc

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Tactics of Persuasion & Influence (BGIedu)

  1. 1. Tactics of Persuasion & Influence February 6th, 2010
  2. 2. The Science of Influence The science of influence goes back to Aristotle recording his principles of persuasion in his work Rhetoric As this science of has evolved, the nature of influence, compliance and persuasion has become more empirically tested We have the results of decades of testing, by thousands of scientists who study human behavior, which has yielded a rich body of knowledge This has become a key part of the science of Social Psychology photo source: Amazon.com
  3. 3. Subjects of Influence Influence is said to be employed by an Agent or a Practitioner Influence is applied upon a Target The tactics of influence and the message are called the Advocacy photo credit: iStockPhoto
  4. 4. Definitions The study of Influence is focused on the methods and capacity for effecting a particular change in human Behavior, Attitude, or Belief Inducing a change in Behavior of a target called Compliance Inducing a change in Attitude by an agent is called Persuasion Inducing a change in Belief is called Education or Propaganda
  5. 5. Compliance Studies of Compliance are focused specifically on changes in Behavior Compliance doesn’t require the target to agree with the advocacy Instead, compliance just requires the target to perform the behavior Often a quick fix rather then a long term solution. A single action, a single sale, rather then a change of heart Yet sometimes compliance is best tactic with one-time advocacy goals
  6. 6. Persuasion Studies of Persuasion are focused on changes in Attitude, to win “the heart and mind” of the target Persuasion is more difficult to induce, as it often requires emotion-based tactics The effects of persuasion last longer because the target accepts and internalizes the advocacy However, connection between changes in behavior (compliance) and changes in attitude (persuasion) are not necessarily closely correlated
  7. 7. Education & Propaganda The study of effecting change in Belief can be called the study of education but it is closely related to study of propaganda Central to both education and propaganda is the role of influencing the knowledge that the target believes to be true Beliefs are things known or believed to be true, as opposed to Attitudes, which are more emotional evaluations Beliefs are precursors to both attitudes and behavior, but are often created after the fact to defend those beliefs and behaviors we already own Fair Use
  8. 8. Disciplines of Influence Marketing – study of how to influence the connection between a consumer need to a specific product or service Advertising & Sales – a sub-discipline marketing, focused more on the compliance act of a sale Management & Leadership – study of how to influence people and organizations to perform effectively Rhetoric – study of educational and persuasive discourse Law – influence through both courts and governance photo source: Public Domain
  9. 9. Thought Control The dark side of the science of influence is that these tactics can be used for coercive manipulation At the least coercive level they can be use to sell a product More coercive are those that can change behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs against the targets interest The most coercive are those that can replace identity. These are the cult and brainwashing tactics Fair Use
  10. 10. Bad Information In learning about influence, there is a lot of bad information out there The science is relatively young, starting in the 50’s, but only maturing the in 90’s with neuroscience tests Much common wisdom and various approaches to influence contain half- truths and falsehoods Avoid stories, anecdotes, testimonials Beware subliminal and hypnosis Look for verifiable evidence and verifiable expertise photo source: Public Domain
  11. 11. Tactics of Influence A number of researchers have attempted to define a taxonomy of the different tactics of influence Some of the first studied the influence from the perspective of the nature of power French & Raven’s Five Forms of Power(1958) Coercion Reward Legitimacy Referent Expert
  12. 12. Marwell & Schmitt Marwell & Schmitt in 1967 did Aversive Stimulation one of the early taxonomies of Moral Appeal influence, with 16 categories: Positive Self-Feeling Reward Negative Self-Feeling Punishment Positive Altercasting Positive Expertise Negative Altercasting Negative Expertise Altruism Liking/Ingratiation Positive Esteem of Others Gifting/Pre-giving Negative Esteem of Others Debt
  13. 13. Tactics of Influence Eventually these lists of tactics grew very large, with categories as narrow as allurment, flattery, guilt, ingratiation, threat, etc. One list >160 Many of these tactics are coercive may fundamentally not be ethical
  14. 14. Six Principles of Ethical Influence photo source: Amazon.com
  15. 15. Robert Cialdini In the 80’s & 90’s, social psychologist Robert Cialdini tested many of these tactics of influence and measured their success in compliance and persuasion From the results of these experiments he narrowed these large lists to down to 6 broad categories of tactics photo source: ExtraordinaryMindsBlog.com
  16. 16. Robert Cialdini These tactics emphasize compliance i.e. “yes” rather then persuasion These tactics were the most effective, yet also had the property of being more ethical These tactics rely on the target’s inclinations desire to conform more then they do agent’s power over the target Thus these tactics require less energy by the agent to enable compliance by the target photo source: Amazon.com
  17. 17. Six Principles of Ethical Persuasion Robert Cialdini’s Six Principles of Ethical Persuasion Reciprocity Reciprocity Scarcity Liking Liking Social Proof (Consensus) INFLUENCE Authority Commitment & Consistency Social Proof Commitment & Consistency Authority Scarcity
  18. 18. Reciprocity Reciprocity Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  19. 19. Reciprocity People feel obligated to repay, in kind, what they receive After giving someone a favor, they will be favorably compelled to comply with a reasonable request Thus the prevalence of free samples It can spur unequal exchanges Favors are more effective if meaningful, customized, and unexpected Favors don’t have to be tangible, attention is a form of favor photo credit: Muggy on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC
  20. 20. Non-Tangible Gifts Favors Attention Information Advice Trust Compliments Empathy Interest Time Sympathy Recognition Feedback Cooperation Services Listening Opportunities Referrals Expertise Laughter Affection Cheerfulness
  21. 21. Liking Reciprocity Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  22. 22. Liking People prefer to comply with requests of, or be persuaded by, people that they know or like People feel comfortable if they see similarity or like the things that you are associated with The more similar someone appears to be in opinions, personality, background, or lifestyle, the more likely you will comply with requests Time and history is a factor photo credit:Wonderlane on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC
  23. 23. Liking through Similarity Similarity is a key to initiate liking An informal conversation to discover common interests opens opportunities for both parties Discovering people known in common can establish liking Similarity in beliefs, attitudes and values overwhelm any differences in race or ethnicity Other cultures may have a require more time together to initiate liking photo credit: Lilia_Ann on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC
  24. 24. Liking through Praise Praise initiates liking — we like those who praise us We are very good at identifying false flattery, but honest praise is powerful and moving Everyone has some quality deserving of praise Praise doesn’t have to be face-to- face, in fact praise in front of others Different cultures have different methods of showing praise photo credit: CC_Chapman on Flickr
  25. 25. Liking through Cooperation We like those whom we cooperate with The act of discovering shared interests is a form of cooperation, thus initiates liking Creating a shared language and shared artifacts deepens relationships photo credit: McBeth on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC-ND
  26. 26. Liking through Attractiveness We must not deny that some portion of liking comes through attractiveness However, the appropriate clothing, attention to hygiene, etc. are as important photo credit: Hippy on Picasa licensed CC-BY-NC-SA
  27. 27. Liking through Liking Back It is often better for the persuasion practitioner to find a reason why to like and appreciate the person they are trying to influence “Like the one you’re with” photo credit: iStockPhoto
  28. 28. Social Proof (Consensus) Reciprocity Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  29. 29. Social Proof (Consensus) We decide what is correct by noticing what other people think is correct. People are more willing to comply with a request based on the degree that others are performing it. If people see others doing an action, they assume that it must be the correct thing to do. Uncertainty amplifies social proof. Some of this is largely unconscious. photo credit: iStockPhoto
  30. 30. Social Proof (Consensus) Increased by Same behavior of multiple people (5% is an important threshold) The people behaving are similar to you, or what you want to be like In conditions of uncertainty, social proof is particularly powerful photo credit: Nearsoft on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC-SA
  31. 31. Authority Reciprocity Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  32. 32. Authority We are raised to respect authority. Authority is not just someone’s title or position, but also their knowledge We easily confuse the symbols of authority with substance. People invariably act more positively if they have respect for the authority of the person who is giving them information. People will tend to obey authority figures, even if they are asked to perform objectionable acts – “milgram experiment”
  33. 33. Trappings of Authority Given insufficient or uncertain information, it is easier to initiate a decision if it is recommend by someone who has the trappings of authority More likely if trappings are: signals expertise: clothing, location, etc. appears credible & trustworthy shortcut: admit a weakness before a stating a strength “bad but good” In addition to the titles and trappings of authority, knowledge and trustworthiness are factors in credibility. photo credit:Trois-Tetes on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC
  34. 34. Commitment & Consistency Reciprocity Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  35. 35. Commitment & Consistency People don’t like making choices, so once they have made even a small one there is commitment to continue. Even if the original incentive or motivation is removed after they have already agreed, they will continue to honor the agreement. People respond to others who are consistent in their messages. If you are constantly giving the same messages to people and acting in a consistent way, they will respond positively. photo credit: iStockPhoto
  36. 36. Kinds of Commitments Commitments are more persuasive when they are Public (private goal 14%, public 86%) Voluntary & Active The commitment can be small, or even implied “Please call us if you need to change your your reservation.” 30% non-compliance “Will you please call us...(wait for yes).” 10% non-compliance. photo credit: Meonomous on Flickr licensed CC-BY-ND
  37. 37. Scarcity Reciprocity Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  38. 38. Scarcity People love freedom, and if that freedom is threatened or limited, they will take action. If people are given a perceptions of scarcity (including scarcity of time), it will generate demand. People are much more interested in something if they feel that it is about to run out. Possibility of loosing something is more powerful motivator than gaining photo credit: Rikomatic on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC-SA
  39. 39. What makes Scarcity Things are scarce if they are unique or uncommon Time scarcity is useful, but quantity scarcity is more effective The influence is increased by competition exclusive information first is a form of exclusive loss framing is more effective then gain framing photo credit: UN Multimedia
  40. 40. Tactics Why do these tactics work? We are overwhelmed with information, Reciprocity our choices are complicated We seek an easy resolution and often Scarcity Liking choose the first sufficiently satisfactory solution — this is called Satisficing INFLUENCE Single, reliable bits of information are Commitment used to guide our decisions — these are & Consistency Social Proof are what lie underneath these tactics. Authority
  41. 41. Tactics How do you choose? Reciprocity Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  42. 42. Tactics How do you choose? Form or improve relationships Reciprocity Reciprocity Liking Scarcity Liking INFLUENCE Commitment Social Proof & Consistency Authority
  43. 43. Tactics How do you choose? Form or improve relationships Reciprocity Reciprocity Liking Scarcity Liking Dealing with the unknown and uncertainty INFLUENCE Social Proof (Consensus) Commitment Social Proof Authority & Consistency Authority
  44. 44. How do you choose? How do you choose? Form or improve relationships Reciprocity Reciprocity Liking Scarcity Liking Dealing with the unknown and uncertainty INFLUENCE Social Proof (Consensus) Commitment Social Proof Authority & Consistency Motivating for action Authority Commitment & Consistency Scarcity
  45. 45. Influence & Ethics
  46. 46. Continuum of Influence Education Advertising Propaganda Indoctrination Thought Control Relationship & Limited consensual Instruction & An authority Authoritarian & Authoritarian, Exchange relationship; logical emotional attempts to persuade hierarchical but also hierarchical, without thinking is manipulation which the masses. consensual & target awareness, for encouraged. target can ignore. contractual. indefinite time. Deceptiveness Infrequently Selective Exaggeration, Infrequently Deceptive deceptive if teacher information, selective, may be intentionally has no agenda. sometimes deceptive. deceptive. deceptive, often selective. Methods Instructional; Mild to heavy Heavy persuasion, Coercive compliance Unethical program of indoctrination can persuasion. compliance tactics. (punishment) influence. occur when the condoned. teacher has an agenda.  Goals Productive & capable Sale of product or Political power & A cohesive & Perpetuation of the citizenry, service. control. effective group. group for money or actualization. power. Indoctrination, if an agenda exists. Margaret Thaler Singer’s Note that upon examination, the continuum Taxonomy of Levels of defies simple right-or-wrong categorizations. Even some forms of indoctrination can be ethical Influence
  47. 47. Enlightened Marketing Ethics Enlightened Marketing Ethics (Murphy) Non-malfeasance knowingly do no harm Non-deception do not misrepresent or deceive Protect the vulnerable not just children or elderly Distributive justice systems with consequences that create fair trade Stewardship social duties to the common good
  48. 48. Last Chance for “Tactics of Persuasion & Influence” Scarcity In the early years of BGI the Tactics of If you are a C7, this will be the last Persuasion and Influence were taught as chance you have before you graduate to part of the 2nd year Marketing course, cover this important topic. If you are a however, in recent years this topic has C8 you'll find that gaining an basic been dropped from the syllabus. understanding will help you in your ALP The students of my class "Using the projects, your discussions in classes, and Social Web for Social Change" last fall make a difference in your work next year found this topic very useful, not only in as you start the entrepreneurial track. Commitment my class, but in their whole way of You have already made the choice to & Consistency thinking about how to be effective make a difference in the world or you with their professional goals. Ask Social Proof would not be at BGI, so you'll want to them and you'll see. learn ways to be more effective at On Saturday, at 2pm during the free making that difference. time, in Room 105, I will introduce you to -- Christopher Allen Tactics of Persuasion and Influence, and show you how you can learn more on your own. Reciprocity Liking Authority
  49. 49. Persuasive Design Process
  50. 50. BJ Fogg Dr. BJ Fogg is a Stanford professor and author who specializes in the study of using computer technologies to influence behavior, sometimes called Captology In particular, he studies mobile persuasion, persuasion using social networks, persuasion using video, and peace innovation He is a member of my social network and reader of my blog
  51. 51. Study of the use of computers as a Captology persuasive technology – as a facilitator, as a medium, and an as a social actor.
  52. 52. BJ Fogg’s Eight Step Persuasive Design Process technology has been su audience. Until then, I audience. For example, He recommends starting with persuade users to adopt b audience who has demon team wants to persuade testable, small and less ambitious designers will increase th people who already exerc Design teams have so ma changes in behavior change (i.e. new persuasive technolog In fact, choosing the wro the design project, especi in later steps, once a de compliance over persuasion) that is working, they wil and bring in users who ar The next consideration i people are with technolo Once a design team has discovered a other adventurous souls mistake to target an audi beginning to use the tec approach that works, then iterate and building a persuasive tec or interactive TV. The be those who enjoy using tec improve on it to make it more In some cases, the first t completed in reverse determine the target beha a project to motivate te persuasive different behavior (e.g., project to persuade olde amount to ensure a secure a team to back up to “Perfection is the enemy of the good” combination of behavio foundation for the subseq Step 3: Find what “Ship early and often” Once a design team ha audience to target, it’s tim team must determine w performing the target be “Fail fast” grade aren’t brushing th As another example, if al why not? The answers to such que of the following three cat • lack of motivat Figure 1: Eight steps in early-stage persuasive design • lack of ability choosing the audience that is most likely to be receptive to the • lack of a well-t
  53. 53. Select a Simple Behavior Choose a simple behavior to target a simple or basic behavior testable or measurable it can be an approximation of a larger objective simplicity should be focus team should not be afraid to be perceived as “timid” photo credit: Madaboutasia on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC-SA
  54. 54. Receptive Audience Choose a receptive audience identify a target audience that is already receptive to the simple behavior change remember the audience probably already has some familiarity with technology you can expand the audience to those who are less receptive later sometimes you have to return to the behavior change step once you know your audience photo credit: Johntrathome on Flickr licensed CC-BY-NC-SA
  55. 55. Barriers Find what is preventing the target behavior is it lack of motivation? find a Cialdini’s influence tactic that will motivate them a lack of ability? then facilitate the behavior by educating or showing an example or a lack of a well-timed trigger? these are the often the easiest – teach them to connect to an existing stimulus If both a lack of motivation and ability, consider changing a different behavior photo credit: Cellerimus on Flickr licensed CC-BY
  56. 56. Choose Tactic Form or improve relationships Reciprocity Liking Dealing with the unknown and uncertainty Social Proof (Consensus) Authority Motivating for action Commitment & Consistency Scarcity photo credit:Tambako on Flickr licensed CC-BY-ND
  57. 57. Choose Channel Choose an appropriate technology channel which channel is best depends on behavior, audience, and barrier training people to use a technology channel is difficult, so avoid at beginning email leverages different generations then twitter or facebook photo source: www.top5comicshop.com
  58. 58. Examples Find relevant examples of persuasive technology try to find 9 examples 3 that achieve a similar behavior 3 that have a similar audience 3 that use a similar channel examine which of Cialdini persuasion tactics each operate under photo source: BBC News
  59. 59. Imitate Imitate successful examples figure out what the “secret sauce” is don’t be afraid of doing something similar to what has worked before don’t be afraid to be derivative the internet culture is accepting of reuse and remix but someplace give attribution if you learned something see if there are Cialdini persuasion tactics you can add photo sources: escondidosandiegohomesforsale.com and Amazon.com
  60. 60. Test and Iterate Test and iterate quickly start with low expectations prototype on paper or with a presentation tool (Keynote is great!) show to a small group try small variations and quick tests “perfection is the enemy of the good” “ship early and often” “fail fast” photo source: www.dailymail.co.uk
  61. 61. Expand on Success Expand on success consider how to scale up more difficult behavior different barriers a new or broader audience small changes, vary one or two attributes at a time “everything big starts small” photo credit: SteveHDC on Flickr licensed CC-BY-SA
  62. 62. Questions? Feedback? ChristopherA@LifeWithAlacrity.com Slides at slideshare.net/christophera

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