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Focus on writing ch. 20
 

Focus on writing ch. 20

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  • Focus on Writing: Chapter 20Run-Ons
  • SentencesA sentence is a group of words that expresses complete thought.Every sentence minimally includes:SubjectVerbComplete thought
  • Recognizing Run-OnsA run-on is an error that occurs when two sentences are joined incorrectly.Two types: Fused sentence: two sentences joined without any punctuation.Comma Splice: two sentences joined with just a comma.
  • Recognizing Run-OnsThe length of a sentence has nothing to do with whether or not a sentence is considered a run-on. An over-exuberant, run-off-at-the-mouth, 400-word gorilla of a sentence can be structurally fine. A run-on sentence is one in which two clauses have been connected incorrectly.
  • Avoiding Run-On SentencesLet’s think of an independent clause as an independently operated train headed west . . . getting connected to another train headed east.Nothing but grief will result from coupling these train clauses incorrectly! For example. . . .Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night, they are probably wrong.
  • Avoiding Run-On SentencesSome students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night, they are probably wrong.This is an example of the dreaded COMMA SPLICE!A comma splice connects two independent clauses with only a comma.There are several ways to fix a comma splice. . . .
  • Repairing Run-On Sentences1. We can insert a period and start a new sentence.Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night. They are probably wrong.2. We can insert a comma plus a coordinating conjunction.Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night, butthey are probably wrong.3. We can use a semicolon.Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night;they are probably wrong.4. We can insert a semicolon, a transitional word or phrase, and a comma.Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night; however,they are probably wrong.5. We can use dependent word.Although some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night,they are probably wrong.
  • Repairing Run-On SentencesRun-On Traps: There are three situations in which run-on sentences are apt to happen:When a pronoun in the second clause refers to a noun in the first clause: The President’s popularity has plummeted, she apparently underestimated the opposition.2. When a suggestion or directive occurs in the second clause: You will be responsible for this material on the final exam, study it thoroughly now.3. When two clauses are connected by a transitional expression: Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices, however, the opposite is actually true.
  • Repairing Run-On SentencesRun-On Traps: Fixing the traps from the last slide.1.The President’s popularity has plummeted, and sheapparently underestimated the opposition.2.You will be responsible for this material on the final exam. Study it thoroughly now.3.Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices; however, the opposite is actually true.
  • Coordinating ConjunctionsEasy to remember by FANBOYSForAndNorButOrYetSoTo join two independent clauses, use a comma before the coordinating conjunction
  • SemicolonsAnother way to create a compound sentence.Simply place the semicolon between the two independent clausesMake sure the clauses are related; otherwise, the sentence will not make senseDo not capitalize after the semicolonSemicolons can also be used followed by a transitional word or phrase
  • Transitional Words and PhrasesAnother way to create a compound sentenceSimply place a semicolon before the transitional word or phrase and a comma after it
  • Dependent WordsJoin two independent clauses by adding a dependent word.Common Dependent WordsAfterAlthoughAsBecauseBeforeEven thoughEventuallyIfInsteadUnlessUntilWhenWhich

Focus on writing ch. 20 Focus on writing ch. 20 Presentation Transcript

  • Focus on Writing: Chapter 20
    Run-Ons
  • Sentences
    A sentence is a group of words that expresses complete thought.
    Every sentence minimally includes:
    Subject
    Verb
    Complete thought
  • Recognizing Run-Ons
    A run-on is an error that occurs when two sentences are joined incorrectly.
    Two types:
    Fused sentence: two sentences joined without any punctuation.
    Comma Splice: two sentences joined with just a comma.
    John is enrolled.
    John is enrolled Susan studied hard.
    Susan studied hard.
    John is enrolled, Susan studied hard.
  • Recognizing Run-Ons
    The length of a sentence has nothing to do with whether or not a sentence is considered a run-on. An over-exuberant, run-off-at-the-mouth, 400-word gorilla of a sentence can be structurally fine. A run-on sentence is one in which two clauses have been connected incorrectly.
  • Avoiding Run-On Sentences
    Let’s think of an independent clause as an independently operated train headed west . . .
    getting connected to another train headed east.
    Nothing but grief will result from coupling these train clauses incorrectly! For example. . . .
    Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night, they are probably wrong.
  • Avoiding Run-On Sentences
    Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night, they are probably wrong.
    This is an example of the dreaded COMMA SPLICE!
    A comma splice connects two independent clauses with only a comma.
    There are several ways to fix a comma splice. . . .
  • Repairing Run-On Sentences
    1. We can insert a period and start a new sentence.
    Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night. They are probably wrong.
    2. We can insert a comma plus a coordinating conjunction.
    Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night, butthey are probably wrong.
    3. We can use a semicolon.
    Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night;they are probably wrong.
    4. We can insert a semicolon, a transitional word or phrase, and a comma.
    Some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night; however,they are probably wrong.
    5. We can use dependent word.
    Although some students think they can study for an important exam by “cramming” all night,they are probably wrong.
  • Repairing Run-On Sentences
    Run-On Traps: There are three situations in which run-on sentences are apt to happen:
    When a pronoun in the second clause refers to a noun in the first clause:The President’s popularity has plummeted, she apparently underestimated the opposition.
    2. When a suggestion or directive occurs in the second clause:You will be responsible for this material on the final exam, study it thoroughly now.
    3. When two clauses are connected by a transitional expression:Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices, however, the opposite is actually true.
  • Repairing Run-On Sentences
    Run-On Traps: Fixing the traps from the last slide.
    1.The President’s popularity has plummeted, and sheapparently underestimated the opposition.
    2.You will be responsible for this material on the final exam. Study it thoroughly now.
    3.Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices; however, the opposite is actually true.
  • Coordinating Conjunctions
    Easy to remember by FANBOYS
    To join two independent clauses, use a comma before the coordinating conjunction
    John is enrolled, but Susan studied hard.
  • Semicolons
    Another way to create a compound sentence.
    Simply place the semicolon between the two independent clauses
    Make sure the clauses are related; otherwise, the sentence will not make sense
    Do not capitalize after the semicolon
    Semicolons can also be used followed by a transitional word or phrase
    John is enrolled; classes start Tuesday.
  • Transitional Words and Phrases
    Simply place a semicolon before the transitional word or phrase and a comma after it
    John is enrolled; after all, classes start Tuesday.
  • Dependent Words
    Join two independent clauses by adding a dependent word.
    John is enrolled because classes start Tuesday.
  • 1. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs.
    A) Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors, their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs.
    B) Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors their visitors were not able to sit. In many of those chairs.
    C) Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors. Their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs.
    D) none of the above
  • 1. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs.
    ANSWER:
    A) Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors, their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs.
    B) Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors their visitors were not able to sit. In many of those chairs.
    C) Each person in Bernard’s office had a chair next to his or her desk for visitors. Their visitors were not able to sit in many of those chairs.
    D) none of the above
  • 2. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs.
    A) The reason was very simple, most people. Stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs.
    B) The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff. On their chairs.
    C) The reason was very simple. Most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs.
    D) none of the above
  • 2. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs.
    ANSWER:
    A) The reason was very simple, most people. Stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs.
    B) The reason was very simple, most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff. On their chairs.
    C) The reason was very simple. Most people stacked books, papers, and other stuff on their chairs.
    D) none of the above
  • 3. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Bernard wanted to break this habit after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    A) Bernard wanted to break this habit, after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    B) Bernard wanted to break this habit after all; why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    C) Bernard wanted to break this habit; after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    D) none of the above
  • 3. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Bernard wanted to break this habit after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    ANSWER:
    A) Bernard wanted to break this habit, after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    B) Bernard wanted to break this habit after all; why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    C) Bernard wanted to break this habit; after all, why couldn’t a chair be used as a chair?
    D) none of the above
  • 4. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    To his astonishment, everyone Bernard asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs.
    A) To his astonishment; everyone Bernard asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs.
    B) To his astonishment, everyone Bernard asked agreed; they said they would clear everything off their chairs.
    C) To his astonishment, everyone Bernard asked agreed they said; they would clear everything off their chairs.
    D) none of the above
  • 4. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    To his astonishment, everyone Bernard asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs.
    ANSWER:
    A) To his astonishment; everyone Bernard asked agreed they said they would clear everything off their chairs.
    B) To his astonishment, everyone Bernard asked agreed; they said they would clear everything off their chairs.
    C) To his astonishment, everyone Bernard asked agreed they said; they would clear everything off their chairs.
    D) none of the above
  • 5. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    A) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, and it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    B) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long, and before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    C) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, or it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    D) none of the above
  • 5. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    ANSWER:
    A) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, and it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    B) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived it wasn’t long, and before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    C) Bernard’s accomplishment was short-lived, or it wasn’t long before each of those chairs began to develop a fresh pile of books all over again.
    D) none of the above
  • 6. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    A) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone, that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    B) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone, even though that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    C) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone, and that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    D) none of the above
  • 6. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    ANSWER:
    A) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone, that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    B) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone, even though that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    C) Having a dog in the neighborhood probably makes it safer for everyone, and that nonstop barking was intolerable.
    D) none of the above
  • 7. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    A) Anthony was careful with money, and his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    B) Though Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    C) Anthony was careful with money, so his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    D) none of the above
  • 7. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    ANSWER:
    A) Anthony was careful with money, and his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    B) Though Anthony was careful with money, his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    C) Anthony was careful with money, so his friends weren’t always so financially savvy.
    D) none of the above
  • 8. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    A) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed, this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    B) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, and Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    C) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    D) none of the above
  • 8. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    ANSWER:
    A) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, Anthony assumed, this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    B) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan, and Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    C) Jeffrey always seemed to be asking someone for a loan Anthony assumed this didn’t embarrass Jeffrey.
    D) none of the above
  • 9. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony, he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through.
    A) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it; even after his work promotion fell through.
    B) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through.
    C) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony; he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through.
    D) none of the above
  • 9. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony, he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through.
    ANSWER:
    A) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it; even after his work promotion fell through.
    B) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through.
    C) However, Jeffrey always repaid the money he borrowed from Anthony; he repaid it even after his work promotion fell through.
    D) none of the above
  • 10. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    A) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, or he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    B) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras. Fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    C) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck. He liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    D) none of the above
  • 10. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    ANSWER:
    A) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, or he liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    B) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck, he liked to buy things like expensive cameras. Fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    C) Nearly every week, Lenny spent nearly his whole paycheck. He liked to buy things like expensive cameras, fine clothes, and designer shoes.
    D) none of the above
  • 11. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money, one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    A) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money though one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    B) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    C) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money; one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    D) none of the above
  • 11. Choose the answer that corrects this error:
    As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money, one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    ANSWER:
    A) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money though one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    B) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    C) As for himself, Anthony had a few tricks he had learned for saving money; one of them was throwing all of his small change into a jar.
    D) none of the above