University Of Trinidad And Tobago              School For Studies In Learning And Cognition                    Student Nam...
Broad Plan       Inclusion is becoming more prevalent in schools and it is proven to be an effectivestrategy. Inclusion is...
desire in the teachers and students to take action on making the classroom a more inclusiveenvironment. The expected concl...
Detailed OutlineIntroduction:The opening paragraph of this essay provides the reader with a clear definition of what inclu...
B) Increased Cognitive development               1. Inclusion ensures access to the general education curriculum.         ...
Contradictory findingsB) Whether inclusion has a positive effect on students with disabilities        1. Students may feel...
Working Outline                                         (First Half of Essay)        Inclusion has been defined on numerou...
Vaughn and colleagues (2000) opine that “all students should have the opportunity to be exposedto the same information.”  ...
reading is the process of simply rereading short meaningful sentences. (Salend, 1998, p.318)holds the view that repeated r...
is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels ofability, use a variety of...
learning difficulties, skilled application in specific instructional methods and parent and teachersupport. (Topping and M...
Working Bibliography       Adams M., & Brown S. (2006). Towards Inclusive Learning in Higher Education,       Developing c...
Research PaperIntroduction:       Inclusion has been defined on numerous accounts in the past and also recently, however,a...
Body:        Most students are proficient enough in literacy and can communicate on a day to daybasis with their level of ...
Students need to be provided with activities in order to boost their literacy development.Opportunities alone cannot suffi...
centred. Research has also shown that in an inclusive setting, there is improved readingperformance. (Salend, 2001.)      ...
attitudes towards school and learning. Peer tutoring enables students to be assigned toheterogeneous ability peers. Howeve...
that is given by the instructor. Through these critical thinking skills and complex thinking skillsare developed.       In...
To gain a better understanding of how people interact with each other and how to interactand form relationships, students ...
a significant individual within the social community and as someone who can share some of thesame experiences and opportun...
these interactions. An enormous focus is placed on the feature of socialization in inclusionwhereas less emphasis is place...
classrooms, students with disabilities often see what their peers can do and compare it with whatthey cannot do.       As ...
Conclusion:        While there is great contradiction on inclusion beliefs, the practice still has a potential tobe proven...
References       Adams M., & Brown S. (2006). Towards Inclusive Learning in Higher Education,       Developing curricular ...
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Academic and Social Effects of Inclusion

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Academic and Social Effects of Inclusion

  1. 1. University Of Trinidad And Tobago School For Studies In Learning And Cognition Student Name: Christina Sookdeo Student ID: 52927 Course: EDFN112B- Academic Reading, Writing and Research Skills Instructor: John Pierre Group: X Year 1- Semester 2Assignment: Research Paper on the Academic and Social Effects of Inclusion
  2. 2. Broad Plan Inclusion is becoming more prevalent in schools and it is proven to be an effectivestrategy. Inclusion is not simply a „good strategy‟ in education but it serves a much greaterpurpose in the personal and professional lives of students, including those with disabilities.According to the President of the United States, Barack Obama at a conference held 2008,“We must build a world free of unnecessary barriers, stereotypes, and discrimination.... policiesmust be developed, attitudes must be shaped, and buildings and organizations must be designedto ensure that everyone has a chance to get the education they need and live independently as fullcitizens in their communities" There are many reasons why teachers should create an inclusive classroom. This topictargets students at the secondary level of education- both with and without disabilities- and alsothe staff members of a school. Secondary school students with disabilities are at a greater risk to„drop-out‟ because of their lack of motivation and the feeling that they are not „normal‟ or in themainstream as the other students. Inclusion is both essential and critical in this particular areaand therefore I have chosen to address this audience. The format or mode of this essay is a cause and effect expository essay. Explanations andthe analysis of the information on the social and academic effects for students with disabilitieswill be presented.The main aim of this research paper is to inform the intended audience of why inclusion isnecessary and the effects that it has on students. It will not only enlighten them but stimulate a
  3. 3. desire in the teachers and students to take action on making the classroom a more inclusiveenvironment. The expected conclusion for this research paper is that I can educate the audienceabout the importance of the effects or results of inclusion and ways that they can help foster it fora better education system.
  4. 4. Detailed OutlineIntroduction:The opening paragraph of this essay provides the reader with a clear definition of what inclusionis as well as an overview of some of its main features. It will entail brief research findings thatshow the effects that inclusion has on students academically and socially and what its outcomesare for such individuals.Body:Section 1I) Academic Effects A) Better use and knowledge in literacy 1. Most students with disabilities often encounter problems in literacy. 2. Students are usually provided with these to develop their literacy: a) opportunities b) activities c) strategies 3. Inclusive settings appear to be fundamental for the literacy development of children with disabilities. (Research finding)
  5. 5. B) Increased Cognitive development 1. Inclusion ensures access to the general education curriculum. 2. Two strategies of practice: a. cooperative learning b. peer tutoring 3. It provides a more stimulating environment for cognition. 4. Students develop critical thinking skills and complex thinking skills.Section 2II) Social Effects A) Development of peer relationships and acceptance 1. Many students with disabilities often feel isolated and have poor social skills. 2. To gain a better understanding they are taught social skills: a. how to interact with people and create relationships b. people interact with them frequently 3. Inclusion can help students with disabilities reduce the fear of humandifferences.
  6. 6. Contradictory findingsB) Whether inclusion has a positive effect on students with disabilities 1. Students may feel that they will be insulted, teased or harmed because of theirdisability. 2. Too much emphasis on socialization and less on academics 3. Some students with disabilities need to attend special schools to develop otherimportant skills in a more fixed environment. 4. Students can develop a sense of low self-esteem and self-worth.C) The effect that inclusion has on students without disabilities 1. Students may see this as a disruption, distraction for their own learning. 2. It can create a degree of resentment or tension among students with disabilities andthose without.Conclusion:The conclusion will indicate the main effects of inclusion that were found out and itscontradictory findings. It was include recommendations of how these contradictions can beovercome and also what I learnt from doing this research paper.
  7. 7. Working Outline (First Half of Essay) Inclusion has been defined on numerous accounts in the past and also recently, however,a prominent definition remains to be, “Inclusion is a movement of families, educators, andcommunity members that seeks to create schools and other social institutions based onacceptance, belonging, and community.” (Salend, 1998, p.7) Some of the key features of schoolswhere inclusive education is said to be thriving are: collaborative teamwork, a sharedframework, family involvement, general educator ownership, clear role relationships amongprofessionals, effective use of support staff and procedures for evaluating effectiveness.(Giangreco, 1997.) According to Kochlar, West and Taymans (2002), inclusion promotes levelsof achievement higher or at least high as those achieved in self-contained classrooms. It alsofacilitates more appropriate social behaviour because of higher expectations in the generaleducation classroom for students with disabilities. Most students are proficient enough in literacy and can communicate on a day to daybasis with their level of literacy skills. However, students with disabilities who are regular non-attenders are found to be those with literacy and numeracy scores one to four years behind theirpeers. (Topping and Maloney, 2005, p. 124). Teachers hold the responsibility of helping thesestudents with disabilities to develop to their literacy skills. Students need to be given the opportunities in order to start or in some cases, continue inthe developmental process of their literacy skills. Teachers should create an environment whereliteracy can be fostered with and without help from adults or those with high literacy skills.
  8. 8. Vaughn and colleagues (2000) opine that “all students should have the opportunity to be exposedto the same information.” Some of the opportunities that teachers should create are embedded in classroominstructions, written, reading and homework assignments and also tests, quizzes and grades. Inclassroom instructions, teachers should write key points of instruction on the board or allowthem to read it orally. They should also provide study guides that identify key vocabulary andconcepts and also provide positive feedback. In written, reading and homework assignments theteacher should not penalize students for errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. The valueof listening comprehension should be recognized and also practiced and lastly, teachers mustallow the student to type or dictate their own homework assignments. With tests, quizzes andgrades, it should be kept in mind that terminologies or concepts must be simplified according tothe level of the student. Students need to be provided with activities in order to boost their literacy development.Opportunities alone cannot suffice the development process, students need to practice and learnfrom activities ordered by the teacher. In reading and writing activities there should be a focuson the students‟ experiences, interests, and background knowledge. (Salend, 1998, p.317) A variety of activities for integrating reading and writing throughout the curriculum todevelop the literacy skills of students with disabilities exists. Among such are storytelling,repeated reading, choral reading and drama. Storytelling is one of the most basic forms ofpromoting literacy in students because it gains the attention and interest of students. (Maldonado-Colon, 1991.) concur that storytelling can assist students in constructing meaning from text,promote listening comprehension and vocabulary skills, and motivate students to read. Repeated
  9. 9. reading is the process of simply rereading short meaningful sentences. (Salend, 1998, p.318)holds the view that repeated reading of a book or a selection can increase students‟ fluency andalso aid students in learning the rhythm, volume, and tone and language patterns of a student‟ssecond language. Choral reading involves the students and teachers in reading materials togetherand it promotes students fluency, vocabulary development, dictation, self-confidence andmotivation to read. (McCauley & McCauley, 1992.) According to (Hernandez, 1989) drama isthe acting out or retelling of stories through miming, gestures, role playing and the use of propsand it is though drama that a students‟ reading and language acquisition can be greatly improved. Inclusive settings clearly appear to be fundamental for the literacy development ofstudents with disabilities. The inclusive classroom does not hold a fixed design but it differsaccording to the interactions of the teachers and the students. According to Kliewer (2008), it is aclassroom where learning often happens in small groups with peer support and it is studentcentred. Research has also shown that in an inclusive setting, there is improved readingperformance. (Salend, 2001.) Inclusion ensures access to the general education curriculum. Access to and time spent inthe general education programs appear to not only increase their cognitive abilities but it alsoenhances the student‟s preparation for adulthood. In the opinion of Salend (1998) students withdisabilities who partake in the general education curriculum are more likely to participate inpost-secondary academic programs, be socially integrated into their community and be employedand make high salaries. There are two main strategies of practice in inclusive classrooms that are used-co-operative learning and peer tutoring. According to Kagan, Spencer (1994) co-operative learning
  10. 10. is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels ofability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. In co-operative learning students with special needs are not pulled out or excluded from theirclassrooms for additional instruction rather, the special education staffs provides instruction inthe regular classroom, to increase learning time and gives students an opportunity to participatefully in their classrooms. Research findings has shown that co-operative learning techniques dopromote student learning and academic achievement, increase student retention, enhance studentsatisfaction with their learning experience, help students develop skills in oral communicationand promotes their self-esteem. (Kagan, Spencer, 1994.). Entwined into co-operative learning is peer tutoring. In peer tutoring, one student tutorsand assists another in learning a new skill. It is a widely used cooperative format that has beeneffective in increasing the amount of time students are engaged in learning and fostering positiveattitudes towards school and learning. Peer tutoring enables students to be assigned toheterogeneous ability peers. However, there is a strategy called „Classwide Peer Tutoring‟ whichhas been effective in teacher reading, spelling, vocabulary, math and social studies to a widerange of students educated in a variety of instructional settings. Both cooperative learning andpeer tutoring can increase the cognitive abilities of students with disabilities and also motivatethem to aid this development further. Inclusion provides a more stimulating environment for cognition to occur. For inclusionto occur there must be a set of conditions in the environment to trigger this simulation ofcognition. These conditions are the basis of the type of environment that needs to be formed andsuch conditions comprise of opportunities for pupil participation in the decision making process,a positive attitude about the learning abilities of pupils, teacher knowledge about the students‟
  11. 11. learning difficulties, skilled application in specific instructional methods and parent and teachersupport. (Topping and Maloney, 2005, p. 36) Each of the above conditions is necessary;however, one alone is not sufficient to promote cognition among students with special needs. Forexample, a positive attitude alone cannot promise successful inclusive education butparticipation, knowledge, application of knowledge and support is also needed. Typically, when students are placed in such a stimulating environment and when theseconditions exist or at least most do, students can develop critical thinking skills and evencomplex thinking skills. Students are challenged to solve problems and are placed in scenarioswhere they question themselves critically about what should or should not be done. Effectivemethods are used by teachers in order for students to succeed. Some of these are assignments,homework, participation in discussions, listening skills, reading and writing about the contentthat is given by the instructor. Through these critical thinking skills and complex thinking skillsare developed.
  12. 12. Working Bibliography Adams M., & Brown S. (2006). Towards Inclusive Learning in Higher Education, Developing curricular for disabled students. USA, Canada: Routledge. McLeskey J., Waldron L. N. (2000). Inclusive Schools in Action: Making Differences Ordinary. USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Salend J. S. (1998). Effective Mainstreaming: Creating Inclusive Classrooms. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Simon and Schuster/A Viacom Company. Sands J. D., Kozleski B. E., French K. N. (2000). Inclusive Education for the 21st Century. USA: Wadsworth. Topping K., Maloney S. (2005). The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Inclusive Education. USA, Canada: RoutledgeFalmer.Internet Sources: Hines, Rebecca A. (2001). Inclusion in Middle Schools. ERIC Digest. Retrieved 2nd March, 2011 from http://www.ericdigests.org/2002-3/inclusion.htm. Schultz J. J. (1998). Inclusion Q & A: A Parents Guide Retrieved on 1st March, 2011 from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Inclusion_Q_%26_A%3A_A_Parents_Guide.
  13. 13. Research PaperIntroduction: Inclusion has been defined on numerous accounts in the past and also recently, however,a prominent definition remains to be, “Inclusion is a movement of families, educators, andcommunity members that seeks to create schools and other social institutions based onacceptance, belonging, and community.” (Salend, 1998, p.7) Some of the key features of schoolswhere inclusive education is said to be thriving are: collaborative teamwork, a sharedframework, family involvement, general educator ownership, clear role relationships amongprofessionals, effective use of support staff and procedures for evaluating effectiveness.(Giangreco, 1997.) According to Kochlar, West and Taymans (2002), inclusion promotes levelsof achievement higher or at least high as those achieved in self-contained classrooms. It alsofacilitates more appropriate social behaviour because of higher expectations in the generaleducation classroom for students with disabilities.
  14. 14. Body: Most students are proficient enough in literacy and can communicate on a day to daybasis with their level of literacy skills. However, students with disabilities who are regular non-attenders are found to be those with literacy and numeracy scores one to four years behind theirpeers. (Topping and Maloney, 2005, p. 124). Teachers hold the responsibility of helping thesestudents with disabilities to develop to their literacy skills. Students need to be given the opportunities in order to start or in some cases, continue inthe developmental process of their literacy skills. Teachers should create an environment whereliteracy can be fostered with and without help from adults or those with high literacy skills.Vaughn and colleagues (2000) opine that “all students should have the opportunity to be exposedto the same information.” Some of the opportunities that teachers should create are embedded in classroominstructions, written, reading and homework assignments and also tests, quizzes and grades. Inclassroom instructions, teachers should write key points of instruction on the board or allowthem to read it orally. They should also provide study guides that identify key vocabulary andconcepts and also provide positive feedback. In written, reading and homework assignments theteacher should not penalize students for errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. The valueof listening comprehension should be recognized and also practiced and lastly, teachers mustallow the student to type or dictate their own homework assignments. With tests, quizzes andgrades, it should be kept in mind that terminologies or concepts must be simplified according tothe level of the student.
  15. 15. Students need to be provided with activities in order to boost their literacy development.Opportunities alone cannot suffice the development process, students need to practice and learnfrom activities ordered by the teacher. In reading and writing activities there should be a focuson the students‟ experiences, interests, and background knowledge. (Salend, 1998, p.317) A variety of activities for integrating reading and writing throughout the curriculum todevelop the literacy skills of students with disabilities exists. Among such are storytelling,repeated reading, choral reading and drama. Storytelling is one of the most basic forms ofpromoting literacy in students because it gains the attention and interest of students. (Maldonado-Colon, 1991.) concur that storytelling can assist students in constructing meaning from text,promote listening comprehension and vocabulary skills, and motivate students to read. Repeatedreading is the process of simply rereading short meaningful sentences. (Salend, 1998, p.318)holds the view that repeated reading of a book or a selection can increase students‟ fluency andalso aid students in learning the rhythm, volume, and tone and language patterns of a student‟ssecond language. Choral reading involves the students and teachers in reading materials togetherand it promotes students fluency, vocabulary development, dictation, self-confidence andmotivation to read. (McCauley & McCauley, 1992.) According to (Hernandez, 1989) drama isthe acting out or retelling of stories through miming, gestures, role playing and the use of propsand it is though drama that a students‟ reading and language acquisition can be greatly improved. Inclusive settings clearly appear to be fundamental for the literacy development ofstudents with disabilities. The inclusive classroom does not hold a fixed design but it differsaccording to the interactions of the teachers and the students. According to Kliewer (2008), it is aclassroom where learning often happens in small groups with peer support and it is student
  16. 16. centred. Research has also shown that in an inclusive setting, there is improved readingperformance. (Salend, 2001.) Inclusion ensures access to the general education curriculum. Access to and time spent inthe general education programs appear to not only increase their cognitive abilities but it alsoenhances the student‟s preparation for adulthood. In the opinion of Salend (1998) students withdisabilities who partake in the general education curriculum are more likely to participate inpost-secondary academic programs, be socially integrated into their community and be employedand make high salaries. There are two main strategies of practice in inclusive classrooms that are used-co-operative learning and peer tutoring. According to Kagan, Spencer (1994) co-operativelearning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of differentlevels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.In co-operative learning students with special needs are not pulled out or excluded from theirclassrooms for additional instruction rather, the special education staffs provides instruction inthe regular classroom, to increase learning time and gives students an opportunity to participatefully in their classrooms. Research findings has shown that co-operative learning techniques dopromote student learning and academic achievement, increase student retention, enhance studentsatisfaction with their learning experience, help students develop skills in oral communicationand promotes their self-esteem. (Kagan, Spencer, 1994.). Entwined into co-operative learning is peer tutoring. In peer tutoring, one student tutorsand assists another in learning a new skill. It is a widely used cooperative format that has beeneffective in increasing the amount of time students are engaged in learning and fostering positive
  17. 17. attitudes towards school and learning. Peer tutoring enables students to be assigned toheterogeneous ability peers. However, there is a strategy called „Classwide Peer Tutoring‟ whichhas been effective in teacher reading, spelling, vocabulary, math and social studies to a widerange of students educated in a variety of instructional settings. Both cooperative learning andpeer tutoring can increase the cognitive abilities of students with disabilities and also motivatethem to aid this development further. Inclusion provides a more stimulating environment for cognition to occur. For inclusionto occur there must be a set of conditions in the environment to trigger this simulation ofcognition. These conditions are the basis of the type of environment that needs to be formed andsuch conditions comprise of opportunities for pupil participation in the decision making process,a positive attitude about the learning abilities of pupils, teacher knowledge about the students‟learning difficulties, skilled application in specific instructional methods and parent and teachersupport. (Topping and Maloney, 2005, p. 36) Each of the above conditions is necessary;however, one alone is not sufficient to promote cognition among students with special needs. Forexample, a positive attitude alone cannot promise successful inclusive education butparticipation, knowledge, application of knowledge and support is also needed. Typically, when students are placed in such a stimulating environment and when theseconditions exist or at least most do, students can develop critical thinking skills and evencomplex thinking skills. Students are challenged to solve problems and are placed in scenarioswhere they question themselves critically about what should or should not be done. Effectivemethods are used by teachers in order for students to succeed. Some of these are assignments,homework, participation in discussions, listening skills, reading and writing about the content
  18. 18. that is given by the instructor. Through these critical thinking skills and complex thinking skillsare developed. Including the many academic effects and the benefits that inclusion has on students withspecial needs there are also a significant positive effects that it has on students socially. Inclusionaims at providing students with disabilities the opportunities to interact with others and createrelationships and social skills that will help them in life later on.Social skills can be thought of asthe behaviours that help students interact successfully with peers, teachers and others and thathelp student‟s win social acceptance. Comfort for students with special needs in the inclusive classroom can be achieved by thestudent‟s ability to forge meaningful relationships and feel accepted or competent. Students withspecial needs must be given the opportunity to make friends in order for there to be acceptance.Friends are characterized by the range of social interactions that they make amongst each other.Itis evident that some of the advantages of inclusion for students with disabilities are that theydemonstrated increased acceptance and appreciation of diversity; they developed bettercommunication and social skills and they created warm and caring friendships. In spite of the desire to form relationships and feel accepted many students withdisabilities often feel isolated and have poor social skills. They tend to feel that because of theirdisability most people reject them or that others will never understand them. When childrenattend classes with an inclusive environment that reflect the similarities and differences of peopleof the real world, they learn to appreciate their diversity and work towards becoming their ownperson. They develop a positive understanding of themselves and others and gain respect fromtheir peers or different cultures and backgrounds.
  19. 19. To gain a better understanding of how people interact with each other and how to interactand form relationships, students with special needsare taught social skills of how to interact withpeople and create relationships and this is further developed by the amount of interaction thatpeople have with them frequently. Inclusion provides opportunities for expanding socialnetworks and forming new friendships. Students with special needs cannot create and understand relationships if they are notallowed to participate in the social community of the classroom. For effective interaction, theremust be a high level of participation from both the students with special needs and those without.Students need to feel accepted by their peers on the opinions that they make, the choices thatthey choose and their personal philosophy. Teachers and peers need to create opportunities forstudents with special needs to experience social dilemmas and solve them. Educators need toencourage friendships through heterogeneous cooperative groupings, peer support committeesand activities that get them acquainted with each other.(Salend, 1998.) Students with disabilitiescan try their best to understand relationships and feel accepted but their normal peers need toplay their role in making their lives easier. Teachers must educate the students withoutdisabilities about how they should represent themselves when interacting with their peers withspecial needs. Educators should have resourceful information and create activities that involveevery child in the class to form relationships and understand each other‟s perspective. Relationships and acceptance between students with and without disabilities can helpthem to reduce their fears of human differences.Students with disabilities often have a low self-esteem and self-worth because of their disability status. In a proper inclusive environment whenconnections are made with regular teachers and peers and students realize that all people haveflaws of their own, they begin to feel a sense of self-worth. They can begin to see themselves as
  20. 20. a significant individual within the social community and as someone who can share some of thesame experiences and opportunities as their non-disabled peers. There are always two sides to everything; the positive and the negative. Inclusion is notexcluded from this as there is great controversy surrounding the question that has been frequentlyasked, “Does inclusion truly have a positive effect on students?” Many research findings andtheories have been dedicated to this controversial matter to address and acknowledge that thereare indeed disadvantagesof inclusion. As stated by Topping and Maloney (2005) “It wasacknowledged that there were problems involved for some children in providing more inclusivesettings.” As humans, we all speculate about what people perceive of us from first impressions, theway we look, and the way we carry about ourselves. Students with disabilities are no different;they too have emotions and ask themselves the same questions as to how their peers view thembecause of their disability. Many students are afraid to venture into the raw inclusive classroombecause they feel as though not everyone will accept them and they will be insulted, teased orharmed because of their disability. Students are not the only ones who are concerned about theirphysical and emotional well-being but parents and educators also fear allowing their child toattend to inclusive classrooms. Educators are distressed by the idea that students with specialneeds will monopolize their time or that they themselves are not „good enough‟ to handle thesestudents. This is true of some teachers as it is proven that there is a lack of teacher training withspecial education needs and teachers often feels unprepared to educate these students. (Seehorn,2011.) Very often, when we think of inclusion in the classroom, we think of allowing studentswith special needs to be able to socialize, fit in and be accepted into the mainstream through
  21. 21. these interactions. An enormous focus is placed on the feature of socialization in inclusionwhereas less emphasis is placed on the academic benefits for these students which are equally asimportant. Students with special needs are often placed in classes where they simply sit and „looknormal‟ (Berg, 2004.) The physical presence of the student alone cannot suffice for successfulinclusion. This can be detrimental to the academic progress of the student and important skillsthat need to be taught can be ignored. Along those same lines, it is important to mention that not all students with disabilitiescan attend regular schools but sometimes they need to attend special schools to develop otherimportant skills in a more fixed environment. In the general education classroom there are manypositive impacts on the student who has special needs but it must be notified that this setting canalso be distracting, over-populated and generalized. Students with special needs sometimes needa small classroom size where the teachers can take on one-on-one instruction and this can bemade available in a convenient way outside of the general education classrooms. Reading,writing and mathematics can be dealt with more precisely and intensely than in the inclusiveclassroom. It has been reported that many students with disabilities often leave the general educationclassroom with a low sense of self-esteem and self-worth. In research conducted (Adams andBrown, 2006 p. 37, 38, 39, 40, 41.) it has been clearly shown that many students often feeluncomfortable in inclusive settings in terms of taking notes, the amount of assignments, physicaldifficulties with writing, literacy skills, group work and oral presentations. Some have evenreported that life in the mainstream was characterized by fear, frustration, ridicule and isolation.Students can feel this way because of the pressure and the attention placed on them duringregular classes and the constant eyes of their peers and educators on them. When in regular
  22. 22. classrooms, students with disabilities often see what their peers can do and compare it with whatthey cannot do. As a result of this, students may often become depressed, overwhelmed and academicallyinadequate compared to their non-disabled classmates. (Berg, 2004.)This leads to the aspect ofwhere students can develop a sense of low self-esteem and self-worth from such experiences.Students with disabilities are a sensitive case and need to be treated with careful respect andlove. Educators and non-disabled students should take into careful consideration the emotionaland physical needs of their peers with disabilities such as the need to be looked in the eye whentalked to, to be included in social discussions and interactions, and to be given the chance tovoice their opinions. Besides the many effects that inclusion has on students with disabilities there are alsoeffects that it has on students without disabilities. Non-disabled students may see the entireinclusion process as a disruption and distraction for their own learning. Some factors that mightmake the inclusive classroom more distracting for regular students are the addition of more thanone teacher, special education aides, and students with disabilities coming in and out ofclassrooms for various reasons. Some regular students as well as educators are not able toconcentrate and their own academic progress could suffer. Students can also feel a degree ofresentment or tension among students with disabilities and those without.(Berg, 2004.) Studentswith disabilities are often given more attention, lessened date on assignments, less work to do inclass and they socialize mostly. This can cause peers to think that they are being treated unfairlyand teachers are being biased towards them. These are among the many effects that inclusion hason students with and without disabilities.
  23. 23. Conclusion: While there is great contradiction on inclusion beliefs, the practice still has a potential tobe proven effective considering that studies about its effectiveness with positive results willincrease.As the effects of inclusion were examined, it was learnt the impact that it has onstudents both socially and academically. Some of the main effects were that students withdisabilities gained a better use and knowledge in literacy, increased cognitive development, andthe development of peer relationships and acceptance. Some of the contradictory findings werethat it is questioned whether inclusion has a positive effect on students with disabilities and thosewithout as well. It was found that as opposed to the positive effects of inclusion students can alsodevelop low self-esteem, be teased or feel under pressure from the constant expectations of theirpeers and teachers. It can be recommended to create a more comfortable environment for bothstudents with disabilities and those without through personal recommendations and suggestionsby the classmates themselves. From writing thisresearch paper, I have learnt two very important lessons. One is thatinclusive education is not only about special education but also about meeting the needs everystudent in the classroom as well. The second lesson I have learnt is how people think and feel ismost critical to the inclusive classroom and how we manage it. Despite the many barriers andnegative effects, I believe thatinclusive programs are a work in progress and can be proven to beeffective.
  24. 24. References Adams M., & Brown S. (2006). Towards Inclusive Learning in Higher Education, Developing curricular for disabled students. USA, Canada: Routledge. McLeskey J., Waldron L. N. (2000). Inclusive Schools in Action: Making Differences Ordinary. USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Salend J. S. (1998). Effective Mainstreaming: Creating Inclusive Classrooms. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Simon and Schuster/A Viacom Company. Topping K., Maloney S. (2005). The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Inclusive Education. USA, Canada: RoutledgeFalmer.Internet Sources Berg, Shannon L. (2004). The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities into Regular Education Classrooms. Retrieved 1st March, 2011 from http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2005/2005bergs.pdf Hines, Rebecca A. (2001). Inclusion in Middle Schools. ERIC Digest. Retrieved 2nd March, 2011 from http://www.ericdigests.org/2002-3/inclusion.htm Seehorn, Ashley. (2011). Barriers and Benefits of Inclusion. eHow Family. Retrieved 4th March, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/about_5090952_barriers-benefits-inclusion.html

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