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How and why to cite sources. The difference between verbatim citations and paraphrases. Working with online sources.

How and why to cite sources. The difference between verbatim citations and paraphrases. Working with online sources.

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  • 1. Plagiarism
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  • 2. What is it?
    Authors own the words and ideas that they have written down and published.
    If you use someone else’s words or ideas in your text but fail to show that they come from another source, it is called plagiarism.
    Plagiarism is a type of intellectualtheft.
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  • 3. Three kinds ofplagiarism
    1. Word-for-word copying. Original text is copied directly into the paper
    without citation.
    Solution: use quotation marks around the original author’s words and show the source in the text and in the list of works cited.
    2. Patch job. Sentences from the original text are stitched together with
    linking words like and or however.
    Solution: put the original author’s words in quotation marks and show the source in the text and in the list ofworkscited.
    3. Paraphrase. You write in your own words but use the author’s ideas
    without giving credit to him/her.
    Solution: name the author in the part of your text where you use his/her ideas. (Anderson suggests that …)
  • 4. Howtoavoidplagiarism
    Always try to show the otherperson’sideasclearly in your text.
    Use ”markers” todirectyourreader back to the original source whereyoufound the idea.
  • 5. Different methodstocitesources
    To citemeanstoreferdirectlyto.
    M.L.A format (Modern Languages Association)
    A.P.A. format (AmericanPsychological Association)
  • 6. In text citation
    By using in-text citation you automatically give credit to the author who wrote the material you have used, and your essay gains credibility by referring to experts.
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  • 7. In text citation
    The following must be followed when citing sources:
    1. Write the author’s last name and the year of publication in brackets immediatelyafteryour citation.
    ”This vicious circle can only be broken by government intervention”.
    (Anderson, 2002)
    2. Mention the name of the publication, the year and the author in one sentence.
    In The Plight of Homelessness (2002), Chris Anderson describes …
    3. If you cite from a book, include the page number in your reference.
    (Anderson 2002, p. 56)
  • 8. Verbatim and paraphrase citations
    An in-text citation can be direct, verbatim – an exact word-for-word copy, shown between quotation marks, or indirect, paraphrased. This means you express the point in your own words, but it was not originally your own point.
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  • 9. Verbatim cont.
    If you do this, you need to make it clear where your citation begins and ends, e.g. by naming the original author at the beginning and the publication detailsat the end.
    Example of a verbatim in-text citation:
    Some writers on the topic make their position very clear, e.g. “It should be entirely clear from these examples that without new legislation there is no hope at all of seeing an improvement in the situation” (Anderson 2002, p 56).
    Example of a paraphrased in-text citation:
    Anderson’s view is that this can only be achieved by new legislation (The Plight of Homelessness p. 56).
  • 10. The List of Works Cited
  • 11. List of Works Cited
    • Books: the last name of the author, first initial, title of the book, place of publication, publisher, and finally year of publication.
    Anderson, C. The Plight of Homelessness. Brighton: Phantom Books, 2002.
    • Magazines and journals: the last name of the author, first initial, title of article, title of magazine and volume or issue number, year/date of publication in brackets, page numbers.
    Anderson, C. ”How Far Can You Go?” Social Issues 26 (May 2001): 12–15
  • 12. Electronic Sources: a slipperyfish…
    New forms of information areappearing on the Internet all the time
    There is little consensus aboutoneclear style thatshould be usedtocite all electronicsources
  • 13. Some consensus on citingelectronicsources
    1. Provide as MUCH information as possibleabout WHO WROTE THE SOURCE and WHERE TO FIND IT.
    2. If youcannotfindanyspecificguidelineabouthowtociteyour source according the style youareusing (MLA, APA), try tofind the print source it mostcloselymatches and follow the rules for that style.
  • 14. Exampleof an electronic source
    Internet sources: the last name, first initial, title of document, date of publication or placement on the WWW, exact date of when you retrieved the material, complete Internet address.
    Anderson, C. A Writer from under Grand Central. May 2002. Retrieved September 15, 2003, from:
  • 15. Information to look for whenciting an electronic source:
    Primary responsibility
    Type of medium (e.g. online; CD-ROM)
    Subordinate responsibility
    Issue designation (for serials)
    Place of publication
    Date of publication
    Date of update/revision
    Date of citation
    Notes (physical description; accompanying material; system requirements; frequency of publication; language; other notes)
    Availability and access (e.g. URL)
    Other availability information
    Standard number (e.g. ISBN, ISSN)
    Source: International Standards Association.
  • 16. Microsoft Word offers citation help!