The Respiratory System is an anatomical system of an organism that introduces respiratory gases to the interior and performs gas exchange. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged by diffusion between the gaseous external environment and the blood. This exchange process occurs in the alveolar region of the lungs.
Nose - has 2 openings separated by a cartilage which is strong flexible
Cavities - hollow spaces
Cilia - tiny hair inside the nose
DYK? When air enters through the nose, the cilia and mucus screens the dust and dirt from the air
2. Pharynx- it is also like an apch, a tube about 13cm long, acts as a passage way for both air and food Nasopharynx- it is the innermost part of the pharynx, it extends from he base of the skull to the soft plate Oropharynx- also called mesopharynx, it lies behind the oral cavity extending from the uvula to the level of the hyoid bone Laryngopharynx or Larynx- also called hypopharynx, it is the caudal part of the pharynx. It is the part that connects the part of the throat to the esophagus.
3. Trachea (windpipe)- the bottom part of the larynx; it is a tube about 11cm long, 4.2cm in diameter, it is the passage way to the lungs.
4. Bronchi- Branches of respiratory tract that emerge from the trachea into the lungs
5. Bronchioles- the smaller tubes than the bronchi
6. Alveoli – clusters of ball like sacs, which is the site of gas exchange
*Tonsils- are on both sides of the opening of the pharynx DYK? The tonsils are the one who trap and destroy some bacteria that enter the mouth.
*Epiglottis- it is the opening of the larynx DYK? When you swallow food, the epiglottis presses against the larynx so the upper part of the larynx closes
*Diaphragm- it is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle shaped like a parachute DYK? It is the part which is used for breathing; it contracts when you exhale and expands when you inhale.
*When you inhale, the diaphragm contracts, it becomes flattened. At the same time, the ribs move upward. Air gets into the air sacs, which expand like tiny balloons and the lungs expand. *When you exhale, the diaphragm relaxes and expands. The chest cavity becomes smaller. The lungs squeeze so the air is forced out. But air sacs are not totally empty. *The main function of the lungs is to supply the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. * Breathing is the process of taking in and releasing air through the respiratory tract and the lungs.
Asthma Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects about 12 million people in the US. Children in particular are easily affected by asthma, while there is a greater prevalence for asthma in African-American people. Asthma when occurs the airways of the lungs narrow and constrict, making it harder to breathe. This causes wheezing and tightness in the chest as well. Allergens, environmental agents and infections are all asthma triggers. Passive smoking, maternal smoking during pregnancy, genetics and exposure to animal dander, pollen and air pollution also put a person or child at risk for asthma. Although asthma can occur at any age, many people first develop it as children. There is no cure for asthma, although sometimes young children tend to outgrow this disease. Management of asthma symptoms is the key to living a healthy life.
Long-term medications are very important as they reduce inflammation in asthmatic people. Short-term drugs or rescue drugs, as they are known, only help to provide and reduce symptoms of an asthma attack. The easiest way to prevent an asthma attack is to avoid exposure to known asthma triggers. Treatment of asthma typically consists of medication taken by an inhaler or nebulizer. Medications used to treat asthma include; beta2-agonists, anticholinergic agents and corticosteroids.
There different types of asthma: allergic, non-allergic, occupational, drug induced, exercise included, and cough variant asthma. Non-allergic asthma occurs after the age of 40 and is generally due to exposure to irritants such as smoke, pollution, fresh paint, or household cleaning products. Allergic asthma is common in children and is often caused by allergies to house dust mites, animal dander, mold, and pollens. Occupational asthma is due to exposure to other industrial chemicals, while rigorous exercise can also cause an asthma attack.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD is defined as generally irreversible and progressive chronic airflow obstruction. It is the 4th leading cause of death in the US. COPD is the name given to two similar diseases that obstruct breathing, namely chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Some 14 million people in the US have been diagnosed with either of these two diseases. Sometimes however, both these disease can occur together. Risk factors for COPD include; smoking and exposure to second hand smoke, occupational pollutants, family history, recurrent respiratory infections, and protease deficiencies. However, smoking is responsible for 80-90% of COPD cases.
Chronic bronchitis is characterized by an irritating cough, mucus overproduction, and inflammation of the bronchial tubes lasting 3 months or more, in a period of 2 consecutive years. Patients are usually diagnosed with chronic bronchitis in their 30's and 40's. A history of smoking is a major factor in chronic bronchitis.
Treatments -Bronchodilators (for example, albuterol [Ventolin, Proventil, AccuNeb, Vospire, ProAir], metaproterenol [Alupent], formoterol [Foradil], salmeterol [Serevent]) work by relaxing the smooth muscles that encircle the bronchi, which allows the inner airways to expand. Anticholinergic drugs also can act as bronchodilators, including tiotropium (Spiriva) and ipratropium (Atrovent). -Steroids (for example, prednisone, methylprednisolone [Medrol, Depo-Medrol]) reduce the inflammatory reaction and thus decrease the bronchial swelling and secretions that in turn allows better airflow because of reduced airway obstruction. Often inhaled steroids are administered since they have fewer side effects than systemic (oral) steroids. Examples include budesonide (Pulmicort), fluticasone (Flovent), beclomethasone (Qvar), and mometasone (Asmanex). Combination therapy with both steroids and bronchodilators is often utilized. These include fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair), budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort), and mometasone/formoterol (Dulera). -PDE4 inhibitors are a new class of anti-inflammatory agents for exacerbations of COPD that has recently been approved by the FDA. It is primarily for exacerbations that involve excessive bronchitis and mucus production. There is currently only one agent available called roflumilast (Daliresp), a pill taken once per day. Occasionally, antibiotics are used to treat chronic bronchitis exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics are often the choice. Examples include: -Fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin [Levaquin]) -Macrolides (clarithromycin [Biaxin], azithromycin [Zithromax, Zmax]) -Sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim [Bactrim]) -Tetracyclines (doxycycline [Vibramycin])
Emphysema Emphysema is a condition in which the walls between the alveoli or air sacs within the lungs lose their ability to stretch and recoil, they then weaken and break. Elasticity of the lung diminishes causing air to be trapped in the air sacs and impairing the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath, cough and a limited exercise tolerance. Smoking is also the main cause of emphysema.
According to the American Lung Association, more than 169,500 new cases of lung cancer were treated in 2001, with most being caused by cigarette smoking. More people die from lung cancer than from any other type of cancer. This cancer usually starts in the lining of the bronchi, but can also begin in other areas of the respiratory system, including the trachea, bronchioles, or alveoli. Lung cancers are generally divided into two types:
-Non-small cell lung cancer
-And small cell lung cancer
-Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. There are three main kinds of non-small cell lung cancer and they are named for the type of cells in the tumor:
-Squamous cell carcinoma
-Large cell carcinomas
Small cell lung cancer grows rapidly and quickly spreads to other organs. This type of lung cancer is extremely fatal and often requires lung removal or lung transplantation. It is important to find out what kind of lung cancer one has, as they are all treated differently. Though lung cancer usually does not cause any symptoms when it first develops, however after a tumor begins to grow, a persistent cough is the most common symptom. Other symptoms include: constant chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing, recurring lung infections, bloody sputum and hoarseness. There are several risk factors that make a person more likely to develop lung cancer, and smoking ranks number one. More than 90 percent of lung cancers are thought to be a result of smoking. Additional risk factors include: secondhand smoke, smoking marijuana, recurring lung inflammation, asbestos exposure, exposure to hazardous chemical products and radiation.
Treatment for lung cancer is determined based on, a person’s age, overall health, and medical history, the extent of the disease and tolerance to medications and/or therapies. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are often used to treat lung cancer.
There are three types of surgery that are most often used in lung cancer treatment. The choice depends on the size and location of the tumor, the extent of the cancer, and the general health of the patient. Radiation therapy involves the use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells and stops them from growing and dividing, while chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill the cacogenics cells.