Sculpture medieval art renaissance modern
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  • 1. Medieval art
  • 2. • Usually called the dark ages but it’s not really as dark as you might think. • Timeline: 500-1100 CE • Most art were of religious sense • Medieval, meaning the period in between two different golden ages
  • 3. The illuminated manuscript
  • 4. The Lindisfarne Gospels Illustrated between 698- 721 in Christianized Great Britian, is a volume of many vellum (parchment) pages.
  • 5. Book of Kells
  • 6. Tapestry
  • 7. The Unicorn in Captivity, 1495– 1505 South Netherlandish
  • 8. Stained glass
  • 9. architecture
  • 10. Early Romanesque Churches • Were fortified for safety. They were small and dark with thick walls and tiny windows.
  • 11. Early Medieval Castles • Were heavily fortified with thick walls and moats • Were not at all romantic or comfortable to live in
  • 12. Styles began to change in the 12th Century • Abbot Suger designed the church of St. Denis outside of Paris • Notice the round arches, the rose window, the three large doors
  • 13. Notre Dame Cathedral
  • 14. Chartres Cathedral • New Gothic Cathedrals soared higher and higher due to the use of flying buttresses
  • 15. Inside Gothic Cathedrals were held up by ribbed vaulting
  • 16. Gothic Sculpture • Was usually part of a church
  • 17. Hagia Sophia “Holy Wisdom”  Mystical atmosphere • Nearly 3 football fields long • Pendentives- four arches formed a square • Forty arched windows encircle the base of the dome to give illusion of halo
  • 18. Romanesque Cathedral • 1050-1200 • Horizontal Emphasis • Stone roof with rounded arches • Thick piers and walls support roof • Smaller windows- dark and solemn
  • 19. Romanesque Cathedral
  • 20. Gothic Cathedral • 1200-1500 • Vertical Emphasis- reaches to heaven • Stone roof with pointed arches and ribbed vault • Thin walls and piers supported by Flying Buttresses • Large stain glass windows- airy and “Holy Light”
  • 21. Flying Buttresses
  • 22. Medieval Paintings • Were all religious in subject matter– many were book illustrations or altarpieces • Were expressionless, flat and almost cartoon- like • Showed no background or perspective • Were usually frescoes (tempera paint on wet plaster) although some were painted on wood
  • 23. Medieval Italian Paintings
  • 24. In the Late Middle Ages, some attempts at perspective were made and some artists even began to sign their works • Fra Angelico’s The Annunciation
  • 25. Cathedrals entered the Flamboyant Gothic Stage
  • 26. Facades and Interiors became more ornate
  • 27. Castles were still fortified but also became more decorative
  • 28. Literature • Secular Poetry • Often sung or recited – Epics (stories w/ a hero based on history) • Song of Roland – Romances – tales of chivalry (knight’s code of honor) – True love • Performed by troubadors
  • 29. Secular Literature with religious themes – In the vernacular: the language of the people (not Latin) – Canterbury Tales by • Geoffrey Chaucer – The Divine Comedy • Dante Alighieri The Canterbury Tales: The Wife of Bath
  • 30. Dante’s Inferno
  • 31. Renaissance Art A comparison with Medieval Art
  • 32. Before the Renaissance
  • 33. The artwork . . . • Focused on religious subjects • Lacked perspective-- paintings appear flat. • There is little use of light and shadow. • The artwork is not natural. Figures appear "placed" in the picture. Large = important
  • 34. The artwork . . . . • Children are painted to resemble small adults. • Colors are more subdued than in later periods. • In the earlier paintings there is heavy use of gold. • Religious symbols used--haloes, Biblical figures, saints, etc.
  • 35. During the RenaissanceDuring the Renaissance
  • 36. The artwork… • There is use of perspective, light and shadow, proportion,
  • 37. The artwork… • Figures--drawn from nature and based on observation of real world (objective). • Colors are rich, warm, and glowing.
  • 38. Continued… • Anatomically correct physiology, and emotion. • Use of classical topics/stories depicted in paintings – story of Judith and Holofernes
  • 39. More . . . • Artists became known for individual style and imagination. • This is a DaVinci— • note the similarity in the mouth in this work to the another famous picture by DaVinci Ginevra de' Benci
  • 40. …The Mona Lisa
  • 41. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of Renaissance ArtRenaissance Art
  • 42. Realism & ExpressionRealism & Expression  Expulsion from the GardenExpulsion from the Garden  MasaccioMasaccio  14271427  First nudes since classicalFirst nudes since classical times.times.
  • 43. 2. Perspective2. Perspective First use ofFirst use of linearlinear perspective!perspective! The TrinityThe Trinity MasaccioMasaccio 14271427
  • 44. 3. Classicism3. Classicism  Secularism.  Humanism.  Individualism  free standing figures.  Symmetry/Balance TheThe “Classical Pose”“Classical Pose” Medici “Venus”Medici “Venus”
  • 45. 4. Emphasis on4. Emphasis on IndividualismIndividualism  Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino  Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.
  • 46. 5. Geometrical Arrangement of5. Geometrical Arrangement of FiguresFigures  The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate  Leonardo da Vinci  1469  The figure as architecture!
  • 47. Early RenaissanceEarly Renaissance The First Three Hall-of-Famers
  • 48. Masaccio 1401-1428 • Founder of early Renaissance Painting • Painted human figure as a real human being (3D) • Used perspective • Consistent source of light (accurate shadows)
  • 49. The Tribute Money
  • 50. #2 Donatello 1386-1466 • The sculptor’s Masaccio • David (1430-32) – First free standing, life- size nude since Classical period – Contrapposto – Sense of Underlying skeletal structure
  • 51. The Penitent Magdalen ~Donatello “Speak, speak or the plague take you!”
  • 52. #3 Boticelli • 1482 • Rebirth of Classical mythology • Fully Pagan • THE BIRTH OF VENUS
  • 53. The Italian Renaissance • Leonardo • Michelangelo • Raphael
  • 54. Da Vinci Mona Lisa (1503-06) Perspective, Anatomy, Composition
  • 55. Cultural icon
  • 56. Michelangelo DavidDavid Michelangelo BuonarottiMichelangelo Buonarotti 15041504 MarbleMarble
  • 57. (counterpoise) To model the human form in a non- symmetrical, relaxed stance that appears realistic Contrapposto
  • 58. Compare:
  • 59. Humanism (even within Biblical stories): Love of the Human Form David (1501-1504) Michelangelo
  • 60. Raphael School of Athens 1510
  • 61. Raphael Da Vinci Michelangelo
  • 62. AristotleAristotle:: looks to thislooks to this earth [theearth [the here andhere and now].now]. PlatoPlato:: looks tolooks to thethe heavensheavens [or[or the IDEALthe IDEAL realm].realm].
  • 63. Pythagoras
  • 64. Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid
  • 65. Raphael painted natural looking settings… …of people who looked real. His paintings were full of motion, gestures, and animation.
  • 66. Raphael’s “Angels”
  • 67. Modern Art Rejecting the past Expressionism Fauvism Cubism Dada Surrealism Abstract Art Pop Art Minimalism
  • 68. Early Expressionism • Style that portrayed emotions through distorting form and color • Edvard Munch – Mental illness, depression – Said he would never want to cast off his illness – Aimed to induce strong reactions in his viewers
  • 69. Munch Vampire
  • 70. The Scream
  • 71. Puberty
  • 72. Fauvism • 1904-1908 • Explosion of color, exaggerated and vibrant • Disregard for true/actual color • “as if gremlins seized the color knob on the tv” • Influenced by non-European tribal art of the colonies • Leader: Matisse
  • 73. Matisse Blue Nude
  • 74. Derain Purple Bridge
  • 75. Cubism • Break down of objects into a multitude of geometric shapes • Life through a fly’s eye
  • 76. Braque Fishing Boats
  • 77. Juan Gris Portrait of Picasso
  • 78. Picasso Italian Girl
  • 79. Pablo Picasso
  • 80. Pablo Picasso 1881-1973 • His mother said, “If you become a soldier, you’ll be a general. If you become a monk, you’ll end up as the Pope.” He said, “I became a painter and wound up as Picasso.” • Painted around 50,000 pieces • Notorious for relationships with women • Children from many women
  • 81. Analytical Cubism
  • 82. Blue Period
  • 83. Synthetic Cubism
  • 84. Early Works
  • 85. Late Works
  • 86. Analytical Cubism
  • 87. Rose Period
  • 88. Late Works
  • 89. Blue Period
  • 90. Synthetic Cubism
  • 91. Expressionism 1905-1930 • Art should express the artist’s feelings rather than images of the real world • Distorted, exaggerated forms and color • Began with van Gogh, Gauguin, Munch • Dark colors and woodcuts relay sadness of war
  • 92. Kathe Kollwitz Poverty
  • 93. Nolde Wildly Dancing Children
  • 94. Abstract Art • Began with Kandinsky in 1919 • Post WWII to 80’s • Abandon any reference to recognizable reality • No subject • Color can convey emotion even without content • Founder: Kandinsky
  • 95. Kandinsky Improvisation 31
  • 96. Black Spot I
  • 97. Mondrian Composition A: Composition with Black, Red, Gray, Yellow, and Blue Used only primary colors and non- colors
  • 98. Dada Art • 1916-1923 • Got its name from nonsense – French for hobby horse • Protested the madness of war • Founded by WWI refugees • Strategy was to denounce and shock
  • 99. Duchamp Fountain
  • 100. Duchamp Mona Lisa with moustache
  • 101. Surrealism • 1920’s and 1930’s • Implies going beyond realism • Painted the bizarre and irrational to express truths • Defy common sense • Looks like a dream-world
  • 102. Joan Miro 1893-1983 • Invented unique biomorphic images • Geometric shapes and amoeba-like blobs • Colorful, playful • “Cartoon from another planet”
  • 103. The Policeman
  • 104. Dutch Interior I
  • 105. Chagall I and the Village
  • 106. Salvador Dali 1904-1989 • Exploited his own personality quirks • Fears: bugs, crossing streets, trains, boats, airplanes, Metro, buying shoes in public • Actual objects but distorted • Had the canvas next to his bed and woke to paint dreamscapes • Disliked by some because of his fascination with Hitler • Pulled publicity stunts – Gave speech with foot in pail of milk – Press conference with lobster on his head – Wore a diving suit and lectured but no one could hear him and he started to asphyxiate himself
  • 107. The Persistence of Memory
  • 108. Crucifixion
  • 109. Portrait of Paul Eluard
  • 110. Weaning of Furniture-Nutrition
  • 111. Cannibalism in Autumn
  • 112. Rene Magritte 1898-1967 Le siècle des lumières The Century of Lights
  • 113. Matisse Threatening Weather
  • 114. Abstract Expressionism • Also called action painting • 40’s-50’s • Came out of the jazz era’s lack of form • No longer was art required to be a visual representation of some object • Jackson Pollock=Jack the Dripper (1912-1956) – Paint Hard, Live Hard – Died drunk in a car crash-age 44
  • 115. Jackson Pollock Eyes in the Heat
  • 116. Lavender Mist
  • 117. Minimalists • Color Field – Huge canvases of color – Representations of feelings and ideas • Hard Edge – Calculated, simple forms – Colors in harmony
  • 118. Color Field Rothko 1968
  • 119. Rothko White Center
  • 120. Hard Edge Kelly Elsworth Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red
  • 121. Frank Stella Harran II
  • 122. Pop Art • 1950 ‘s and 1960’s • Derived from the word popular • Used everyday items as inspiration for art • Soup cans and comic strips • Mass produced • Pope of Pop: Andy Warhol – 6 hour movie called Sleep
  • 123. Andy Warhol
  • 124. Roy Lichtenstein Go for Baroque
  • 125. You, the Artist Use objects in your backpack, purse, or pockets to create something that someone would consider Pop or Minimal Art.