CAUSES OF FILIPINO
Desire to regain the lost freedom of their
Religious intolerance of Spanish authorities
Abuses of the Spaniards (Personal)
The hated tribute and oppressive forced
Loss of ancestral lands
• Causes of revolt:
– Maltreatment of
his people by
– Broken promises
exemption of his
tribute and forced
– Armed clash
and Capt. Juan
persuaded him to
lay down his
– He even helped to
• son of Lakandula
• Together with him:
– Agustin de Legazpi – Lakandula’s
– Martin Pangan – Chief of Tondo
– Juan Bassi – Chief of Taguig
– Pedro Balinguit – Chief of Pandacan
• The Plan:
– To bring Japanese
warriors and weapons
to drive the Spaniards
– Dionisio Fernandez – a
who acted as an
– Juan Gayo – a
whom they negotiated
for alliance and military
– Pedro Sarmiento –
discovered the plot
warned the Spanish
– The leaders were
• He and his brother urged the people of
Cagayan to overthrow Spanish rule during
the term of Gov. Gen. Francisco Tello.
• His revolt could not be crushed by arms
• The Spaniards resorted to assassination
which ended his revolt
• He was murdered in his own house
• First assassination in Philippine History.
Igorot Revolt (1601)
• The Igorots revolted
in defense of their
• They killed Fr.
• Capt. Mateo de
Gaddang Revolt (1621)
• Due to the abuses of the Spanish
• Cagayan Valley
• Leaders: Felipe Cutabay and Gabriel
• Result: Fr. Pedro de Santo Tomas –
persuaded the Gaddangs to lay down
• A Babaylan led this religious revolt.
• He incited Boholanos to return to their
• He was joined by 2,000 Boholanos
• Suppressed by government troops led
by Alcalde Mayor Juan de Alcarazo
with 50 Spaniards and more than 1,000
Bankaw’s Revolt (1622)
• An old chief of Limasawa became a Christian because
he received a royal gift from Spain in recognition of his
grandfather’s hospitality to Magellan.
• In his old age, with the influence of his son and Pagali,
a native priest, he discarded his faith.
• He led a religious revolt to restore paganism.
• Suppressed by Juan de Alcarazo, one who
suppressed the revolt.
• His head was placed on a plate and was displayed in
PEDRO LADIA’S REVOLT
• Was a Bornean who claimed descent from Raja
• Urged the people of Malolos to fight against the
Spanish oppressors and enthrone him as King of the
• Fr, Cristobal Enriquez – a parish priest from Malolos,
reported Ladia’s plans to the authorities even before
the rebel could take the first step.
• He was captured and executed in Manila.
Juan Ponce (Francisco)
• Cause: harsh order of Gov. Gen. Diego
Fajardo compelling men in the village to
render forced labor in the shipyard of Cavite.
• The Spanish authorities persuaded the
natives to lead them to Sumuroy’s hideout in
• Result: ended in failure, he was taken alive
and put to death.
Francisco Maniago (1660-1661)
– Natural love of the
Pampangans love for
– Hardship of forced
labor in forests and
– Rice taken from the
– The cause weakened
remained loyal to
– Accepted the peace
offer of Gov. Gen.
Marique de Lara
upon the advice of a
kind friar, Fr. Andres
Andres Malong (1744-1829)
• A military leader who was inspired by
• Led the revolt in Pangasinan
• Proclaimed himself as the “King of
• Sent troops to as far as Vigan
• Was hanged
Pedro Almazan (1661)
• In response to Malong’s revolt, he
called the Ilocanos to revolt against the
• King of the Ilocanos
• Burned churches
• Was executed in the town plaza
• He was a babaylan who was a new
convert to Catholicism.
• He founded a new syncretic religion which
was a modified form of Christianity. He
proclaimed himself "God Almighty" and
went around garbed in a woman's dress.
• Killed Father Francisco de Mesa, friar
curate of Oton.
• Mercilessly impaled on a bamboo stake
and placed strategically at the mouth of
the Laglag (now Dueñas) River to be
eaten also by crocodiles.
Tumalang (Zambal) Revolt (16811683)
• After Malong’s revolt, the Spaniards wanted
to make sure that the roots of his rebellion
• Governor General Juan de Vargas Hurtado –
sent a combine Filipino and Spanish troops
to punish the Zambals who helped Malong.
• Tumalang fought bitterly but unfortunately he
was captured and converted to Christianity.
Francisco Dagohoy (1744-1829)
Longest revolt which lasted for
Cause: refusal of Spanish
curate, Fr. Gaspar de Morales,
to give Christian burial to
Dagohoy’s brother Sagarino who
died because of a duel.
He killed Fr. Morales and urged
the Boholanos to rise against the
End of the Revolt:
– He died due to old age in the
mountain. His followers
continued the fight
– It took 20 successive
governor-generals before the
oppression was suppressed
– Gov. Gen. Mariano Ricafort –
measures to end the revolt.
Diego Silang (1762-1763)
• Proclaimed the
independence of Ilocos.
• Demanded the abolition
of forced labor and
• Took advantage of the
chaos of the times owing
to the British occupation
of Manila. He was
befriended by the
– To regain the lost
freedom of the
– Spanish abuses and
• End of Rebellion:
May 28, 1763 by
Miguel Vicos for a
sum of Spanish gold
and in the name of
loyalty to Spain.
• Maria Josefa Gabriela
• Wife of Diego
• Was believed to be the
first woman to revolt in
• Continued the rebellion
with the help of Nicolas
Carino, Diego’s uncle.
• Was defeated by the
Spanish forces and
Joan of Arc of the
Juan dela Cruz Palaris
• Pantaleon Perez – real name
• Revolted because of the abuses of the
Spanish government in Pangasinan.
• Created a kingdom wherein the capital
was Binalatongan (now known as San
• Was caught because his sister was
forced to tell where to find him.
• Was executed
Ibanag Revolt (1763)
Isabela and Cagayan
Dabo and Juan Marayag
Inspired by the revolts of Silang and Palaris
Natives declared their independence and
refused to pay tributes
• It did not last long after Lt. Governor Manuel
de Arza ordered is Filipino mercenaries to
Also known as Ambaristo Revolt
Headed by Pedro Ambaristo
Cause: the government monopolizes
the production of wine.
• The revolt was headed by the Bayot
brothers – Joaquin, Manuel and Jose.
They were sons of Colonel Francisco
Bayot of the Spanish Army based in
• They revolted because the Insulares were
not treated as if they are not Spanish at
• Planned to overthrow the Spanish
government and declare their father as
Apolinario de la Cruz
(Hermano Pule) (1840-1841)
• He wanted to become a
priest but was not accepted
because he was a native.
• He worked instead at the
Hospital of San Juan de
Dios and acquired his
religious education by
reading the bible and
listening to the sermons of
• Founded the Confradia de
San Jose which was
banned by Spanish
• The Spaniards were denied admission to the
• Governor General Marcelino de Oraa
Lecumberri – banned the organization because
according to them it is a form of heresy.
• Recruited 4,000 men and armed them with
bolos and amulets and encamped a the foot of
• Appointed Octavio Ignacio de San Jorge
(Purgatorio) as the leader of his army.
• Was executed and his head was cut off and
displayed on the road.
Failure of the Revolts
Absence of national consciousness
Lack of leaders to unite the whole archipelago
Archipelagic nature of the Philippines
prevented a steady communication in the
• Superiority of the Spanish arms
• The betrayals and assassinations of rebel