1Competence Center for Mobile Business,Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Christian RufAdoption of Online Videos in OrganizationsA Multi-Case Comparisonhttp://alfabravo.com/wp-content/uploads/videowall_low.jpg
2Motivation and Research Question.01Theory and Methodology.02Results.03Discussion.04Q&A.05Content
3Motivation and Research Question:Adoption of Online Videos inOrganizations01http://www.bubblews.com/assets/images/news/857715648_1365688039.jpg
4Video is a Superior Communication Instrumenthttp://thenounproject.com/, Rosensteel (2013)FaceMotionBodyLanguageVoice
5Video is a Superior Communication Instrumenthttp://thenounproject.com/, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJj725XrHzs
6“Current state of TV viewing is flat while online videoconsumption is growing constantly.”This is a known fact!TV vs. Online Video Consumptioniab (2012)People spent 49%more timewatching onlinevideos in 2012than in 2011.TV viewing hasbeen flat since2011.01/2011 01/2012 01/2013
7Marketing Resource AllocationHow much of the marketing budgets do companiesinvest in traditional (offline)TV commercials?
8Marketing Resource Allocation“Everyone is spending more time online, but thepercentage of advertising that is allocated there isless than 10%. Even though online video representsa mass market, 60 to 70% of ad budgets are spenton broadcast TV…”Pérez (2013)
9Adoption of Online Videos in OrganizationsResearch Question:What factors drive the use of online videos inorganizations?Research Proposition:Four case studies will reveal why organizationsadopt online videos. Furthermore, this paper willtest existing theory of IT/IS adoption.
10Theory and Methodology:• Adoption of IT/IS• Case Study Research• Semi-structured Interviews• Qualitative Data Analysis02
11Theory:Adoption of IS/ITDiffusion ofInnovation TheoryTheory ofReasoned ActionTechnologyAcceptanceModelTheory ofPlanned BehaviorInnovationCharacteristicsOrganizationalCharacteristicsEnvironmentalCharacteristicsTop-Mgmt.CharacteristicsUser AcceptanceCharacteristicsHameed et al. (2012)
12Methodology:Overview Case study research 4 different Swissenterprises 5 different interviewees Decision makers,managers and executivesResearch Approach Semi-structuredinterviews Each interview went onfor about 60-75 minutes All interviews weretranscribed Case study protocol anddata base wasestablishedData Collection Coding process with acoding schema derivedfrom the literatureData AnalysisMiles & Huberman (2005), Yin (2009)
13Methodology:Case Study as Research StrategyUnit of Analysis Context of Case StudyEnterprise Interviewees Industry EmployeesMarketpresenceUtility Company Interviewee A, Web Manager Utility more than 11209 in 2011 InternationalRetail CompanyInterviewee B, the Head of Internet,Intranet, Corporate IdentityRetail andCommercie75000 in 2011 InternationalInsurance CompanyInterviewee C, Content MasterInternetInterviewee D, Project LeaderCorporate CommunicationsInsurace 3748 in 2011 NationalMedia Company Interviewee E, the Head Digital Media Media and News 7448 in 2009 InternationalLarge organizations from various industries.Variability and accessibility.Miles & Huberman (2005), Yin (2009)
14Methodology:Data Collection with Semi-Structured InterviewsInnovation CharacteristicsHow do you react to mistakes and failures in your organization? What are relevantdecision criteria for online video initiatives (business case, gut feeling etc.)? …Organizational CharacteristicsHow do you interact with different departments when it comes to online videoprojects? How do you communicate formally and informally? …Environmental CharacteristicsHow do you monitor trends, the competitive landscape when it comes to onlinevideos? …Top-Management CharacteristicsHow is the top-management’s attitude towards online video initiatives? How doesthe top-management support online video projects? …(Premkumar & Ramamurthy, 1995), (Subramanian & Nilakanta, 1996), (Damanpour & Schneider, 2006; Kohli & Jaworski, 1990)
15Methodology:Qualitative Data AnalysisA-TM Antezedens Top-Management QuelleA-TM-Überzeugung +Kundenorientierung+Unterstütztung des Top-Management für Web-Video-Technologie steht im VordergrundFelton (1959)Levitt (1969)Kimberly & Evanisko (1981)Hambrick & Mason (1984)Webster (1988)Premkumar & Ramamurthy (1995)Thong (1999)A-TM-Risikobereitschaft +Risikofreude, Fehler gehören zum Alltagsgeschäft-Entscheidungen werden rational und basierend aufkalkulationen getroffenKimberly & Evanisko (1981)Kohli, Jaworski (1990)Premkumar & Ramamurthy (1995)Thong (1999)A-ABT Antezedens Abteilungsübergreifende DynamikA-ABT-Konflikte +mit Problemen und Meinungsverschiedenen kann manumgehen-es gibt viele KonflikteFelton (1959)Levitt (1969)Lusch, Udell, & Laczniak (1976)A-ABT-Vernetzung +viele informelle und formelle Treffen in der Organisation Patton (1978)Cronbach & Associates (1981)Deshpande & Zaltman (1982)A-ORGA Antezedens Organisationales SystemA-ORGA-Fromalisierung +Improvisation und spontanes Vorgehen-Strukturen, Regeln, GuidelinesHall, Johnson & Haas (1967)Subramanian & Nilakanta (1996)A-ORGA-Zentralisierung +Mitarbeiter haben hohe Autonomie-Alle Entscheidungen müssen vom Managementabgesegnet werdenAiken & Hage (1968)Subramanian & Nilakanta (1996)A-ORGA-Abteilungserfolg +langfristige und qualitative Ziele-kurzfristige finanzielle ZieleAnderson & Chambers (1985)Jaworski (1988)Lawler & Rhode (1976)Webster (1988)E Eigenschaften der MarktorientierungE-Marktforschung +Wissen über den Kunden und den Markt generieren+Monitoring Tools und Messungen der NutzungKohli & Jaworski (1990)Tornatzky & Fleischer (1990)Damanpour and Schneider, 2006)Quaddus & Hofmeyer (2007)E-Wissensaustausch +Prozesse und Tools, um dieses Wissen zu teilen+Kontakte zur MarktforschungKohli, Jaworski (1990)Tornatzky & Fleischer (1990)Damanpour and Schneider, 2006)Quaddus & Hofmeyer (2007E-Umsetzung +Koordination in der Umsetzung von Projekten+Know-how über den Markt beeinflusst die Umsetzungvon ProjektenKohli, Jaworski (1990)Tornatzky & Fleischer (1990)Damanpour and Schneider, 2006)Quaddus & Hofmeyer (2007Codierunghttp://www.dedoose.com/
16Results:Environmental and Top-ManagementCharacteristics as Key Drivers03http://60daymba.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/finish-line.jpg
17Utility Companyhttp://www.qas.co.uk/resources/images/company/newsfeed/uk/newsarticles/utilities.jpg“...our top-management reacts pretty aggressively withcensorship if they think anything could go wrong...”“Well the checklist and everything, nobodylikes filling out these forms...”“Our employees need to network and think across functionalstructures. We support and value interac- tions among differentdepartments and therefore host weekly editorial meetings.”“We do not monitor how our competitors use OV...”“In order to get feedback, we target specific customer groups.”“... we planned to launch a cor- porate web TV on our intranet, but top-management didn’t see the benefits and didn’t think we have the money either...”
18Retail Company“We dont just follow new buzzwords and trends. We always try toanalyze each specific case separately. If the business case doesntconvince us, then we dont do it.”“Its not like someone was pushing online videos and everybodyelse was watching what was going on. Usually, such projects[online video projects] are coordinated across different businessunits and departments.”“We have strict corporate branding guidelines thatregulate how online video projects are carried out…”http://static.cbronline.com/images/rbrnews/retail%20gen%202.jpegOne of my objectives is trend scouting. Other colleagues from6 different departments also carry the same responsibility.”The Head of the newspaper division was a hugesupport for our OV initiatives...”
19Insurance Companyhttp://www.carinsurancecomparison.com/Images/car-insurance-companies-ranked-woman-chart.jpg“Our second attempt was a real mess. Fortunately, the decisionmakers reacted very positively. Despite what happened, they stillsupported us going forward with online video projects.”Ultimately, it all [decisions for online video projects] dependson what Pam [head of corporate communications] thinks...”“Yes, maybe it is legitimate to have a proper business case, with thefinancials and everything. But, I think more often than not, it is just a lotof paperwork and a lot of effort for a really small project.”“We try to think from the customers point of view. What does thecustomer want, how do we want to transmit our message and how do theywant to receive it.”“The head of corporate communications was a big supporter of onlinevideo. Our CEO thinks that videos are absolutely vital for us. This helps usto pursue our online video projects. Thats for sure.”
20Media Company“Trial-and-error, that is a very successful approach when itcomes to online activities.”“If someone has a new idea and everybody thinksit is great, it only takes about 2 to 3 days and wehave a go and we do it.”“We have very flat structure and my colleaguesare responsible for their own budgets.”“Weve received far better responses from our in-housevideos than from video contents from our partners. That isthe reason why we are now staffing new video teams.Hopefully, they will come up with new ideas and newvideos.”http://www.isthmuseng.com/wp-content/uploads/Company_News_Hero.jpg
21Cross Case AnalysisCharacteristicsCompany Innovation (I) Organizational (II) Environmental (III) Top-Management (IV)Utility No Yes/No Yes/No NoRetail No Yes/No Yes YesInsurance Yes Yes/No Yes YesMedia Yes Yes Yes YesEnvironmental and Top-Management characteristicsdrive the use of online videos in organizations.
22Discussion:2012: Organizations are getting ready2013: Value Generation of IT04
232013 and Future OutlookIT RessourcesComplementaryOrganizationalResourcesBusinessProcessesBusinessProcessPerformance2012 2013How can organizations create business valuewith online video and video communication.Melville et al. (2004)
26Damanpour, F., & Schneider, M. (2006). Phases of the Adoption of Innovation in Organizations: Effects of Environment, Organization and Top Managers.British Journal of Management, 17(3), 215–236. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00498.xHameed, M. A., Counsell, S., & Swift, S. (2012). A conceptual model for the process of IT innovation adoption in organizations. Journal of Engineering andTechnology Management, 29(3), 358–390. doi:10.1016/j.jengtecman.2012.03.007iab. (2012). A Comprehensive Picture of Digital Video and TV Advertising: Viewing, Budget Share Shift and Effectiveness. Retrieved May 30, 2013, fromhttp://www.iab.net/media/file/Digital-Video-and-TV-Advertising-Viewing-Budget-Share-Shift-and-Effectiveness.pdfKohli, A. K., & Jaworski, B. J. (1990). Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications. Journal of Marketing, 54(2),1–18. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1251866Melville, N., Kraemer, K., & Gurbaxani, V. (2004). Review: information technology and organizational performance: an integrative model of it businessvalue. MIS Q., 28(2), 283–322. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2017219.2017226Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. (2005). Qualitative Data Analysis: an Expanded Sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.Pérez, W. (2013). Online video will overtake TV by 2020, says John Farrell, Director of YouTube Latin America. Portada. Retrieved May 30, 2013, fromhttp://latam.portada-online.com/2013/02/14/online-video-will-overtake-tv-by-2020-says-john-farrell-director-of-youtube-latin-america/Premkumar, G., & Ramamurthy, K. (1995). The Role of Interorganizational and Organizational Factors on the Decision Mode for Adoption ofInterorganizational Systems*. Decision Sciences, 26(3), 303–336. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1995.tb01431.xRosensteel, S. (2013). Why Online Video Is Vital For Your 2013 Content Marketing Objectives - Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved April 1, 2013, fromhttp://www.forbes.com/sites/seanrosensteel/2013/01/28/why-online-video-is-vital-for-your-2013-content-marketing-objectives/Subramanian, A., & Nilakanta, S. (1996). Organizational innovativeness: Exploring the relationship between organizational determinants of innovation,types of innovations, and measures of organizational performance. Omega, 24(6), 631–647. Retrieved fromhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030504839600031XYin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research - Design and Methods (4th ed.). Washington DC, USA: Sage Publications.YouTube. (2013). Charts - YouTube. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/charts/videos_views?t=a&gl=USSources