TOURISM SYSTEMS
Contacting me <ul><li>AJI DIVAKAR </li></ul><ul><li>Email: tourismlecturer@gmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>Write your Name and...
Slides are Online <ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Search= Tourism lecturer slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Download </li></ul>
Module Delivery <ul><li>6 Weeks, 10 Chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Weeks 7-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments and Exam Preparati...
Exam <ul><li>100 Marks  </li></ul><ul><li>70% towards final Marks </li></ul><ul><li>3 Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Section A : ...
Assignment <ul><li>4 parts : </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Assessments (C A)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 MCQ Tests </li></ul><...
Topic: <ul><ul><li>Destination study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select any destination from this list. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Topic: <ul><ul><li>Destination study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select any destination from this list. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Topic: <ul><ul><li>Destination study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select any destination from this list. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Group Assignment  <ul><li>Key Tourism Statistics of this Destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to the destination...
Assignment 1 <ul><li>Presentation and Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Power Point Slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submi...
Chapter 1 <ul><li>Introduction to  </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Model </li></ul>
Aim <ul><li>What will you Learn today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism Definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for Tr...
Hospitality/Tourism Industry OH – 1.4
TOURISM AND TRAVELLER <ul><li>Definitions of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>“… the aggregate of all businesses that directly pr...
<ul><li>“… the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activit...
UN Definitions <ul><li>UNWTO: Activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for...
THE MOTIVATION TO TRAVEL <ul><li>People travel for various reasons…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul></u...
Tutorial Activity <ul><li>Investigate 3 more reasons why people travel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  Medical Tourism. <...
How to Classify Tourist?
By Purpose Business Pleasure Meetings Incentives Conventions etc Family Holidays Olympics
By Location Preferences Coastal Rural Urban Mountain Lakes/River Hawaii Scottish Highland London Nepal Nile, Egypt
By Nature of Activity Active Tourism Passive Tourism Adventure Tourism Golf Tourism Eco Tourism Cruise Holidays Sight Seei...
What motivates people to travel?
Motivation Theories <ul><li>Push - Pull Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Motivation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>McIntos...
Foundations for Understanding Tourism Motivations (Dann 1981)
McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995)
McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995)  <ul><li>Physical Motivators:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body and mind, health purpose, ...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Cohen's Typology  <ul><li>The organized  The individual  </li></ul><ul><li>mass tourist  mass tourist  </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Cohen’s tourist typology (1974) Organised mass tourist Highly dependent on an  ’environmental bubble’  created, supplied a...
Plog’s  Theory
Psychocentric <ul><li>Prefer Familiar Destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer Low Activity levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer...
Allocentric <ul><li>Prefer non touristy places. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer high level of activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy...
MARKET SEGMENTATION <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Market segmentation is a process of dividing the total market ...
How to Segment? <ul><li>A  market  is all actual and potential buyers of a product or service </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic...
Geographic Segmentation <ul><li>Dividing the market into different geographic units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations </li></u...
Demographic Segmentation <ul><li>Dividing the market into groups based on demographic variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age ...
Psychographic Segmentation <ul><li>Dividing buyers into different groups based on  social class ,  lifestyle , and  person...
Behavior Segmentation <ul><li>Buyers are divided into groups based on their  knowledge ,  attitude , and  use  or  respons...
Class Exercise <ul><li>................VideosRealPlayer DownloadsVisitScotland  Surprise Yourself.flv </li></ul><ul><li>Wh...
Important Unique Attributes of the  Tourism Products Intangibility Temporary  Ownership Inseparability Heterogeneity Peris...
Attributes of the  Tourism Products Intangibility CAN’T ….. TOUCH FEEL SMELL TRY … .BEFORE BUYING
Attributes of the  Tourism Products Temporary  Ownership GUEST CAN’T  TAKE THE HOTEL ROOM WITH  THEM.
Attributes of the  Tourism Products InSeperability YOU CAN’T SEPARATE  SERVER AND THE SERVICE
Attributes of the  Tourism Products Heterogeneity VARIES FROM  … PEOPLE TO PEOPLE  PLACE TO PLACE
Attributes of the  Tourism Products Perishability USE IT  OR LOSE IT
TOURISM V/S OTHER SERVICE SECTOR <ul><li>More Supply led than other. </li></ul><ul><li>High Involvement and high risk prod...
Tourism System <ul><li>Leiper’s(1990) Tourism System </li></ul>Tourist Generating  Area Tourist Destination Region   Trans...
Integrated Tourism Model <ul><li>Several players at several stages involved in creating the product/service mix </li></ul>
A Tourism Model <ul><li>Dynamic and interrelated nature of tourism </li></ul><ul><li>The traveling public (tourists) are t...
The Business of Tourism <ul><li>Homework:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit wttc.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Statistics ...
Assignment Focus: Segmentation for your Destination <ul><li>TUTORIAL:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the key segments for...
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  • Tourism 2 nd year. 100 % pass (almost)
  • Aim: Use the guide as much Understand the key concept Learn 8 learning outcome by end
  • Purchase occasions: whether or not the people buy the product regularly, occasionally or never For example: a trip on Concorde may be a once-in-a-lifetime experience while for others it may be a regular activity Benefits sought: what are people hoping to gain from an attraction? It could be knowledge from a museum, excitement from a theme park, or economy from a country park where no charge is made for admission   User status: people may be non-users, ex-users, potential users, regular users or first time users   Readiness stage: are people unaware of the product, aware and interested, desirous of visiting an attraction or actually intent on visiting it and planning the visit currently   Attitude to the product: identifying people who are enthusiastic or positive about the attraction or merely indifferent and those who are negative and downright hostile to it.
  • Continue here for dht2 (Monday)
  • Figure 1.2 O/H. External factors Service suppliers Promoters Travelers All inter-related Vail cut back re Iraq. Gulf war 9/11 impact on Tourism Problems in Israel Economy Promoters provide information and other services; Suppliers provide services. Cooperate and compete. External Environment sets the Tourism agenda/atmosphere. Don’t operate in a vacuum. Internet having a profound effect on the model. Traveler much more knowledgeable!
  • Dht3 start here
  • Qmu tourism systems chapter 1

    1. 1. TOURISM SYSTEMS
    2. 2. Contacting me <ul><li>AJI DIVAKAR </li></ul><ul><li>Email: tourismlecturer@gmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>Write your Name and Module in the subject line. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub: Ms. Peng Xiaoli, DHT3 Tourism System Student (EASB). </li></ul>
    3. 3. Slides are Online <ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Search= Tourism lecturer slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Download </li></ul>
    4. 4. Module Delivery <ul><li>6 Weeks, 10 Chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Weeks 7-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments and Exam Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>2 Sessions per week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session 1 : Lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Session 2: Lecture + Tutorial </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Exam <ul><li>100 Marks </li></ul><ul><li>70% towards final Marks </li></ul><ul><li>3 Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Section A : Multiple Choice 20 marks </li></ul><ul><li>Section B : 3 Essay Questions Choose Any 2 (20 marks each) </li></ul><ul><li>Section C : 3 Essay Questions Choose any 2 (20 marks each) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Assignment <ul><li>4 parts : </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Assessments (C A) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 MCQ Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Week 3, Week 6, Week 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Report and Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Week 8 </li></ul><ul><li>4 members per group </li></ul>
    7. 7. Topic: <ul><ul><li>Destination study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select any destination from this list. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places of a Lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amsterdam Athens Atlanta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barcelona Berlin (Christian2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston Budapest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buenos Aires (LiLi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape Town Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dallas Dubai (CoCo) Dublin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florence Istanbul Jerusalem </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Topic: <ul><ul><li>Destination study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select any destination from this list. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places of a Lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Las Vegas (Kobe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>London (Charles, Song Jing2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madrid Mexico City Miami </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montreal Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York (Martin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paris (Sophie) Philadelphia Prague </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Topic: <ul><ul><li>Destination study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select any destination from this list. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places of a Lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rio de Janeiro Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Diego , USA (Stella) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco Seattle (Allen2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Petersburg Stockholm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toronto Vancouver (Kira) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venice Vienna Washington, D.C. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Group Assignment <ul><li>Key Tourism Statistics of this Destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to the destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitor Arrival numbers, Tourism receipts ($), Top 5 tourism generating regions, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present using tables and charts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tourism Promoters in the area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About the local NTO, Other Local agencies, Major distributors (Tour operators), portals/websites etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airlines (the main airlines ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotels (Number of hotels (how many in each category), number of rooms, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F&B and Cuisines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attractions in this destination. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of attractions, natural, man made (any Theme Parks) any major events (like F1), the numbers from those events </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Assignment 1 <ul><li>Presentation and Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Power Point Slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit Report (2000 Words + 20 Slides maximum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Harvard Referencing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submission : Week 7- 9 </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Introduction to </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Model </li></ul>
    13. 13. Aim <ul><li>What will you Learn today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism Definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for Travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Travelers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features of Tourism Products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Tourism Model </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Hospitality/Tourism Industry OH – 1.4
    15. 15. TOURISM AND TRAVELLER <ul><li>Definitions of Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>“… the aggregate of all businesses that directly provide goods or services to facilitate business, pleasure, and leisure activities away from the home environment ” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, S.L.J. (1990) Tourism Analysis, Longman, Harlow, Essex </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>“… the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needs ” . </li></ul><ul><li>Cook, Yale, & Marqua (2002) </li></ul>
    17. 17. UN Definitions <ul><li>UNWTO: Activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for more than one night but not for more than one year for leisure, business and other purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Another common definition simply counts everyone as a tourist who travels at least 40 miles from home and stays away overnight. </li></ul><ul><li>UNWTO (2010) </li></ul>
    18. 18. THE MOTIVATION TO TRAVEL <ul><li>People travel for various reasons…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visiting Family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Challenge Themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And many more…… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Tutorial Activity <ul><li>Investigate 3 more reasons why people travel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Medical Tourism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People from UK traveling to Thailand to do minor medical procedures like dental surgery. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. How to Classify Tourist?
    21. 21. By Purpose Business Pleasure Meetings Incentives Conventions etc Family Holidays Olympics
    22. 22. By Location Preferences Coastal Rural Urban Mountain Lakes/River Hawaii Scottish Highland London Nepal Nile, Egypt
    23. 23. By Nature of Activity Active Tourism Passive Tourism Adventure Tourism Golf Tourism Eco Tourism Cruise Holidays Sight Seeing Trips
    24. 24. What motivates people to travel?
    25. 25. Motivation Theories <ul><li>Push - Pull Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Motivation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Stanley Plog’s Motivation Theory </li></ul>
    26. 26. Foundations for Understanding Tourism Motivations (Dann 1981)
    27. 27. McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995)
    28. 28. McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995) <ul><li>Physical Motivators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body and mind, health purpose, sport and pleasure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Motivators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know more about other cultures, to find out about the natives of a country, their life style, music, art, folklore, dance etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Motivators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to meet new people, visit friends or relatives, and to seek new and different experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status and Prestige Motivators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal development, ego enhancement and sensual indulgence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for recognition and attention from others, in order to boost the personal ego. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    30. 30. Cohen's Typology <ul><li>The organized The individual </li></ul><ul><li>mass tourist mass tourist </li></ul><ul><li>The explorer The drifter </li></ul>
    31. 31. Cohen’s tourist typology (1974) Organised mass tourist Highly dependent on an ’environmental bubble’ created, supplied and maintained by the international tourism industry. Characterised by all-inclusive , fully packaged holidays. Familiarity dominates; novelty non-existent, highly controlled Individual mass tourist These will use the institutional facilities of the tourism system (scheduled flights, centralised bookings, transfers) to arrange as much as possible before leaving home; perhaps visiting the same sights as mass tourists but going under their own steam Explorer The key phrase here is ’off the beaten track ’ perhaps following a destination lead given by a travel article rather than simply choosing from a brochure. This type will move into the bubble of comfort and familiarity if the going gets too tough Drifter This type of tourist will seek novelty at all costs : even discomfort and danger. They will try to avoid all contact with ’tourists’ . Novelty will be their total goal; spending patterns tend to benefit immediate locale rather than large companies
    32. 32. Plog’s Theory
    33. 33. Psychocentric <ul><li>Prefer Familiar Destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer Low Activity levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer buying complete tour packages </li></ul><ul><li>Less risk taking </li></ul>
    34. 34. Allocentric <ul><li>Prefer non touristy places. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer high level of activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy interacting with locals </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy taking risk . </li></ul>
    35. 35. MARKET SEGMENTATION <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Market segmentation is a process of dividing the total market for a tourism organization or destination into groups of travellers that share common characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Morrison, AM 1996 </li></ul>
    36. 36. How to Segment? <ul><li>A market is all actual and potential buyers of a product or service </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Psychographic Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Segmentation </li></ul>
    37. 37. Geographic Segmentation <ul><li>Dividing the market into different geographic units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhoods </li></ul></ul>©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
    38. 38. Demographic Segmentation <ul><li>Dividing the market into groups based on demographic variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul></ul>©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
    39. 39. Psychographic Segmentation <ul><li>Dividing buyers into different groups based on social class , lifestyle , and personality characteristics </li></ul>©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
    40. 40. Behavior Segmentation <ul><li>Buyers are divided into groups based on their knowledge , attitude , and use or response to a product </li></ul><ul><li>The best starting point for building market segments </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special occasion segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits sought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyer readiness stage </li></ul></ul>©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
    41. 41. Class Exercise <ul><li>................VideosRealPlayer DownloadsVisitScotland Surprise Yourself.flv </li></ul><ul><li>Whom are they targeting? </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the target segments for this advertisement. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Important Unique Attributes of the Tourism Products Intangibility Temporary Ownership Inseparability Heterogeneity Perishability
    43. 43. Attributes of the Tourism Products Intangibility CAN’T ….. TOUCH FEEL SMELL TRY … .BEFORE BUYING
    44. 44. Attributes of the Tourism Products Temporary Ownership GUEST CAN’T TAKE THE HOTEL ROOM WITH THEM.
    45. 45. Attributes of the Tourism Products InSeperability YOU CAN’T SEPARATE SERVER AND THE SERVICE
    46. 46. Attributes of the Tourism Products Heterogeneity VARIES FROM … PEOPLE TO PEOPLE PLACE TO PLACE
    47. 47. Attributes of the Tourism Products Perishability USE IT OR LOSE IT
    48. 48. TOURISM V/S OTHER SERVICE SECTOR <ul><li>More Supply led than other. </li></ul><ul><li>High Involvement and high risk product to consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted partly from peoples dreams and fantasies. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Tourism System <ul><li>Leiper’s(1990) Tourism System </li></ul>Tourist Generating Area Tourist Destination Region Transit Route Traveler Travelers
    50. 50. Integrated Tourism Model <ul><li>Several players at several stages involved in creating the product/service mix </li></ul>
    51. 51. A Tourism Model <ul><li>Dynamic and interrelated nature of tourism </li></ul><ul><li>The traveling public (tourists) are the focal point (heart) of the model </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism promoters link the traveling public with the suppliers of services </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism service suppliers provide the services that tourists need when they travel </li></ul><ul><li>External forces affect all participants in tourism; tourists, promoters and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>(Cooper et.al, 2006) </li></ul>
    52. 52. The Business of Tourism <ul><li>Homework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit wttc.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Statistics </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Assignment Focus: Segmentation for your Destination <ul><li>TUTORIAL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the key segments for destination? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic Segments (Top 5 target markets) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Segmentations: Demographic, Psychographic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at an Advertisement from the local NTO for clues. </li></ul></ul></ul>
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