Interaction12 Workshop by Jon Kolko: Design Synthesis

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Interaction12 Workshop by Jon Kolko: Design Synthesis

  1. 1. Design SynthesisJon KolkoDirector & Founder, Austin Center for Design
  2. 2. 0/ Today What is Synthesis, and why is it important? As a group, we will examine a very large amount of theory pertaining to synthesis, and that data will be put in the context of information through examples and diagrams. What are methods I can use? In groups, we will have the opportunity to apply methods to produce shared knowledge and to integrate these methods into existing working processes. Let’s try it: Method – Process Flow Diagramming Let’s try it: Method – Concept Mapping Let’s try it: Method – Insight Combination Let’s try it: Method – Reframing How can I use this in my life? As a large group, we will discuss these methods and consider when these methods are most applicable and actionable in our respective jobs and lives.2 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  3. 3. 1/ Theory3 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  4. 4. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems4 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  5. 5. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems In a well structured problem, all of these are true: We can test our solution. We can identify problem, goal, and interim states. We can identify solution steps. We can identify domain knowledge. We can solve the problem while obeying the laws of nature. We can solve the problem using only practical levels of effort. Herb Simon, 19735 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  6. 6. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems In an ill-structured problem, some of these are true: We cannot test our solution, or cannot test it easily. We cannot easily identify problem, goal, or interim states. We cannot identify all of the solution steps. We cannot identify domain knowledge (it may be tacit). We may be constrained by the laws of nature. Solutioning may outweigh practical efforts. Herb Simon, 19736 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  7. 7. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems In a wicked problem, the following are true: Wicked problems have no definitive formulation. Wicked problems have no criteria upon which to determine “solving”. Solutions to wicked problems can only be good or bad. There are no complete list of applicable "moves" for a solution. There are always more than one explanation for a wicked problem. Every wicked problem is a symptom of another problem. No solution of a wicked problem has a definitive, scientific test. Every wicked problem is unique. Horst Rittel, 19737 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  8. 8. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems Designers solve problems. Design Synthesis is the formal approach we use.8 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  9. 9. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping9 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  10. 10. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.10 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  11. 11. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.11 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  12. 12. deductive inductive abductive12 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  13. 13. Jon is a Designer. All Designers are Arrogant Bastards. Therefore, Jon is an Arrogant Bastard. deductive inductive abductive The output is guaranteed to be true, if the premise is true.13 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  14. 14. All of the designers I’ve ever seen wear Jon is a Designer. black t-shirts. All Designers are Arrogant Bastards. Therefore, the next designer I will see Therefore, Jon is an Arrogant Bastard. will be wearing a black t-shirt. deductive inductive abductive The output is guaranteed to be true, Gives good evidence if the premise is true. that a conclusion is true.14 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  15. 15. When a designer works on a project, they often draw diagrams of things. It seems to help them learn about a new topic. I’ve seen grade school students struggle to learn complex topics of All of the designers I’ve ever seen wear math or science. Jon is a Designer. black t-shirts. I can abduct that students might be All Designers are Arrogant Bastards. Therefore, the next designer I will see able to learn better by drawing Therefore, Jon is an Arrogant Bastard. will be wearing a black t-shirt. diagrams in a classroom setting. deductive inductive abductive The output is guaranteed to be true, Gives good evidence The argument from best explanation, if the premise is true. that a conclusion is true. depending on circumstances and experience15 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  16. 16. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.16 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  17. 17. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.17 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  18. 18. David Snowden Karl Weick Robert Hoffman18 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  19. 19. David Snowden “We have found that [our sensemaking framework] The use of narrative to describe what might helps people to break out of old ways of thinking and to be, by embracing a “what if” style thinking consider intractable problems in new ways… it is designed to allow shared understandings to emerge A collaborative process, valuable for early through the multiple discourses of the decision-making stages of problem solving group.” Karl Weick Robert Hoffman19 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  20. 20. David Snowden “We have found that [our sensemaking framework] The use of narrative to describe what might helps people to break out of old ways of thinking and to be, by embracing a “what if” style thinking consider intractable problems in new ways… it is designed to allow shared understandings to emerge A collaborative process, valuable for early through the multiple discourses of the decision-making stages of problem solving group.” Karl Weick “Sensemaking is, importantly, an issue of language, The use of spoken language to describe talk, and communication. Situations, organizations, and what might be environments are talked into existence… Sensemaking is about the interplay of action and interpretation rather A collaborative process that is effective for than the influence of evaluation on choice.” growth and planning Robert Hoffman20 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  21. 21. David Snowden “We have found that [our sensemaking framework] The use of narrative to describe what might helps people to break out of old ways of thinking and to be, by embracing a “what if” style thinking consider intractable problems in new ways… it is designed to allow shared understandings to emerge A collaborative process, valuable for early through the multiple discourses of the decision-making stages of problem solving group.” Karl Weick “Sensemaking is, importantly, an issue of language, The use of spoken language to describe talk, and communication. Situations, organizations, and what might be environments are talked into existence… Sensemaking is about the interplay of action and interpretation rather A collaborative process that is effective for than the influence of evaluation on choice.” growth and planning Robert Hoffman “By sensemaking, modern researchers seem to mean A process of connection making and something different from creativity, comprehension, socialization that occurs over an extended curiosity, mental modeling, explanation, or situational period of time. awareness... Sensemaking is a motivated, continuous effort to understand connections (which can be among Both a personal process and a shared people, places, and events) in order to anticipate their process. trajectories and act effectively.”21 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  22. 22. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.22 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  23. 23. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping It’s a process of learning.23 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  24. 24. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Data Information Knowledge Wisdom ? ? ? Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy24 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  25. 25. “It would be great if this thing was a lot bigger” :( “It’s too big, why can’t they just make it smaller?”Data Information Knowledge Wisdom 25 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL 25
  26. 26. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy26 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  27. 27. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy27 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  28. 28. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 1. Externalize the Process – Get out of your laptop.28 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  29. 29. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 2. Make diagrams.29 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  30. 30. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 3. Interpret. Heavily.30 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  31. 31. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Methods: affinity diagramming hierarchy creation  flow diagramming scenario development31 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  32. 32. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy32 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  33. 33. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 1. Tell a story33 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  34. 34. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Warmth Multisensory 2. Atmosphere and Culture Change your perspective Sitting on a Comfy Couch Comfortable Living Room A Cup of Coffee Freshly Ground Coffee Grinder Roasted Coffee Beans Green Coffee Beans Coffee Tree34 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  35. 35. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 3. Shift the context A product, becoming another product A product, A product, A product, not working as intended being passed down to a new being upgraded generation A product, A product, A product, A product, A product, A product, A product, being assembled being purchased being unpacked being used becoming worn becoming being discarded and set up and loved obsolete A product A product, accessory that was misplaced35 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  36. 36. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Methods:  concept mapping temporal zoom semantic zoom storyboarding36 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  37. 37. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy37 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  38. 38. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 1. Consider a provocation38 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  39. 39. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 2. Force a constraint-shift39 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  40. 40. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 3. Make fun of everything40 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  41. 41. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Methods:  reframing  insight combination participatory design41 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  42. 42. 2/ Methods42 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  43. 43. The Story So Far… Your colleague, Melvin, has abruptly decided to go back to school to fulfill his lifelong dream of becoming a Taxidermist. Melvin had just finished the research phase of a project with a large client, and all of his work on the project – is gone. The only thing left are some insights he’s extracted and a few of his notes, scribbled quickly. You’ve been assigned to the project, but no one seems to have any background information about what he was doing; it’s up to you to take what Melvin started and then move the project forward.43 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  44. 44. Process Flow Diagrams44 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  45. 45. A Process Flow is… A set of steps, and the sequencing of the steps, intended to produce a desired result.45 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  46. 46. A Process Flow Diagram visualizes behavior, in a representational format, over time. An informal scenario flow diagram: A formal process or data flow diagram: 1. Indicates the relationship and order of actions 1. Indicates logical decision points 2. Shows major interface states 2. Articulates major data containers, and paths in and 3. Helps to visualize the “whole”, as well as proximity out of those containers to the whole 3. Can be used by engineers as an input into coding 4. Abstracts logical relationships in favor of linearity and architecture development46 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  47. 47. An Informal Scenario-Flow Diagram describes progress, steps, relationships, and order. Phone Phone User 1 Rings Answers Stops Ringing Phone 2 Phone Rings Voicemail Answers Stops Ringing47 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  48. 48. A formal Process Flow Diagram show logical decision points, accurate flow, and order. Is ringer Call is No turned Voice mail picks up placed on? Yes Yes No Is ring = Call is Phone rings (ring+1) #4? over Does No user answer? Yes48 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  49. 49. Creating a Process Flow Diagram is an f’in pain in the ass. 1. List entities (objects, people – the “nouns” of 5. Begin with a walkthrough, sketching each step in a the system) and operators (actions – the high-level flow (10 hours) “verbs” of the system) (2 hours) 6. Fill in the rest of the structure, revising the main 2. Define things to be counted or incremented flow as necessary (20 hours) (1 hour) 7. Reorganize, visually, to create a coherent overall 3. Define boundary conditions (beginning and structure (20 hours) ending, as well as sub-flows or sub-processes) (1 hour) 8. Use visual design to clarify and make the content more accessible (10 hours) 4. List primary actions necessary to achieve boundary condition (3 hours)49 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  50. 50. The Story So Far… Let’s try it… Your colleague, Melvin, has abruptly decided to go back to In groups, using Melvin’s notes, create a formal school to fulfill his lifelong dream of becoming a process flow diagram of a piece of the task that Taxidermist. Melvin had just finished the research phase of Melvin was studying. a project with a large client, and all of his work on the project – is gone. The only thing left are some insights he’s 1. List entities (objects, people – the “nouns” of the extracted and a few of his notes, scribbled quickly. system) and operators (actions – the “verbs” of the system) You’ve been assigned to the project, but no one seems to have any background information about the project; it’s up 2. Define things to be counted or incremented to you to take what Melvin started and then move the project forward. 3. Define boundary conditions (beginning and ending, as well as sub-flows or sub-processes) 4. List primary actions necessary to achieve boundary condition 5. Begin with a walkthrough, sketching each step in a high-level flow 6. Fill in the rest of the structure, revising the main flow as necessary 7. Reorganize, visually, to create a coherent overall structure 8. Use visual design to clarify and make the content more accessible50 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  51. 51. Concept Mapping51 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  52. 52. A Map is… A representation of a system, intended to help someone find their way52 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  53. 53. A Concept Map is a representation of a system. It sacrifices accuracy for comprehensibility. 1. Visualizes both the forest and the trees (breadth 5. Is visual (a tool for perception) and depth) 6. Is semantic (a tool for cognition) 2. Rarely has a “beginning” and “end” 7. Frequently represents the user’s mental model of a 3. Helps people find their way (it’s a map, after all): how a system might work provides direction and instruction 8. Can also represent the designer’s manifest model 4. Forces selectivity, abstraction, prioritization and of how a system might appear hierarchy53 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  54. 54. Baseball 2-Team Sport played byOffensive Team Defensive Team Innings Infield consists of consists of Runner Catcher Left Fielder Short Stop 1st Baseman Pitcher Mound Home Plate stands on Right Fielder 2nd Baseman Center Fielder 3rd Baseman throws54 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  55. 55. Nodes (nouns) are main branches Baseball 2-Team Sport played byOffensive Team Defensive Team Innings Infield consists of consists of Runner Catcher Left Fielder Short Stop 1st Baseman Pitcher Mound Home Plate stands on Right Fielder 2nd Baseman Center Fielder 3rd Baseman throws55 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  56. 56. Actions (verbs) link the nodes Baseball 2-Team Sport played byOffensive Team Defensive Team Innings Infield consists of consists of Runner Catcher Left Fielder Short Stop 1st Baseman Pitcher Mound Home Plate stands on Right Fielder 2nd Baseman Center Fielder 3rd Baseman throws56 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  57. 57. Concept Map57 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  58. 58. Concept Map58 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  59. 59. Creating a Concept Map should be rigorous – after all, you are taming complexity! 1. Create a matrix showing the relations of terms: 2. Decide on main branches of the map, based on (10 hours) frequency of connections as well as common sense (2 hours) • List terms. Identify the main elements that make up the system; lean on your 3. Fill in the rest of the structure, in order to represent contextual research to understand the all of the elements in the system (5 hours) words that matter to the users the most. • Create empty matrix, plotting the words 4. Use visual design to clarify and make the content against themselves. more accessible (10 hours) • Identify relationships; these are qualitative and require interpretation.59 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  60. 60. For example… Making a concept map of Thinktiv. Project Infinity Sharespost Friday Beers Management Big Geek Technologist Roadmaps Strategist Redlines Team Lunches Sarcasm Visual Design Creativity Clients Steve Waters Photoshop Billable Happy Hours Whiteboards Mobile60 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  61. 61. Team Lunches Visual Design Management Steve Waters Technologist Happy Hours Whiteboards Friday Beers Sharespost Photoshop Roadmaps Strategist Creativity Big Geek Redlines Sarcasm Billable Infinity Project Clients Mobile Infinity Sharespost Friday Beers ProjectManagement Big Geek Technologist Roadmaps Strategist RedlinesTeam Lunches SarcasmVisual Design Creativity ClientsSteve Waters Photoshop Billable Happy Hours Whiteboards Mobile
  62. 62. Team Lunches Visual Design Management Steve Waters Technologist Happy Hours Whiteboards Friday Beers Sharespost Photoshop Roadmaps Strategist Creativity Big Geek Redlines Sarcasm Billable Infinity Project Clients Mobile Infinity Sharespost Friday Beers ProjectManagement Big Geek Technologist Roadmaps Strategist RedlinesTeam Lunches SarcasmVisual Design Creativity ClientsSteve Waters Photoshop Billable Happy Hours Whiteboards Mobile
  63. 63. Team Lunches Visual Design Management Steve Waters Technologist Happy Hours Whiteboards Friday Beers Sharespost Photoshop Roadmaps Strategist Creativity Big Geek Redlines Sarcasm Billable Infinity Project Clients Mobile Infinity Sharespost Friday Beers ProjectManagement Big Geek Technologist Roadmaps Strategist RedlinesTeam Lunches SarcasmVisual Design Creativity ClientsSteve Waters Photoshop Billable Happy Hours Whiteboards Mobile
  64. 64. Thinktiv is made up of employees with titles like Strategist Technologist Visual Designer who get paid for their who need to remain creativity billable64 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  65. 65. Thinktiv is made up of roadmaps employees with titles like creates Strategist Technologist Visual Designer creates who may be named who get paid for their who need to remain Steve Waters creativity billable redlines who has an abundance of sarcasm65 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  66. 66. Thinktiv is made up of roadmaps employees with titles like creates Strategist Technologist Visual Designer creates who may be named who get paid for their who need to remain Steve Waters creativity billable redlines who has an abundance of sarcasm66 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  67. 67. The Story So Far… Let’s try it… Your colleague, Melvin, has abruptly decided to go back to Using the words from Melvin’s notes, and your school to fulfill his lifelong dream of becoming a process diagrams, construct a matrix of terms, and Taxidermist. Melvin had just finished the research phase of produce a concept map that illustrates the system- a project with a large client, and all of his work on the view of Melvin’s work. project – is gone. The only thing left are some insights he’s extracted and a few of his notes, scribbled quickly. 1. Create a matrix showing the relations of terms: You’ve been assigned to the project, but no one seems to • List terms. Identify the main elements that have any background information about the project; it’s up make up the system; lean on your contextual to you to take what Melvin started and then move the research to understand the words that project forward. matter to the users the most. • Create empty matrix, plotting the words against themselves. • Identify relationships; these are qualitative and require interpretation. 2. Decide on main branches of the map, based on frequency of connections as well as common sense 3. Fill in the rest of the structure, in order to represent all of the elements in the system 4. Use visual design to clarify and make the content more accessible67 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  68. 68. Insight Combination68 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  69. 69. Design patterns describe… “possible good solutions to a common design problem within a certain context, by describing the invariant qualities of all those solutions” Tidwell69 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  70. 70. Insight Combination is a method of building on established design patterns in order to create initial design ideas. 1. Forces a detailed examination, and organization, 4. Allows for the combination of existing paradigms of each individual insight with new and novel ideas (it’s a generative design 2. Is divergent, in that it actively produces new ideas activity) and expands the entire set of insights 5. Takes advantage of the personal experiences 3. Pushes ideas forward in a nonlinear fashion, of the designers and investigators jumping over the expected to arrive at the 6. Takes advantage of established design patterns unexpected70 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  71. 71. I saw this + I know this = Insight71 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  72. 72. I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered throughethnography, contextualinquiry, questionnaires,and interviews72 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  73. 73. I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and theinquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world viewand interviews and breadth of experience73 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  74. 74. I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perceptioninquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particularand interviews and breadth of experience design context74 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  75. 75. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perceptioninquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particularand interviews and breadth of experience design context75 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  76. 76. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep, A trending paradigm that describesethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perception invariant qualities, referencinginquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particular history and similar solutionsand interviews and breadth of experience design context76 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  77. 77. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep, A trending paradigm that describes A new, creative concept,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perception invariant qualities, referencing somewhat facilitated byinquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particular history and similar solutions existing design paradigmsand interviews and breadth of experience design context77 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  78. 78. Insight Combination… … with boring old enterprise configuration software …78 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  79. 79. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep, A trending paradigm that describes A new, creative concept,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perception invariant qualities, referencing somewhat facilitated byinquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particular history and similar solutions existing design paradigmsand interviews and breadth of experience design context81 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  80. 80. This method takes time, and more importantly, takes emotional energy and focus. 1. Begin to identify insights in the data you’ve 3. Start to combine insights and design patterns to gathered by combining an observation (I saw this) create design ideas by mingling the blue and yellow with your knowledge (I know this); write the post-its, moving them around physically, and insights on yellow post-it notes. Reference the line actively reflecting on potential combinations. When numbers from any applicable transcripts, and give a combination makes sense and generates a design each yellow post-it note a unique numeric ID. idea, write it in a green post-it note. Give each (10+ hours) green post-it note a unique design idea ID (referencing both the yellow and blue notes above). 2. Identify design patterns that are relevant to the (40+ hours) discipline you are designing for. Ideally, you begin to keep a design pattern library. Write the patterns 4. Once you are almost “done” (usually when you’ve on blue post-it notes. Give each blue post-it note a nearly run out of time and money), log the entire unique letter ID. (2+ hours) set into a spreadsheet. (3 hours) 5. Finally, pick the top ideas and start to sketch them. (3 hours) Now, you can always trace any design idea back to an insight, and ultimately, back to a nugget of user data.82 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  81. 81. The Story So Far… Let’s try it… Your colleague, Melvin, has abruptly decided to go back to In groups, combine insights with design patterns to school to fulfill his lifelong dream of becoming a produce design ideas. Taxidermist. Melvin had just finished the research phase of a project with a large client, and all of his work on the 1. Begin to identify insights in the data Melvin has project – is gone. The only thing left are some insights he’s gathered by combining an observation (I saw this) extracted and a few of his notes, scribbled quickly. with your knowledge (I know this); write the insights on yellow post-it notes. Reference the line You’ve been assigned to the project, but no one seems to numbers from any applicable transcripts, and give have any background information about the project; it’s up each yellow post-it note a unique numeric ID. to you to take what Melvin started and then move the project forward. 2. Identify design patterns that may or may not be relevant to the discipline Melvin was designing for. Ideally, you begin to keep a design pattern library. Write the patterns on blue post-it notes. Give each blue post-it note a unique letter ID. 3. Start to combine insights and design patterns to create design ideas by mingling the blue and yellow post-its, moving them around physically, and actively reflecting on potential combinations. When a combination makes sense and generates a design idea, write it in a green post-it note. Give each green post-it note a unique design idea ID (referencing both the yellow and blue notes above).83 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  82. 82. Reframing84 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  83. 83. A frame is a perspective or viewpoint: “Even though frames define what count as data, they themselves actually shape the data (for example, a house fire will be perceived differently by the homeowner, the fire fighters, and the arson investigator).” Klein, Moon & Hoffman85 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  84. 84. Reframing is a method of shifting semantic perspective in order to see things in a new way. 1. “Re-embeds” a product, system or service in a 4. Is primarily semantic (a tool for cognition) new (and not necessarily logical) context 5. Encourages empathy 2. Explores associations and hidden links to and from the center of focus 6. Forces understanding of the various touchpoints 3. Posits a “what if” scenario implicitly 7. Identifies implications and insights86 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  85. 85. Consider a toothbrush …87 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  86. 86. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer object88 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  87. 87. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer objectreframed in a new environment: primary user goal: implications and insights: Teeth cleaning should allow for a way to quickly get pieces In the kitchen Remove food out of hard to reach places, and shouldn’t require a mirror Provide a way to quickly and nonchalantly freshen breath in In an airplane Remove smells close quarters and without being offensive to other passengers Remove lettuce before Teeth cleaning should include some form of sharp picking At a conference giving a talk object, and should clearly indicate when you missed a chunk
  88. 88. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer objectreframed from a new perspective: primary user goal: implications and insights: Effectively clean teeth and Teeth cleaning should be as rigorous as possible, and should Dentist prevent future problems be “future proof” for some period of time Teeth cleaning should have as small a disposal footprint as Hotel Housekeeper Clean the hotel room possible, and shouldn’t generate any extra work, trash, or waste Avoid looking at There should be a way to casually alert the date that they have Blind Date spinach-in-teeth all night something nasty in their teeth.
  89. 89. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer objectreframed as a new embodiment: primary user goal: implications and insights: Clean teeth while feeling There should be a plant with teeth cleaning properties, that can A Plant closer to nature live peacefully in one of the aforementioned environments Clean teeth quickly A portable spray should freshen breath but should also clean A Spray without friction teeth; instant or quick acting timeframe, through a fine mist. Gain “dentist visit” Provide a quick-stop for interim dentist appointments – at the A Service cleanliness in between visits mall. Should be trustworthy and clean; legal implications…
  90. 90. Reframing is easy, and easier in teams – but requires that you perform an abduction 1. Identify the product, service or system that is being 5. Begin to fill in the Implications and Insights column reframed. It’s not always what your client asked in all charts. There are no bad ideas; criticism is for. (1+ hour) completely suspended. An item can generate more than one implication or insight; if it does, create a 2. Create blank reframing charts on paper, one each new row to capture it. Try to generate thirty-fifty for environments, users, and embodiments. items for each list. (4 hours) (5 minutes) 6. Extract implications and insights that are relevant 3. Free associate new items for the left column of each based on the specific constraints of your project, chart; work on all three charts at once. There are no and list them: these can then be integrated with bad ideas: criticism is completely suspended. the rest of your design criteria. (1 hour) (1+ hour) 7. Select the best ideas, and sketch them. (3 hours) 4. Begin to fill in Primary Goal for all items in all charts. Try to paint a picture of a credible story; judge responses and add criticism as appropriate, but only in relationship to the primary goal column. (2 hours)92 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  91. 91. The Story So Far… Let’s try it… Your colleague, Melvin, has abruptly decided to go back to In groups, reframe the core idea in terms of school to fulfill his lifelong dream of becoming a environment, users, and embodiments. Taxidermist. Melvin had just finished the research phase of a project with a large client, and all of his work on the 1. Identify the product, service or system that is being project – is gone. The only thing left are some insights he’s reframed. It’s not always obvious. extracted and a few of his notes, scribbled quickly. 2. Create blank reframing charts on paper, one each You’ve been assigned to the project, but no one seems to for environments, users, and embodiments. have any background information about the project; it’s up to you to take what Melvin started and then move the 3. Free associate new items for the left column of each project forward. chart; work on all three charts at once. There are no bad ideas: criticism is completely suspended. 4. Begin to fill in Primary Goal for all items in all charts. Try to paint a picture of a credible story; judge responses and add criticism as appropriate, but only in relationship to the primary goal column. 5. Begin to fill in the Implications and Insights column in all charts. There are no bad ideas; criticism is completely suspended. An item can generate more than one implication or insight; if it does, create a new row to capture it. Try to generate thirty-fifty items for each list. 6. Extract implications and insights that are relevant based on the specific constraints of your project, and list them: these can then be integrated with the rest of your design criteria.93 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  92. 92. 5/ Summary94 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  93. 93. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.95 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  94. 94. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Methods: Methods: Methods: affinity diagramming concept mapping reframing hierarchy creation temporal zoom insight combination flow diagramming semantic zoom participatory design scenario development storyboarding96 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  95. 95. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping97 | 2/1/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL

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