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Lecture eight

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Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Genetics
  • 2. Gregor Mendel
  • 3. Genes and Dominance
    P generation
    F1 generation
    Hybrids
  • 4. Genes and Dominance
    The F1 generation had the character of only of the parents
    Mendel drew two conclusions
    Biological inheritance is determined by factors that are passed from generation to the next
    The principle of dominance
    Genes
    Alleles
  • 5. Segregation
  • 6. Genetics and Probability
    The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called probability
    The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses
  • 7. Punnett Squares
    Punnett Squares
    Homozygous
    Heterozygous
    Phenotypes
    Genotypes
  • 8. Probability and Segregation
  • 9. The Two Factor Cross: F1
    Two different genes passing from generation to another
    First, Mendel crossed tree-breeding plants (RRYY x rryy)
    All of the F1 offspring produced the dominant genes
  • 10. The Two Factor Cross: F2
    Mendel knew that all the F1 plants were heterozygous for both genes
    The F2 generation shows how alleles segregate
    Since the alleles for both genes segregated independently of each other (independent assortment), the ratio was 9:3:3:1
    The principle of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes. Independent assortment helps account for the many genetic variations observed in plants, animals, and other organisms
  • 11. Summary of Mendel’s Principles
  • 12. Summary of Mendel’s Principles
    The inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units known as genes. Genes are passed from parents to their offspring
    In cases in which two or more alleles of the gene for a single trait exist, some forms of the gene may be dominant and others may be recessive
    In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene - one from each parent. These gens are segregated from each other when gametes are formed
    The alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of one another
  • 13. Incomplete Dominance
  • 14. Codominance
  • 15. Multiple Alleles
  • 16. Polygenic Traits
  • 17. Genetics and the Environment