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An Introduction to End to End Testing

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Your first end-to-end test can seem to be a daunting task; but the actual test procedure is not very complicated and can be performed more quickly and effectively than traditional relay test …

Your first end-to-end test can seem to be a daunting task; but the actual test procedure is not very complicated and can be performed more quickly and effectively than traditional relay test techniques…if everything works correctly. That last part is the hard part because you are typically working with a team at a remote location which makes it difficult to determine whether the problem lies with the test plan, relay settings, test-set configuration, or operator error. This article will introduce you to end-to-end testing and answer many of the questions you might have.

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  • 1. End-to-End Testing Chris Werstiuk Manta Test Systems
  • 2. What is End-to-End Testing? Two or more test sets at different locations GPS antennas at both ends Fault simulations Time-synched start times
  • 3. What is End-to-End Testing?
  • 4. What is End-to-End Testing? Test Set Minimums • 3 Current Channels • 3 Voltage Channels • 1 Output • 1 Input • GPS/IRIG Clock Synchronization • Waveform or Fault State Simulations • Computer?
  • 5. What is End-to-End Testing? Computer to Communicate with Relays At least One Operator at Each Location Test Case • Waveform • State Simulator Understand Expected Results
  • 6. What is End-to-End Testing? End-to-End Testing Steps • Obtain and review test cases • Isolate High and Low voltage equipment • Connect I/O • Connect Analog I/O • Setup GPS/IRIG • Communicate and perform meter test • Choose test plan • Prepare for test
  • 7. What is End-to-End Testing? End-to-End Testing Steps (cont.) • Choose start time • Run test • Review Targets and Event Report • Repeat for all test cases • Return equipment to service
  • 8. Why Perform End-to-End Testing? Best line protection uses communication • More reliable • More Selective • Faster operation Testing one end only finds obvious errors End-to-End tests entire scheme Most realistic testing possible Possible mandated by NERC…
  • 9. How Does it Work? System Disturbances occur in 1 ms Relays can detect problems within 10us Both sides must start within 10us • Fiber/pilot scheme require installation • Power system synch in 1 ms • GPS synch in 2us • IRIG synch <10us
  • 10. How Does it Work? Global Positioning System (GPS) • US Armed Forces allowed civilian access to satellite signals • Antenna receives time signals from 4 satellites • GPS clock compares difference in time signals to different satellite positions All test sets have same time All tests start at same time Different test set models have different start times
  • 11. Where? Whenever entire schemes need confirmation Typically communication assisted protection in substations
  • 12. When? Commissioning new installations More effective maintenance testing?
  • 13. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Understanding typical distance protection TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 21 21 21 21 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 TX 1 TX 1 TX 1 TX 1 21 21 21 21 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z2 RX 1 RX 1 RX 1 RX 1 21 21 21 21 Z3 Z3 Z3 Z3 RLY-3 RLY-1 RLY-2 RLY-4 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -4 ZONE 1 RLY -3 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3 RLY -3 ZONE 2 RLY -4 ZONE 2 RLY -3 ZONE 3 RLY -4 ZONE 3
  • 14. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Fault simulations along and beyond transmission line10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3
  • 15. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Waveform Files  Comtrade or proprietary Software  Pros • Easy to export from modeling software • Easy play back • Add CVT, harmonic, switching distortions • Tamperproof  Cons • Hard to troubleshoot
  • 16. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Waveform Files
  • 17. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Data  Text, Spreadsheet, Database, CSV, Proprietary  Pros • Easy to create and understand • Faster troubleshooting • On-site corrections possible • Easy Documentation  Cons • Conversion Errors • Manual data entry
  • 18. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Data RLY-1 Load from Bus to Line (SOURCE BUS for Prefault) Aspen Output Aspen Output Aspen Output Aspen Output Pre Fault Fault 1 Fault 2 Post Fault PRE FAULT FAULT 1 Post Fault Secondary Secondary Secondary Test Values Angle Values Angle Values Angle Values Angle Test Set Test Set Set VA 132.79 0 110.9 -1 132.79 0 66.4 0.0 55.5 -1.0 66.4 0.0 VB 132.79 -120 110.9 -121 132.79 -120 66.4 -120.0 55.5 -121.0 66.4 -120.0 VC 132.79 120 110.9 119 132.79 120 66.4 120.0 55.5 119.0 66.4 120.0 IA 200 -10 4452 -81 0 0 0.50 -10.0 11.13 -81.0 0.00 0.0 IB 200 -130 4452 159 0 0 0.50 -130.0 11.13 159.0 0.00 0.0 IC 200 110 4452 39 0 0 0.50 110.0 11.13 39.0 0.00 0.0 RLY-2 Load from Line to Bus (LOAD BUS for Prefault) Aspen Output Aspen Output Aspen Output Aspen Output Pre Fault Fault 1 Fault 2 Post Fault PRE FAULT FAULT 1 Post Fault Secondary Secondary Secondary Test Values Angle Values Angle Values Angle Values Angle Test Set Test Set Set VA 132.79 0 119.17 -1 132.79 0 66.4 0.0 59.6 -1.0 66.4 0.0 VB 132.79 -120 119.17 -121 132.79 -120 66.4 -120.0 59.6 -121.0 66.4 -120.0 VC 132.79 120 119.17 119 132.79 120 66.4 120.0 59.6 119.0 66.4 120.0 IA 200 170 4784 -81 0 0 0.33 170.0 7.97 -81.0 0.00 0.0 IB 200 50 4784 159 0 0 0.33 50.0 7.97 159.0 0.00 0.0 IC 200 -70 4784 39 0 0 0.33 -70.0 7.97 39.0 0.00 0.0
  • 19. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Phase Relationships – Pre-Fault
  • 20. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Phase Relationships – Internal Fault
  • 21. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Phase Relationships – External Fault
  • 22. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Phase Relationships – Pre-Fault RLY-1 Ia@ degrees -20 RLY-2 Ia@160 degrees RLY-1 Va@0 degrees RLY-2 Va@0 degrees
  • 23. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Phase Relationships – Internal Fault RLY-1 Ia@ degrees -85 RLY-2 Ia@-84 degrees RLY-1 Va@-1degrees RLY-2 Va@-1degrees
  • 24. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Phase Relationships – External Fault RLY-1 Ia@ degrees -82 RLY-2 Ia@98 degrees RLY-1 Va@-4 degrees RLY-2 Va@-5 degrees
  • 25. Detailed Procedures Obtain and Review Test Cases • Understand scheme under test (DCB, POTT, etc) • Make sure all test cases are complete. • Understand expected results • Check for obvious errors
  • 26. Detailed Procedures Isolate Equipment Under Test • Offline testing  Open disconnect switches on outside of Breakers TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 21 21 21 21 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 TX 1 TX 1 TX 1 TX 1 21 21 21 21 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z2 RX 1 RX 1 RX 1 RX 1 21 21 21 21 Z3 Z3 Z3 Z3 RLY-3 RLY-1 RLY-2 RLY-4
  • 27. Detailed Procedures Isolate Equipment Under Test • Relay Input/Output connections DC+ 2 TS-52-5-DC1 1 E2 R1 TRIP 50+51 RELAY TEST SET F2 3 + Timer TS-52-5-DC1 R1 Input 4 TB1-7 G F 3 C B DC-
  • 28. Detailed Procedures Isolate Equipment Under Test • Relay CT/PT Connections CABLE FROM XFMR-2 VT8 OA OB OC 4200:120V OA OB OC TS-52-5-AC 16 18 20 ISOLATING DEVICE 15 17 19 1A1 1C0 A X2 4 2 This 1B1 DWG X2 8 G5 H5 G6 H6 6 1C1 1A2 1A3 X2 12 8 CTs 123-124-125 3 G7 H7 1 3-3000: MR 1B2 1B3 SET 2000:5 7 G8 H8 5 C200 1C0 1C2 1C3 A X5 11 G9 H9 9 This DWG RLY-12 X5 MULTILIN SR-750 X5 RELAY TEST SET 52-5 Magnitude Phase Angle A Phase Volts Test Volts 0° B Phase Volts Test Volts -120° (240°) C Phase Volts Test Volts 120° N Phase Volts + A Phase Amps AØ Test Amps 0° OA OB OC + B Phase Amps BØ Test Amps -120° (240°) TO 4160V BUS + C Phase Amps CØ Test Amps 120° Alternate Timer Connection DC Supply - + + Timer Element - Timer Input Output + Input
  • 29. Detailed Procedures Setup GPS Antenna • Need 4 satellites • Clear sky – Vehicle roof • Set test set for GPS input – wait • Check for error message • Check with remote ends for same time • If sky not available – use IRIG
  • 30. Detailed Procedures Meter Test • Warn all ends before test • Single phase voltage and current to check connections • 3 phase tests to check CT/PT ratios and polarity
  • 31. Detailed Procedures Meter Test • Different relays and test sets have different phasor references
  • 32. Detailed Procedures Choose Test Plan • All sides agree on test plan • Different values for different ends
  • 33. Detailed Procedures Evaluate Results • Correct Targets? • Correct Time Delays? • Download event records (Optional)
  • 34. Detailed Procedures Troubleshooting • Correct waveform loaded? • Correct Information loaded? • Pre-fault duration the same? • Same phases faulted? • Same start time? • Communication active? • Circuit breaker signals in correct position? • All leads still attached?
  • 35. Detailed Procedures Return Equipment to Service • Disconnect CT/PT Connections • Disconnect I/O connections • Close CT/PT Test Switches • Check output status • Close I/O test switches • Contact switching authority
  • 36. Detailed Procedures Prepare Report • Cover Letter  Non-electrical  Summarize activities  Summarize results  List problems and action taken  List outstanding issues • Test Sheet  Clear test results  Relay settings in native and open-source format
  • 37. Common Protection Schemes No Communication 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 3 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 4 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 5 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 6 Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 7 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles 8 No trip Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles 9 Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles No trip 10 No trip No trip 11 No trip No trip
  • 38. Common Protection Schemes Press "NEXT" and see if you can guess what the relays will do No Communication 1 Press "Next" to move the fault location
  • 39. Common Protection Schemes No Communication 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 3 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 4 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 5 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 6 Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 7 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles 8 No trip Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles 9 Trip Zone-3 in 60 cycles No trip 10 No trip No trip 11 No trip No trip
  • 40. Common Protection Schemes Pilot Wire • Uses traditional differential Theory • Current in = Current out = No trip • Slope Characteristic FAULT CURRENT = 40 00 A FAULT CURRENT = 40 00 A EXTERNAL FAULT CURRENT = 800 0 A40 0:5 40 0:5 40 0:5 40 0:5 87 = 25 % RESTRAINT SE TTING 87 = 25 % RESTRAINT SE TTING 50 A 50 A Iop 50 A 50 A 10 0 A 10 0 A Iop 10 0 A 10 0 A RE STRAINT RE STRAINT RE STRAINT RE STRAINT Iop = 50A + 50A = 100 A Iop = 100 A + -10 0A = 0 A Iop /Irestrai nt = 100 A / 50 A = 2 Iop / Irestrai nt = 0 A / 100 A = 0 Iop /Irestrai nt = 200 % > 25% settin g = TRIP Iop /Irestrai nt = 0% < 25 % se tti ng = NO TRIP Differential Protection 25% Characterisic Curve 14 Operating Current (Iop) 12 10 8 Trip Area 6 Restraint Area 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Restrain Current (Ir)
  • 41. Common Protection Schemes Pilot Wire • 3 phase current passes through relay filters to create single phase signal that can be sent over two pilot wires • Pilot Signal can be current or voltage 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 RLY -1 ZONE 3 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87RLY -20ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 2 in cycles 2 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 3 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 4 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 5 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 6 No trip No trip 7 No trip No trip 8 No trip No trip 9 No trip No trip 10 No trip No trip 11 No trip No trip
  • 42. Common Protection Schemes Phase/Charge Comparison • Current greater than pickup starts communication • Ignores current magnitude • Trip signal sent with every negative half-cycle • Block signal sent every positive half-cycle • External fault = current 180 degrees out of phase • Trip and block signals cancel EXTERNAL FAULT CURRENT = 8 000 A 40 0:5 40 0:5 TX 1 TX 1 $ # $ # * @ RX 1 RX 1 * @ $ = RLY-1 BLOCK $ = RLY-1 BLOCK * = RLY-2 ATTEMPTS TRIP * = RLY-2 ATTEMPTS TRIP # = RLY-2 BLOCK # = RLY-2 BLOCK @ = RLY-1 ATTEMPTS TRIP @ = RLY-1 ATTEMPTS TRIP TRIP BLOCKED TRIP BLOCKED
  • 43. Common Protection Schemes Press "NEXT" and see if you can guess what the relays will do Phase/Charge Comparison 1 Press "Next" to move the fault location
  • 44. Common Protection Schemes Phase/Charge Comparison10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 RLY -1 ZONE 3 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87RLY -20ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 2 in cycles 2 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 3 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 4 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 5 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 6 No trip No trip 7 No trip No trip 8 No trip No trip 9 No trip No trip 10 No trip No trip 11 No trip No trip
  • 45. Common Protection Schemes Direct Transfer Trip Scheme (DTT) • A designated trip signal at one relay trips all relays Direct Under-reaching Transfer Trip (DUTT) • Same as DTT except Zone 1 is trip signal 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles DUTT Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 DUTT Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 46. Common Protection SchemesDirect Under-reaching Transfer Trip 1 Press "NEXT" and see if you can guess what the relays will do(DUTT) Press "Next" to move the fault location • Same as DTT except Zone 1 is trip signal
  • 47. Common Protection Schemes Permissive Over-Reaching Transfer Trip (POTT) • Zone 2 Pickup on both relays = COMM Trip 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles POTT Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 POTT Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 48. Press "NEXT" and see if you can guess what the relays will do Press "Next" to move the fault location Common Protection SchemesPermissive Over-Reaching Transfer Trip (POTT) 1 • Zone 2 Pickup on both relays = COMM Trip
  • 49. Common Protection Schemes POTT Scheme • Sudden Reversals can cause nuisance trips • RLY-4 Detects Z2 and send PT to RLY-3 • RLY-1 Trips and RLY-3 Detects Z2 • Will RLY-4 PT stop before RLY-3 Z@ PickupRLY - 1 - Z o ne 1 RLY - 2 - Z o ne 2 RLY - 2 - Z o ne 2 1 1 RLY RLY RLY RLY -1 -2 -1 -2 RLY - 3 - Z o ne 3 RLY - 4 - Z o ne 2 RLY - 3 - Z o ne 2 RLY - 4 - Z o ne 3 RLY RLY RLY RLY -3 -4 -3 -4
  • 50. Common Protection Schemes Press "NEXT" to see what can happen in POTT is incorrectlyPOTT Scheme 3 applied.
  • 51. Common Protection Schemes Permissive Over-Reaching Transfer Trip (POTT) • Zone 2 Pickup on both relays = COMM Trip 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles POTT Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 POTT Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 52. Common Protection Schemes Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB) • Same as POTT except uses Power Line Carrier • Guard signal present until permissive sent • Relay must detect loss of guard AND PT for COMM trip 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles DCUB Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 DCUB Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 53. Common Protection SchemesDirectional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB) 1 Press "NEXT" and see if you can guess what the relays will do Press "Next" to move the fault location
  • 54. Common Protection Schemes Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB) • Same as POTT except uses Power Line Carrier • Guard signal present until permissive sent • Relay must detect loss of guard AND PT for COMM trip 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles DCUB Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 DCUB Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 55. Common Protection Schemes Permissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip (PUTT) • Zone 1 Pickup on one relay and Zone 2 Pickup on second relay = COMM Trip • No sudden reversal problem because Zone 1 doesn’t over- reach 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles PUTT Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 PUTT Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 56. Press "NEXT" and see if you can guess what the relays will do Press "Next" to move the fault locationCommon Protection SchemesPermissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip (PUTT) 1
  • 57. Common Protection Schemes Permissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip (PUTT) • Zone 1 Pickup on one relay and Zone 2 Pickup on second relay = COMM Trip • No sudden reversal problem because Zone 1 doesn’t over- reach 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles PUTT Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 PUTT Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 58. Common Protection Schemes Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB) • Zone 2 Pickup on one relay with Zone 3 detected on other relay = COMM Trip blocked • Zone 2 with no blocking signal = COMM trip • Sudden reversal nuisance tripping possible 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles DCB Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 DCB Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 59. Common Protection Schemes Press "NEXT" and see if you can guess what the relays will do Press "Next" to move the fault locationDirectional Comparison Blocking (DCB) 1
  • 60. Common Protection Schemes Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB) • Zone 2 Pickup on one relay with Zone 3 detected on other relay = COMM Trip blocked • Zone 2 with no blocking signal = COMM trip • Sudden reversal nuisance tripping possible 10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 RLY -2 ZONE 2 RLY -1 ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 3Test RLY-1 RLY-2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles 1 Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles DCB Trip <3 cycles 2 Trip Zone-2 in 20 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles 2 DCB Trip <3 cycles Trip Zone-1 in 0 cycles
  • 61. Common Protection Schemes Line Differential • Not your typical slope • A, B, C, I2, and I0 current • Alpha Plane = Vector Math • Remote amps @ x degrees / Local amps @ y degrees I RLY 2 0.33 @170 • Prefault = IA    0.67 @180 I RLY 1 0.50 @ 10  I RLY 2 8.0 @ 81 • 3 Phase Fault1 = IA    0.72 @ 0 I RLY 1 11.1@ 81  • 1 Phase Fault2 = IA  I RLY 2  2.76 @ 80   0.072 @ 3 I 0 ALPHA  I RLY 2 0.66 @ 78.4    0.05 @ 4.6  I RLY 1 37.99 @ 83  I RLY 1 13.06 @ 83  I RLY 2 0.39 @ 91 I RLY 2 1.07 @ 80.6  IB    0.661@180  I 2 ALPHA    0.09 @ 2.4  I RLY 1 0.59 @ 89  I RLY 1 12.44 @ 83.0  I RLY 2 0.39 @101 IC ALPHA    0.661@180  I RLY 1 0.59 @ 79 
  • 62. Common Protection Schemes Line Differential IMAG (Iremote/Ilocal) • Alpha Plane TRIP REGION RESTRAINT IAfault 2 REGION I0fault 2 I2fault 2 Iprefault REAL (Iremote/Ilocal) IBfault 2 Ifault 1 ICfault 2
  • 63. Common Protection Schemes Line Differential10 9 6 1 3 5 4 2 7 8 11 RLY RLY -1 -2 RLY -1 ZONE 1 RLY -2 ZONE 1 RLY -1 ZONE 2 Test RLY-1 RLY-2 1 RLY -1 ZONE 3 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87RLY -20ZONE 3 RLY -2 ZONE 2 in cycles 2 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 3 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 4 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 5 Trip 87 in 0 cycles Trip 87 in 0 cycles 6 No trip No trip 7 No trip No trip 8 No trip No trip 9 No trip No trip 10 No trip No trip 11 No trip No trip
  • 64. Conclusion POTT PUTT DCB Pilot Wire Phase Comparison Line Differential Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 RLY-1 RLY-2 RLY-1 RLY-2 RLY-1 RLY-2 cycles cycles RLY-1 RLY-2 RLY-1 RLY-2 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-2 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 01 in 0 cycles in <3 cycles in 0 cycles in <3 cycles in 0 cycles in <6 cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-1 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 02 in <3 cycles in 0 cycles in < 3 cycles in 0 cycles in <6 cycles in 0 cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 03 in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 04 in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip Zone-1 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 0 Trip 87 in 05 in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles in 0 cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-26 No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip in 60 cycles in 20 cycles in 60 cycles in 20 cycles in 60 cycles in 20 cycles Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-2 Trip Zone-37 No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip in 20 cycles in 60 cycles in 20 cycles in 60 cycles in 20 cycles in 60 cycles Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-38 No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip in 60 cycles in 60 cycles in 60 cycles Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-3 Trip Zone-39 No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip in 60 cycles in 60 cycles in 60 cycles10 No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip11 No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip No trip
  • 65. Questions???