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Benthic Habitats of Greenland - Edexcel talk - ZSL - Nov 2013
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Benthic Habitats of Greenland - Edexcel talk - ZSL - Nov 2013

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Overview of a project to assess the impact of shrimp fishing on the benthic habitats of Greenland. …

Overview of a project to assess the impact of shrimp fishing on the benthic habitats of Greenland.
Talk given by Chris Yesson to A-Level students for the Edexcel talk series at the Zoological Society of London in November 2013

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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Transcript

  • 1. How does fishing affect the seabed of Greenland? Chris Yesson
  • 2. Where's Greenland?
  • 3. Where's Greenland?
  • 4. Shrimp fishing – a 1bn DKK industry
  • 5. Marine Stewardship Council
  • 6. Marine Stewardship Council • Recognise and reward fisheries that fish sustainably • Work with fishery and commercial partners to build a market for sustainable seafood • Give buyers and consumers an easy way to find seafood from a sustainable fishery - the blue MSC ecolabel
  • 7. Potential impact of trawling gear • Some trawling has been likened to forest clear cutting • Gear that is dragged along the bottom of the seabed can disturb, damage or destroy many organisms • But the 'right gear' used in the 'right habitat' can have negligible impact Unimpacted Impacted Collie et al (2000) ICES J. Mar. Sci 57: 987-1000 Watling & Norse (1998) Cons. Biol. 12: 1180-97
  • 8. Our mission • What benthic habitats are there on the west Greenland shelf? • Are there any vulnerable marine ecosystems? • What is the impact of shrimp trawling on these habitats?
  • 9. Pamuit – survey ship
  • 10. Bycatch of large vulnerable organisms
  • 11. Example seabed images
  • 12. Some things are easy to identify
  • 13. Some things are difficult to spot
  • 14. Some things we can't ID
  • 15. A guide to the benthic fauna
  • 16. Biodiversity is... • "The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems." - Convention on Biological Diversity
  • 17. Which has higher biodiversity? A B
  • 18. Which has higher biodiversity? C B
  • 19. Diversity • Number of organisms • Number of species • Biomass • Shannon index – An measure that tries to balance species and organisms
  • 20. Calculate diversity for all stations H=0.4 H=0.9
  • 21. … and find fishing impact H=0.4 Impact=0 H=0.9 Impact=Low
  • 22. Low Diversity High Scatter plots High Low Fishing impact
  • 23. High impact → Low diversity High Low Fishing impact Low Diversity High Scatter plots
  • 24. High Scatter plots Low Diversity Low impact → High diversity High Low Fishing impact
  • 25. High Scatter plots Low Diversity ? High Low Fishing impact
  • 26. Diversity Scatter plots – detecting patterns Fishing impact
  • 27. Diversity Scatter plots – detecting patterns Fishing impact
  • 28. Scatter plots – detecting patterns Inverse correlation No correlation
  • 29. Diversity and fishing impact Weakly negative impact
  • 30. Are all sites directly comparable? • Sites with rocks have different species composition to those with only sand & mud • Impact of fishing may be different for these habitats Most soft corals are permanently attached to rock Many soft sediment species can bury themselves in the sand/mud
  • 31. Different response of habitats
  • 32. Habitats differ by environment too
  • 33. What effects diversity? Muddy seabed: ● Fishing impact Rocky seabed: ● Depth ● Salinity ● Slope ● Temperature
  • 34. Conclusions • Benthic (seabed) habitats in Greenland are diverse • Rocky and muddy seabeds are home to different species • Rocky habitats have seen lower fishing impact and seem less disturbed by fishing activities • Muddy habitats may be negatively impacted by fishing
  • 35. Thanks • At IOZ –Kirsty Kemp –Irina Chemshirova –Poppy Simon • Others –Sustainable Fisheries Greenland –Peder Munk Pedersen –Greenland institute of natural resources –Nanette Hammeken –Martin Blicher