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  • 1. EDLS 7010 Lesson #4 Lead Change
  • 2. 2 Negotiation Compromise Bargaining Integration Change Strategies & Some Implications FACILITATIVE POLITICAL ATTITUDINAL INFORMATIONAL Fast Implementation Rate Slow implementation rate Short term In-depth Surface Long term Impacts Consequences Persuading Helping Connor, Lake, & Stackman (2003). Managing organizational change.
  • 3. 3 1. Establishing a sense of urgency 2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition 3. Creating a vision 4. Communicating the vision 5. Empowering others to act on the vision 6. Planning for and creating short-term wins 7. Consolidating improvements and producing still more change 8. Institutionalizing new approaches John Kotter Eight Steps to Transforming Your Organization
  • 4. How to Make a Switch 4 . DIRECT the Rider FOLLOW THE BRIGHT SPOTS. Investigate what’s working and clone it. SCRIPT THE CRITICAL MOVES. Don’t think big picture, think in terms of specific behaviors. POINT TO THE DESTINATION. Change is easier when you know where you’re going and why it’s worth it. MOTIVATE the Elephant FIND THE FEELING. Knowing something isn’t enough to cause change. Make people feel something. SHRINK THE CHANGE. Break down the change until it no longer spooks the Elephant. GROW YOUR PEOPLE. Cultivate a sense of identity and instill the growth mindset. SHAPE the Path TWEAK THE ENVIRONMENT. When the situation changes, the behavior changes. So change the situation. BUILD HABITS. When behavior is habitual, it’s “free” – it doesn’t tax the Rider. Look for ways to encourage habits. RALLY THE HERD. Behavior is contagious. Help it spread. Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch.
  • 5. 5 “To begin with, more than anything else, leaders build bridges – bridges that help us move from where we are to where we need to be . Bridges of hope and ideas and opportunity; bridges wide and strong enough so that all who wish to cross can do so safely.” “A leader is someone you choose to follow to a place that you wouldn’t go by yourself.” Adapted from Joel Barker, Leadershift, five lessons for leaders in the 21st century
  • 6. 6 “Leadership is the ability and the willingness to influence others so that they respond willingly.” “The challenge of effective leadership is to bring out the best in others.” Clawson, J.G. (1999). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. “Administrators are necessary but insufficient elements of change leadership.” Reeves (2009). Leading change in your school. p. 51 “Leaders persuade us not just by the stories they tell but also by the lives they lead.” Deutschman (2007). Change or die – p. 89
  • 7. 7 Level 5 Leaders Build enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will Look out the window to apportion credit Look in the mirror to apportion responsibility Collins, J. (2001). Good to great.
  • 8. 10X Leadership 8 Collins, J., & Hansen, M. (2011). Great by choice: Uncertainty, chaos, and luck… New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
  • 9. Behaviors of 10Xers Fanatic Discipline Extreme consistency of actions with values, goals Empirical Creativity Rely upon direct observation, practical experimentation & direct engagement Productive Paranoia Stay highly attuned to threats and changes in environment, even when all’s going well 9 Collins, J., & Hansen, M. (2011). Great by choice: Uncertainty, chaos, and luck… New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
  • 10. 10 Generating a Change Environment  Collection of Facts - Collect the facts to demonstrate that change is essential  Negotiations - Negotiate changes to create an ethical climate  Self-Purification - The leader prepares for confrontation  Reflection  Personal review  Consultation  Direct Action - Move to direct action  Choose a straightforward, achievable goal  Act in proportion to the context & people  Sustain action  Modify actions to sustain movement Chapter 5 – R. Calabrese text
  • 11. 11 Adaptive Work Mobilizing people to tackle tough problems. The hardest and most valuable task of leadership may be advancing goals and designing strategy that promote adaptive work. The most common source of leadership failure is to treat adaptive challenges like technical problems. We are bound to be disappointed if we expect our conventional learning methods & means – which generally address only technical challenges – to support truly adaptive changes. Heifetz, R. A. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Heifetz & Linsky (2002). Leadership on the line. Kegan & Lahey (2009). Immunity to change…
  • 12. 12 Strategic Principles of Leadership Distinguish technical from adaptive challenges Identify the adaptive challenge Keep the level of distress within a tolerable range for doing adaptive work Focus attention on ripening issues and not on stress-reducing distractions Give the work back to people, but at a rate they can stand Protect voices of leadership w/o authority Heifetz (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Heifetz & Linsky (2002). Leadership on the line.
  • 13. Overcoming Immunity to Change Change doesn’t cause anxiety – the feeling that we are w/o defenses does We can’t succeed w/adaptive challenges w/o recognizing that we are putting at risk what has been a very well functioning way of taking care of ourselves Kegan & Lahey (2009). Immunity to change. 13
  • 14. Overcoming Immunity to Change “Since there will never be enough charismatic leadership geniuses to support every worthy change challenge, it would be useful if mere mortals, working more conscientiously than charismatically, could learn to bring about such a shift in collective attitudes.” 14 Kegan & Lahey (2009). Immunity to change.
  • 15. Big Assumptions What makes a “big assumption more than merely an assumption is the belief, implicit or explicit, that what we assume is always and completely right. A big assumption automatically informs how we see reality.” “The problem more often is that we tend to overuse big assumptions and over- generalize their applicability far beyond their scope.” 15 Kegan & Lahey (2009). Immunity to change.
  • 16. 16 Leadership’s Personal Resilience Each individual has a personal speed of change. The single most important factor for enhancing this speed of change is resilience. Resilient individuals – those who operate at a high speed of change – are able to take on more change without becoming so intellectually, physically, and emotionally drained. Conner, D.R. (1998). Leading at the edge of chaos: How to create the nimble organization.
  • 17. 17 Personal Characteristics that Define Resilient Behavior Positive Focused Flexible Organized Proactive Conner, D.R. (1998). Leading at the edge of chaos: How to create the nimble organization.
  • 18. 18 Six Steps to Effective Leadership Clarifying your center Clarifying what is possible Clarifying what others can contribute Supporting others so they can contribute Being relentless Measuring & celebrating progress Clawson, J.G. (1999). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface.
  • 19. The 6 Secrets of Change Fullan (2008) 1. Love your employees  Create situations for them to succeed 1. Connect peers with purpose  Establish the right conditions  Set the process in motion  Trust the process and the people in it 1. Capacity building prevails  Concerns competencies, resources & motivation 1. Learning is the work 19
  • 20. The 6 Secrets of Change Fullan (2008) 5. Transparency rules  Involves being open about results & practices  Pursuing and nailing down problems that recur & identifying evidence  Informed responses to problems 5. Systems learn  Focus on developing many leaders working in concert  Leaders approach complexity with a combination of humility & faith that effectiveness can be maximized under the circumstances 20
  • 21. 21 Interactive Professionalism Guidelines for Principals Understand the culture Value your teachers; promote their professional growth Extend what you value (support a wide variety of strategies) Express what you value Promote collaboration; not cooptation (create the vision together) Make menus, not mandates (empower teachers to select from a wide range of collaborative practices) Use bureaucratic means to facilitate, not to constrain Connect with the wider environment M. Fullan & A. Hargreaves. (1996). What’s worth fighting for in your school.
  • 22. 22 Leadership of Profound Change Profound change – organizational change that combines inner shifts in people’s values, aspirations, and behaviors with “outer” shifts in process, strategies, practices, and systems. Faced with the practical needs for significant change, we opt for the hero-leader rather than eliciting and developing leadership capacity throughout the organization. Senge, (1999). The dance of change.
  • 23. 23 Key Aspects of Leadership for Change Openness to change Desire to challenge assumptions Good judgment Capacity to earn trust Balance Willingness to stay the course Value risk-taking Love learning Systems thinker Clawson, J.G. (1999). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. Duke, D. (2004). The challenges of educational change.
  • 24. Leadership Principles for Leveraging Chaos Recognize that many problems are solutions waiting to happen (homeostasis & change) Tolerate ambiguity, in that many possible right answers may exist in the context of competing values (strange attractors) Recognize that what a leader attends to will be mirrored throughout the organization (fractals) Establish appropriate systems for relevant feedback to flow freely (cybernetics) 24 Shoup, J.R., & Studer, S.C. (2010). Leveraging chaos…
  • 25. Leadership Principles for Leveraging Chaos (continued) Plan & implement change by evaluating probable intended & unintended consequences (emergence) Recognize that certain small changes can have a big effect (sensitive dependence) Plan for the best & prepare for the worst (self- organized criticality) Reframe problems & solutions to leverage the most appropriate & relevant theme(s) and patterns at work in the system 25Shoup, J.R., & Studer, S.C. (2010). Leveraging chaos…
  • 26. 26 Getting to Yes To find your way through the jungle of people problems, think in terms of:  Perception  Put yourself in their shoes  Don’t blame them for your problem  Give them a stake in the outcome by making sure they participate in the process  Emotion  First recognize & understand emotions, theirs & yours  Don’t react to emotional outbursts  Use symbolic gestures  Communication  Listen actively & acknowledge what is being said  Speak for a purpose Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1991).
  • 27. 27 Decision-Making Biases that Hinder Effective Negotiation Irrational escalation of commitment Continuing a previously selected course of action  The mythical fixed pie Assuming that your gain must come at the expense of another Anchoring and adjustments Giving too much weight to initial offer Robbins, S. (2000). Essentials of organizational behavior (6th ed.).
  • 28. Decision-Making Biases that Hinder Effective Negotiation Framing negotiations People are affected by the way info is presented Availability of information Relying on readily available vs. reliable info The winner’s curse The regret one feels after closing a negotiation Overconfidence Ignoring info that contradicts beliefs & expectations 28 Robbins, S. (2000). Essentials of organizational behavior (6th ed.).
  • 29. 29 Principled Negotiation Based on integrative bargaining and a win-win approach People: Separate the people from the problem Interests: Focus on interests, not positions Options: Invent options for mutual gain Criteria: Insist on objective criteria Fisher, R. & Ury, W. (1981). Getting to yes. In Osland, J., Kolb, D., & Rubin, I. (2001). Organizational behavior.
  • 30. 30 Distributive vs. Integrative Bargaining Bargaining Characteristic Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining Available amount of resources to be divided Fixed Variable Primary motivations I win; you lose I win; you win Primary interests Opposed to each other Convergent or congruent with each other Focus of relationships Short term Long term Lewicki, R. & Litterer, J. (1985). Negotiations. In Robbins, S. (2000). Essentials of organizational behavior (6th ed.).
  • 31. 31 Transactional Leadership vs. Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Influencing follower through an exchange of something valued by both the leader & follower Quid pro quo interactions Transformational Leadership A relationship of mutual stimulation & elevation Engagement between leaders & followers bound by common purpose Both the leaders & the followers are guided by ethical values & moral principles Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership.
  • 32. Effects of Transformational Leadership Stimulating others to view their work from new perspectives Awareness of organization’s mission/vision Developing other’s abilities to higher levels of performance Motivating others beyond self interests toward the benefit of the group or organization Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. 32
  • 33. 33 Behavior of Transformational Leaders  Idealized influence Role models – admired, respected & trusted  Inspirational motivation Giving meaning & challenge to followers Involving others; communicating  Intellectual stimulation Promote innovation & creativity  Individualized consideration Acting as mentor or coach Supervising according to individual needs Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership.
  • 34. 34 Competencies that Enhance Transformational Leadership Attention Developing a shared vision Meaning Communicating the vision to others Trust Believing in people and remaining focused Self Knowing personal skills & deploying them Bennis, W. (1984). The four competencies of leadership. Training & Development Journal, 38 (8), 14-19.