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Womm presentation

  1. 1. Networked Narratives: Understanding Word-of-Mouth Marketing in Online Communities By Robert V. Kozinets, Kristine de Valck, Andrea C. Wojnicki, & Sarah J.S. Wilner
  2. 2. Organic Interconsumer Influence Model <ul><li>Conversation among buyers were more important than marketing communications in influencing adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs between one consumer and another without direct influence of marketers </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by desire to help, warn, or inform other consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs naturally among consumers when marketers develop market innovations and effectively notify public about product through advertising </li></ul>
  3. 3. Linear Marketer Influence Model <ul><li>Recognized the importance of influential consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers tried to influence these opinion leaders through advertising/promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion leaders can market products as “t h e friend who recommends a tried and trusted product” rather than a “S a lesman who tries to get rid of merchandise” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Network Coproduction Model <ul><li>Consumers are regarded as active coproducers of value and meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Word-of-mouth communications are coproduced in consumer networks </li></ul><ul><li>Two characteristics of this new model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketers use new tactics to directly target the consumer/opinion leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketers acknowledge that messages and meanings are exchanged among members of the consumer network </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives of the study <ul><li>Wanted to find answers to three questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do communities respond to community oriented word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What patterns do WOM communicator strategies assume? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do they assume these patterns? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Method <ul><li>Studied a “s e eding ” campaign—campaign in which a product is placed among influential consumers so that they can tell others about it </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign was to promote a new camera-equipped mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>Seeded the phone with accessories with 90 bloggers </li></ul><ul><li>Bloggers were not required to write about the phone but 84% did so </li></ul><ul><li>Results focused on 4 blogs whose responses were representative of the findings </li></ul>
  7. 7. Findings <ul><li>Bloggers seem to be flattered but also threatened to be selected as campaign participants </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs help build a social network that is about more than just sharing information; also build trust, friendship and alliances </li></ul><ul><li>When marketers impose themselves into these social networks, they undermine these community themes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why WOM marketing works <ul><li>Traditionally, marketplace relationships are kept at a distance from community relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WOM marketing violates this traditional social contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WOM communicators try to transform the message from the persuasion-oriented message of the marketer into a desirable and informative message </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why WOM marketing works (continued) <ul><li>Message transformation does three things for marketers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates the marketing message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakes the communicator’s reputation and relationships on the marketing message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts marketing message to conform to the norms and expectations the community has developed </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Evaluation Strategy <ul><li>Minimizes mentions of the campaign and focuses more on the product </li></ul><ul><li>By ignoring the campaign and the moral tension that comes with it, this strategy can backfire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates the trust that had been built </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Embracing Strategy <ul><li>Mentions the campaign and their participation in it enthusiastically </li></ul><ul><li>Justifies participation with argument of self-interest </li></ul><ul><li>Some readers find this open and honest approach to be refreshing, others respond negatively </li></ul>
  12. 12. Endorsement Strategy <ul><li>Full disclosure of the campaign and acknowledgement of the tension it can create </li></ul><ul><li>Aware of the marketers’ intentions and know that it may not be in the best interest of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Justify participation with the argument of need </li></ul>
  13. 13. Explanation Strategy <ul><li>Openly discloses the campaign’s presence and analyzes the impacts of participation in it </li></ul><ul><li>Discusses potential conflict, but demonstrates continued shared affiliation with community </li></ul><ul><li>Tells viewers that it is better to get info from a trusted source than a paid celebrity endorser </li></ul>
  14. 14. Questions <ul><li>Do you think that a participant in a WOM marketing campaign can remain objective when reviewing a product they were given for free? </li></ul><ul><li>If you loyally followed a blog, would you consider the blogger to be a “sell-out” for accepting money or goods that caused a change in their blog’s content? </li></ul>