Types Of Industry Scheduling

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This paper will study how industries use scheduling, attempt to categorize industry scheduling by common needs and component solutions, and provide an understanding of the differences between industry schedule use that should allow for better communications and increase the opportunity to enable innovation from each industry to improve scheduling in all industries.

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Types Of Industry Scheduling

  1. 1. 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting Anaheim, CA, June 2011 Chris Carson, PSP 35191 Raf DuaImproving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types January 15, 2010 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 1 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  2. 2. Table of ContentsList of Tables iiiAbstract 4Introduction 4Overview 5Scheduling Component Determinants 6The Matrix Concept 9Compile Matrix into Summaries 10Identify types of schedules 10Conclusion 12Bibliography 13 ii 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 2 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  3. 3. List of TablesTable 1, “Schedule Type Matrix” 14 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 3 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  4. 4. AbstractOne scheduler says resource leveling is vital to producing a reasonable schedule, another says no oneuses resources, let alone leveling. Scheduling discussions get passionate yet often schedulers indifferent industries do not seem to speak the same language. Some industries are naturally far aheadof others in the use of specific scheduling components, such as resources, EVM, or RiskManagement, and those leaders are often the source for innovation in the use of those components.This paper will study how industries use scheduling, attempt to categorize industry scheduling bycommon needs and component solutions, and provide an understanding of the differences betweenindustry schedule use that should allow for better communications and increase the opportunity toenable innovation from each industry to improve scheduling in all industries.IntroductionProfessional schedulers, those who use scheduling to enhance and improve project managementactions, often lose themselves in their own world of planning and scheduling. They work with otherschedulers who are in the same industry or even the same segment of the same industry, understandtheir unique needs and even develop lingo and buzz words that are specific to their segment. Theuse of scheduling is fairly standardized, although there is variation in competence and general use ofschedules. Understanding how each segment of the scheduling world is different can help categorizetypes of schedules.Often what seems to be innovative scheduling for one industry is a common practice in anotherindustry. This observation shows the way to improve scheduling across all industries if the commonpractices in one industry that seem innovative in another industry could be shared with otherindustries that might be able to use those common practices if they only understood them. This istypical of the way that Earned Value Management (EVM) has been absorbed into commercialconstruction; at one time, EVM was strictly used in defense and other industries. Then contractorswho performed both military defense and commercial construction used the techniques in militaryprojects and soon realized that there were benefits from the use of EVM in the commercialconstruction field.Currently, there is no scheduling –wide categorization of types of scheduling so there is no simpleway for one industry to view new best practices and incorporate those into their routine schedulingtasks. In most cases industries do not even know what is being used in other industries with success.Without the knowledge of what is available and used professionally, industry schedulers will nothave the opportunity or inclination to experiment with new techniques.The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering international (“AACEi”) publication,Total Cost Management Framework, A Process for Applying the Skills and Knowledge of CostEngineering,[1] clearly encompasses all types of industries, yet does not categorize those type ofindustries requiring different types of scheduling practices.The Total Cost Management Framework defines the “strategic assets” of an enterprise as“shorthand for any unique physical or intellectual property that is of long term or ongoing value to 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 4 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  5. 5. the enterprise” and notes that “the asset may be a building, an industrial plant, a software program,or a stage production.”Compiling a system of categorization of schedule types would help to allow the comparison ofsimilar schedule types, and the more definition that can be applied to each type, the more likely thatimprovements that would be useful will be identified and incorporated.As schedulers recognize that there are scheduling techniques being used successfully in otherindustries, there should be an increased demand for understanding the taxonomy of scheduling types.This is an area where the leading industry associations, like AACE International and the PMIScheduling Community of Practice, should encourage studies and opportunities for cross-pollinationbetween different industries and sectors of industries.Overview – Rationale for PaperThe authors come from slightly different sectors of the construction industry, with Mr. Dua workingin Australian and Far East manufacturing and construction projects that require extensive planningand monitoring of resources for us in planning Design-Build-Operate-Maintain type projects. Hehas developed his own ADM software, Micro Planner Expert, in an effort to provide the softwareflexibility necessary to handle the demands on resource driven scheduling. Mr. Carson works in theUnited States primarily in commercial and military projects that require claims avoidance andsubcontractor management efforts. His work primarily involves use of Oracle/Primavera schedulesoftware and to a much lesser extent, some Microsoft Project software. Both provide riskassessment and monitoring as part of their planning services, and both work as consultants for bothowners and contractors in their fields. And both require well planned networks that are highlytechnical and accurate so that the network calculations will provide reasonable and legitimate valuesof total float and identifications of critical and near critical path activities.Both authors are involved in the industry associations related to planning and scheduling likeAACEi, and as such, have deep exposure to other planners and schedulers in many differentsegments of or industries. We have found that communications among all these different plannersand schedulers can often be difficult mostly due to the emphasis on various components used in thedifferent industries.Just the differences between Mr. Dua’s extensive involvement in individual manpower resources andMr. Carson’s involvement in more crew-related resources highlight the disparities that result inmisunderstandings about scheduling best practices and needs. With the proliferation of more andmore social networks and well managed forums that are related to project controls, there are greaternumbers of schedulers from all sectors of and industries that are exposed to each other. Judgingfrom the discussions, it is clear that some of the disputes about best practices actually revolve aroundthe use of the schedules more than the quality of the schedules.Review of the forums and groups shows how one scheduler will note that resource leveling is notused in his/her industry, and another scheduler showing concern that without good resource levelingit is not possible to accurately plan and schedule a project of any kind. Or, one industry schedulerfeels that the attempt to cost load a schedule and use earned value to manage a project reduces thetime management component’s usefulness of the schedule, where another industry scheduler cannotbelieve that anyone could plan and schedule a project without using earned value.The authors believe that the real value in the recognition of these differences is the opportunity tocross-pollinate industries with scheduling component expertise. If one sector of an industry is using 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 5 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  6. 6. individual labor resource components effectively to plan and manage a project, learning from thatsector in order to bring better individual labor resource components into another sector will enablethis other sector to improve the plan.This is also true with sectors where high penalty risk and legal ramifications of failure promotehigher levels of technical development of the CPM network. This higher level of networkdevelopment, if absorbed by other industries where the risks are not as high, will still improve thevalue of the output statistics and metrics used to analyze the schedule progress.Scheduling Component Determinants That Affect Types of SchedulesAfter numerous discussions and brainstorming, as well as searching for studies or academic papersthat might provide a taxonomy for schedule types, we determined that this would be a useful topicfor an academic study and could be very useful to scheduling associations attempting to providevalue to their membership. That value would arise from the cross-pollination of the technicalscheduling components used in various industries and segments of industries. We call thesescheduling components “determinants” for types of schedules.From our research and brainstorming, there appear to be approximately nine major scheduletechnique and component determinants that define scheduling efforts: 1. Level of detail of the schedule 2. Frequency of schedule updates 3. Resource data and techniques used 4. Activity level data collected in updates 5. Project participants (categories monitored in schedules) 6. Scheduling components 7. Drivers for update monitoring and analysis 8. Primary project management constraint 9. Schedule accuracyThe level of detail in the schedule is often a function of how the schedule is developed; bottom upschedule development generally experiences a higher level of detail than a top down development.However the purpose for the chosen level of detail is usually based on the needs; will it be used forreporting to senior management, managing field and/or engineering resources, general projectoverview, or for management of contractors and resources? When a schedule is designed to be usedfor reporting, the level of detail is generally fairly low since only enough monitoring is required toprovide an executive summary. When the schedule is used for managing engineering time, the levelof detail must extend to the identification of individual deliverables and the work packages necessaryto provide those deliverables; this will require much more detail.The frequency of updates is another determinant that drives the type of schedule. For projects suchas engineering projects, software design, or plant maintenance and shutdown, monitoring andcontrolling the manpower tends to require hourly level monitoring. The schedule must bemaintained in sufficient detail that updates cannot wait for a week or month. For most commercialconstruction projects, if they are managing by the schedule, they need weekly updates, and if theyare managing in more of an overview approach, or allowing the superintendent to provide the shortinterim planning, they are happy with monthly updates. 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 6 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  7. 7. The use of resource planning and monitoring is one of the areas which has a wide variance amongschedulers, ranging from projects with no resource loading or monitoring to projects wheremanaging individuals or crews, or quantities and costs, are vital. In projects where each resource isreasonably equivalent, such as engineering design or piping installers, and the resource is a maindriver of the costs, managing resource data down to the individual or role is necessary to provide themonitoring and control. But in industries where the labor relies on a foreman and numerous levelsof labor, helper, journeyman, it can be more efficient and effective to manage resources at a crewlevel. Crew level resources are not very hard to identify as well. In his paper published in the 2007AACE International Transactions, “Artificial Resource Loading for Schedule Review” [2], Al Kuhn,PSP, addresses a way for a schedule reviewer to load crews into a schedule in an effort to evaluatethe network logic and activity durations. Notably, the examples in the paper are from commercialconstruction where the labor force is varied in their individual competencies, so crew resourcemonitoring works well, but role based individual resource monitoring is very difficult to do becausethe data is generally not available.Another division in industries and sectors of industries involves the use of resource leveling, and thisbreaks down into labor and equipment leveling in general. Industries that use large amounts ofsimilar role resources consider it vital to run resource leveling heuristics to attempt to smooth outresource usage, or to model limitations in availability of certain resources. This effort cannot beused in industries or sectors of industries where the technical schedule must remain such that thenetwork calculations are accurate, and resource leveling will provide float values that do not identifytrue critical paths. These sectors or industries typically use CPM calculations of delay to assessdamages for late completion.Sometimes industry schedule practices can be described by the activity level data collected duringthe monitoring phase, if actual resources are recorded and compared to planned resources, it is likelythat the industry or sector deals with large amounts of labor resources or small amounts of labor butlesser equipment, subcontractors, or materials resources. Identifying whether updates require actuallabor, equipment hour, or materials installed will shift what type of scheduling is performed.Whether the schedule is updated by time remaining or percent complete helps determine whether theschedule is driven more by time or costs, or in the case of some construction sectors, both are usedbut kept separate by delinking the two components in the scheduling software.Another way that separates types of schedules is the issue of the project participants in terms of costdrivers; is it only labor such as engineering, or labor, materials, and equipment such as bridge work,or labor, materials, equipments, and subcontractors such as commercial or military construction. Ifthe schedule does not need to monitor subcontractors, that schedule can focus much more onresource consumption because all resources are under the control of the project management teamand the schedule will be used for planning and controlling the expenditure of those resources. Whensubcontractors are involved in the project, the risk of performance is generally carried by thosesubcontractors and the master schedule does not need to address monitoring of the subcontractorresources, except as it affects project performance and delay.As one examines scheduling components, the use of them in a schedule break down into four majorareas as the authors see it; labor resources, costs resources, earned value, and how the schedulecorrelates with project budget. Obviously these could all be interconnected; however, schedules arevery different when used to control labor than when used to control costs. Labor resources evolvefrom resource loading to resource leveling to resource driving and then to resource tracking. Theterm resources mean many things to many people, from individual engineers to large pieces ofequipment to simply costs of installation. 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 7 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  8. 8. Earned Value Management (“EVM”) has been around for years, and it is one of the technicalscheduling components that are migrating from those industries, such as defense, that were earlyserious users of the process, to commercial construction, where the need evolved as scheduleanalysts needed more tools to monitor projects. Within EVM systems, the two major divisions occurbetween costs and labor resources, and to a much lesser extent, materials quantities. Using costsassigned to activities, it is possible to compare what has been earned to date with what should havebeen earned to date based on the original schedule. This is also true of hours earned which can becompared to what hours should have been earned to date based on the plan. The use of EVMsystems helps categorize types of schedules at a technical level. Some schedules are correlated with the project budget while many are not correlated with anybenchmark for comparison. Within those industries that use cost control accounts and WorkBreakdown Structures (“WBS”) to monitor expected cost overruns, often they have a greatermaturity in the correlation between cost and time. This is a different approach from many otherindustries who do not correlate cost and time, since the WBS in those mature industries is elaboratedto the level of deliverables or work packages, and those are linked to the cost control accounts,providing accounting metrics for review and monitoring.One of the prime determinants for the type of schedule is that of the driving rationale for updatemonitoring and analysis. The drivers can range from critical path slippage control to milestonemonitoring to the need to ensure that all activities are progressing according to their plan. Theremay be incentives or penalties based on individual milestones, but rarely are there any penalties forindividual activity slippage.Schedules whose primary drivers are critical path slippage generally are used with projects subject todamages from penalties for late completion. The range of schedule types purposes include thisprotection from damages, the need for re-baselining the schedule for monitoring, protection againstcost overruns due to prolongation of the project, or those schedules where the milestone orcompletion dates are allowed to slip without penalty. The existence of penalties creates a culturewhere claims prevail, as each party is both protecting itself and documenting the other party’sfailings. As these claims are litigated, case law has developed and established principles based onprevious rulings, and the need to design schedules and manage schedule analysis according to theseoverarching legal principles becomes a prominent drive for schedule documentation. Near criticalpath monitoring drivers for schedules are similar to critical path drivers, but generally they areelevated to a higher purpose with multiple contractual milestones or the need to identify and respondto mid-period critical path shifts. Non-critical path slippage is an important driver for schedulingwhen cost overruns due to performance impact the project such as with ship building and aerospacewhere huge cost overruns must be identified and monitored. Government demand for monitoringsystems and documentation help push those industries towards similar scheduling types. Whereresources can cause large problems due to lowered production rates and stacking of resources,schedules tend to focus on resource management. This can even be a secondary purpose forschedules in industries such as commercial and military construction where disruption can causelarge cost overruns.Some industries are focused on making sure that each activity is completed on time using theplanned resources, or at least evaluating those activities such as is done in forensic analysis cases,while others only care about activity slippage as it relates to trade stacking or other disruption issues.So the major division related to activity slippage monitoring and reporting is the question of theseverity of the risk of activity slippage. And then some industries have fully embraced the use ofEVM for monitoring and controlling, sometimes to the detriment of the critical path analysis. 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 8 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  9. 9. One of the other prime schedule type determinants is the issue of which of the project management“triple” constraints is most important to the project. While every owner will insist that everything isimportant, that is rarely true. The major project management constraints include scope, time, cost,(often called “the triple constraints”) and sometimes adding quality and/or risk. Most projects haveone prime driver; in fact most contractors have a natural inclination to focus on one of theconstraints more than others, no matter what the owner’s point of view. The authors believe that themost successful and simplest projects occur when the owner and the contractor have an alignment ofthese constraints. A quality driven contractor will be more at risk of failure when building a projectfor a cost oriented owner. These constraints are an important schedule type determinant.The last determinant that the authors believe separate schedules into common types is that of theaccuracy of the schedule; meaning the smallest time period used for planning and updates. Verybroad long-term program overview schedules may only be accurate to the nearest year, where morecommonly schedules are accurate to a low level of accuracy at the monthly range, and some projectstake the accuracy down to the day or even hour. A maintenance and shutdown schedule for a coalfired power plant might need to plan to the nearest hour so they can cycle crews in as soon asanother crew is complete. A commercial or military construction project is likely accurate to thenearest week, but may be monitored to a daily plan. A forensic schedule is likely trying to identifythe cause of delay in order to assign responsibility to assess liability, so that schedule may likely planto be accurate to the nearest day. And a schedule whose output is primarily a monthly invoice mayonly be accurate to that level. The accuracy should be a good determinant to categorize scheduletypes.The Matrix ConceptIn an effort to develop categories of schedule types, the authors developed a Schedule Type Matrix,designed to facilitate the ordering of scheduling into appropriate types based on how the variousindustries and sectors of industries use the schedule technique and component determinants.The process developed included identifying a number of different industries and sectors of industriesand evaluating those sectors as to how they use any of the schedule component determinants. Theindustries chosen included: • Commercial construction • Military construction • Hospital construction • Power plant construction • Maintenance and shutdown of factories and plants • Defense projects • Oil and gas projects • Manufacturing • Energy projects • Shipbuilding and aerospace construction • Pharmaceutical projects • Software development projects • Information technology projects • Engineering projects • Transportation construction • High-rise construction 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 9 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  10. 10. • Wide-rise housing construction • Financial projects • Forensic scheduling projectsThe construction projects included all types of project delivery; design-bid-build, multi-primecontracting, EPC, design-build, design-build-operate, design-build-operate-maintain, and At RiskCM. Of course, once you include other industries outside of construction, the project deliverymethodsIt is noteworthy that the authors found that some of the types of projects operate with differentscheduling types at different times during the life cycle of the project. For instance, pharmaceuticalprojects may use critical chain methodology early in the pre-project, research and regulatory stages,with different levels of CPM methodology detail between FEL stage and detailed design,construction, commissioning, and qualifications. The pharmaceutical regulatory scheduling issimply milestones, while they use EVM for productivity metrics in engineering and constructionphases.After the informal research, interviews, and study involved in the development of this topic, theauthors realize that developing a schedule type taxonomy will likely require a formal study withthousands of schedulers involved, but that is beyond the scope of this paper.There is clearly not complete agreement as to what schedule type determinants are predominant inall industries and sectors, mainly due to the complexity and variance in scheduling techniques.However, the authors have attempted to pull together what they believe is an accurate view of thoseindustries and sectors of industries.Compile Matrix Markers into SummariesAfter compiling industry and sectors of industries into categories of schedule technique andcomponent determinants and mapping those industries, the authors combined similar use of theschedule technique and component determinants so as to cluster industries and sectors of industries.The result of that correlation and combination is the Schedule Type Matrix.Identify types of schedules based on schedule componentsBased on the effort in developing the Schedule Type Matrix, the authors believe that schedule typesfall into eleven broad categories. These categories are: • Technically-oriented scheduling • Complex phasing-oriented scheduling • Recovery-oriented scheduling • Large resource-oriented scheduling • EV-oriented scheduling • Rolling wave oriented scheduling • Timesheet-oriented or small resource-oriented scheduling • Location-oriented scheduling • Program-oriented overview scheduling • Financial management oriented scheduling • Forensic scheduling 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 10 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  11. 11. Technically-oriented scheduling is used where litigation results in case law that forces highlytechnical knowledge to be used in the schedule development and maintenance so that careful CPManalysis of delay and disruption are supported. The risk of time related disputes that result in claimsdrives the preparation, review and approvals of schedules to technical extremes so that delays areidentified and responsibility for delay assessed. The use of resources in this schedule type is limitedto macro level, mostly crew resources, and used to verify both duration calculations and resourceplanned usage to form a benchmark for analysis of delays, and more importantly, disruption in theform of labor inefficiencies. Specifications often require resource loading with reporting of actualresource usage. Resource leveling is rarely used in this type. Examples of this type of schedulinginclude most commercial and military construction.Complex phasing-oriented schedule is used in projects where the location coordination and logisticsof movement of resources around the project, and the component assembly of systems requirescareful use of scheduling. This type may also carry needs of technically oriented scheduling. Theseprojects often combine with technically-oriented and large resource-oriented scheduling. Examplesof this type of scheduling include hospital construction and renovation as well as process plants.Recovery-oriented scheduling types of projects evolved due to the fact that costs of each day ofdelay could be millions of dollars or abject project failure - the main thing that matters is to crunchthe schedule to meet the original planned completion; mitigation of delay is the main emphasis. Thetype often requires some emphasis on the capture of full scope of work in order to complete as muchwork as possible within the rigid project time span, and the use of rapid response teams or involvedmitigation schedules. Often the project participants include multiple parties with interrelationshipsthat require monitoring to avoid disruption. Examples of this type of scheduling include airportrenovation and shut down and maintenance of power plants.Large resource-oriented scheduling is another type of scheduling that crosses several industries orsectors of industries and sometimes is combined with other types. It is used where the hugeresources, mostly labor, must be planned and managed at a much greater level of detail than"normal" – labor resources are so large that they drive production and the system must plan andmanage those large groups of resources. Project participants are mostly labor workers of all tradesand competencies. Examples of this type of schedule use include defense, some phases of oil andgas construction, and manufacturing.Earned Value-oriented scheduling becomes a separate category of schedule types due to the primarymanagement effort; the use of Earned Value metrics. These projects are focused on budgets andnumber crunching to check project status. The need for identification and management of thecritical path is not as severe as the technically-oriented scheduling but completion date slippage mustbe monitored and documented. Examples of this type of scheduling include large energy projects,ship and plane building, some defense, and pharmaceutical projects.Rolling wave oriented scheduling are often those projects where project cycles are very long,potentially years from approval to final testing, and different phases of the project have vastlydifferent levels of schedules due to the available information. The ability to plan in detail for workto be done perhaps years later drives the type to the use of rolling wave scheduling methodologywhere the schedule is planned at a high level, typically using milestone and summary masterschedules, and the work is managed by developing detailed schedules for short periods of currenttime. Individual project phases may fall into other types of scheduling, such as Earned Value, orother methodologies such as Critical Chain. Examples include pharmaceuticals, research anddevelopment. 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 11 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  12. 12. Timesheet-oriented or maybe more accurately labeled small resource-oriented scheduling occurswhere schedules are used to manage personnel and often capture actual costs - its all aboutmanaging individuals. Examples include Information Technology projects as well as softwaredevelopment and engineering.Location-oriented scheduling is defined by many repetitive fragnets, with logic ties in CPMscheduling made to sequence work within specific locations of the project. This scheduling type ispopular for use with linear scheduling, often using velocity diagrams, and sometimes combinesvelocity diagrams and CPM scheduling. Examples of this schedule type include transportation-typeprojects such as utilities, roadways, bridges, and facilities-type such as high-rise office buildings andhousing or condominiums.Program-oriented overview scheduling is represented by project conditions where schedules haveboth resource and delivery constraints, with budgets that span across years while new sections of thedevelopment are opened and completed. These schedules do not need a deep level of detail since thework is generally repetitive, but sometimes uses very detailed CPM scheduling. Completion datesare not cast in stone due to the overview nature of the product, so critical path slippage is oftenallowed. Examples include the “wide-rise” housing industry where programs typically run overdecades of development as well as general program master schedule monitoring.Financial management oriented-scheduling is a schedule type that provides schedules used to planand monitor business acquisitions, restructuring, and spin offs of divisions. CPM methodology isnot very important; schedule used more to direct wide range of participants, but requires no realmonitoring of Critical Path or float.Forensic scheduling evolved since schedules are used to determine causality and to identifyresponsibility in order to assess liability and resolve time related delay and disruption disputes. It ismost often used in conjunction with technically-oriented, complex phasing-oriented, large resource-oriented and location-oriented schedule types. Examples include dispute resolution and claimsanalysis projects in many industries.ConclusionAlthough we are all working on improving the practices of CPM scheduling, it is difficult sometimesto communicate across the whole realm of schedule types, so we need to develop a taxonomy to helpidentify commonality among schedule types. This will become more and more important asschedulers continue to look for innovative ways to improve efficiency for the scheduling process.Identifying the schedule types that are at the forefront of new and established professionaltechniques will allow industry associations to help promote those schedule techniques andcomponent determinants predominant in specialized industries to all industries, providing cross-pollination of industries with schedule techniques. 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 12 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  13. 13. BibliographyNo. Description1 Hollmann, J.K., PE CCE Copyright 2006 Total Cost Management Framework, A Process for Applying the Skills and Knowledge of Cost Engineering First Edition AACE International, Morgantown, WV2 Kuhn, A., PSP 2007 Artificial Resource Loading for Schedule Review 2007 AACE International Transactions AACE International, Morgantown, WV 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 13 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua
  14. 14. Schedule Type Matrix Schedule Types - Crosses Industry or Segments of Industry Large Earned Rolling Small Location - Financial Schedule Technique & Component Determinants Technical Phasing Recovery Program Forensic Resource Value Wave Resource Linear Mgmnt. Energy, Dispute Hospitals, Plant Defense, IT, Software Transportation, Wide-Rise Also called Commercial Defense, Pharma- Resolution & Examples: Construction Process Shutdown & Oil/Gas, shipbuilding, ceuticals Development, High-Rise Housing Mgmnt Claims Plants Maintenance Manufacturing Engineering Construction Industry Accounting Pharma AnalysisLevel of detail Overview Management for Reporting x x Resource Management x x x x x x x x x Detailed Labor Management x x x x x x Detailed Subcontractor Management x x x x xFrequency of Updates Hourly Daily x x x x Weekly x x x x x x x x Monthly x x x x x x x x x Larger PeriodResource Data Managed No resources x Individual resources (by name) x Role resources (by position) x x x x x Crew resources (by trade crew) x x x x x Cost resources x x x x x x x x x x Quantity resources x x x x x x x x x Leveling of resources commonly performed x x x x xActivity Level Data Collected in Updates Resource Time Consumed x x x x x x x x x x Resource Quantity Consumed x x x x x x x Time Remaining x x x x x Percent Complete x x x x x x xProject Participants Labor only x Labor and Materials x Labor, Materials, Equipment x x Labor, Materials, Equipment, Subcontractors x x x x x x Subcontractors only x xScheduling Components Resources - Labor Resource loading x x x x x x x x x Resource leveling x x x x x x x Resource driving x x x x x Consumed labor x x x x x x x x x x Resources - Costs Sell costs x x x x x Planned costs x x x x x x x x x x Actual costs x x x x x x x Resources - Quantity Planned quantities x x x x x Consumed quantities x x x x x Earned Value Orientation Costs x x x x x x x Quantities x x x x Labor x x x x x Uses Earned Schedule x x Correlation with Budget WBS x x x x x x x x x x x Cost Accounts x x x x x x x xPrimary Driver for Update Monitoring/Analysis Critical Path Slippage x x x Near Critical Path Slippage Non-Critical Path Slippage General Activity Slippage xTable 1, “Schedule Type Matrix” 2011 AACEi Annual Meeting 14 “Improving Industry Cross-Pollination by Classification of Schedule Types” By Chris Carson, PSP, and Raf Dua

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