Kellogg Company Aviation MEL Training Power Point


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Kellogg Company Aviation MEL Training Power Point

  1. 1. Kellogg Company Aviation MEL Training Reference FAA 8900.1 FAR 91.30, 91.203 Kellogg Aviation MEL
  2. 2. Silence Phones Please
  3. 3. Objectives Explanation of Responsibility Authorization of Aircraft Understanding use of the MEL, NEF and Procedures How to Return Aircraft to Service
  4. 4. Why an MEL? The MEL is designed to provide operators with the authority to operate the aircraft with certain items or components inoperative, provided the Administrator finds an equivalent level of safety maintained by appropriate operating limitations, by transfer of the function to another operating component, or by reference to other instruments or components providing the required information. Thus, the MEL allows deviation from the Type Certificate requirement that every airworthiness item of equipment installed in an aircraft must be operative. This becomes a tool and resource to increase the productivity of the aircraft with no compromise to safety.
  5. 5. Who is Responsible? Kellogg Company is responsible as a Part 91 operator for preparing, gaining authorization, implicating and complying with MEL procedures.
  6. 6. Pilots Responsibility The PIC is directly responsible for the operation of the aircraft and is the final authority to continued operations. It’s he or she that ultimately must insure that inoperative equipment is less than or equal to but not more than what is allowed for in the MEL.
  7. 7. Pilots cont. Pilots are responsible for discovery, documentation, and return to service for all “O” (operations) type MEL items. They can also perform “M” (maintenance) procedures only for items they are authorized to accomplish. A good rule of thumb is any item that requires specialized skill or test equipment would require maintenance to perform the procedure.
  8. 8. Pilots “M” Special Information All persons that are trained by qualified maintenance personnel may perform MEL “M” Maintenance in accordance with company policy. These crewmembers shall be listed in the MEL (M) Maintenance Qualification Record (See § 21). This record contains: Flight crewmember's name, date, MEL item or system qualifications, authorized maintenance personnel signature, certificate type, and number.
  9. 9. Pilots cont. Before operating an aircraft with an inoperative item Pilots shall: Determine that the inoperative item is an MEL authorized inoperative item. Determine that the inoperative item or combination of items will not affect safety of flight. Determine that any required alternate equipment is operative. Review the aircraft maintenance record to assure that the proper write ups and sign offs have been accomplished.
  10. 10. Pilots cont. Notify the Director of Maintenance or his delegate at the earliest opportunity of any inoperative item. This notification will allow he or she to program and initiate procedures to assure timely corrective action is accomplished. Discovery of inoperative items can happen at any time. Pre-flights post flights and in route. Items discovered inoperative or considered inoperative enough to be unreliable must be determined airworthy and in compliance with the MEL before the next take off may occur. Careful consideration should be given to in route failures to ensure AFM procedures are followed. Also multiple leg flights may want to consider alternate destinations with more resources where aircraft repairs can be made. Since not every piece of equipment or system is on the MEL if it cannot be determined to be nonessential, it’s necessary that the equipment be in place and operative.
  11. 11. DOM The Director of Maintenance shall review the status of each MEL or NEF item which has been approved to continue operations under the terms of the MEL and NEF and shall schedule repair as specified by the MEL program. Prior to adding any item(s) to the NEF program. The Director of Maintenance will determine any maintenance (M) or Operation (O) procedures that are required for new NEF item(s). Direct contact with the operations department (Pilots) may be required via phone call or personal meeting to discuss the applied (M) or (O) procedures.
  12. 12. DOM (continued) Management of the MEL, NEF program, 1) Determining NEF items, 2) Maintaining the NEF List, 3) MEL, NEF training of maintenance personnel, 4) Coordination of flight crew, maintenance and operations personnel when required for MEL or NEF program.
  13. 13. Technicians Discover Discrepancies Perform “M” Procedures outlined in the MEL PM section that requires specialized skill or test equipment. Deactivation or removal of inoperative instruments or equipment. Perform Documentation Work as a delegate of the DOM. Repair or replace inoperative equipment or instruments. Return Aircraft to Service.
  14. 14. DOA: The Director of Operations is responsible for training crew members on the use of the NEF program.
  15. 15. Q and A? Questions about Responsibility?
  16. 16. Authorization of Aircraft For part 91 operators seeking MEL authorization, the FSDO will assign a Flight Standards inspector to advise the applicant about regulatory requirements pertinent to using an MEL. The Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) issues a letter of authorization (LOA) to an operator when the FSDO authorizes an operator to operate under the provisions of an MEL. Together, the LOA, the procedures document, and the MMEL constitute a supplemental type certificate (STC). The operator must carry the STC in the aircraft during its operation.
  17. 17. Letter of Authorization The LOA is located in Aircraft Documents Folder A letter of authorization for an aircraft is issued to the aircraft operator by the FAA. This letter will be cosigned by the operator. The letters of authorization are issued without expiration dates and remain valid until voluntarily surrendered by the operator, the operator ceases to be the owner or Operator of the aircraft, or the FAA suspends or revokes the authorization for cause. In any case, should it become invalid, it must be returned to the holding FSDO within 10 calendar days. Should an operator's principal base of operations (address) change, the letter remains valid. However, The operator must notify both the FSDO of the area moved from and the FSDO of the area moved to in writing within 10 calendar days of the change.
  18. 18. Authorization (continued) When operators add or delete aircraft of the same type from their fleet, they must also notify the FSDO having oversight within 10 calendar-days following the change. The FSDO will reissue the LOA containing the new information. Again, both the operator and the inspector must sign the new LOA.
  19. 19. Regulatory Requirements Except as provided in Section 91.30(d) or [NEW Section 91.213(d)], or under the provisions of an approved MMEL, all equipment installed on an aircraft in compliance with the airworthiness standards or operating rules must be operative.
  20. 20. Master Minimum Equipment List An MMEL contains a list of items of equipment and instruments that may be inoperative on a specific type of aircraft. Example Falcon 900B.
  21. 21. Minimum Equipment List The MEL is the specific inoperative equipment document for a particular make, model aircraft by serial and registration number and only to the operator who received the authorization. The FAA considers the MEL as an STC. As such, the MEL permits operation of the aircraft under specified conditions with certain equipment inoperative. A part 91 MEL consists of the MMEL for a particular type aircraft, the preamble for part 91 operations, the procedures document.
  22. 22. Note: An MEL is a precise listing of instruments and equipment and procedures that allow an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment. The MMEL, as part of the MEL, by nature does not cover equipment installed or modified under other STC’s or field approvals. Any STC or other major modification may make the MMEL for a particular modified aircraft invalid. The MMEL does not contain obviously required items such as wings, tires, flaps, rudders, etc.
  23. 23. What's in Our MEL MEL Discrepancy List Procedures Manual Policy Management Training Manual (NEF) Non Essential Furnishings (MMEL) Master Minimum Equipment List
  24. 24. Correcting MEL Inoperative Items The MEL permits operations with inoperative equipment for the minimum period of time necessary for equipment repair. It is important that operators have repairs done at the earliest opportunity in order to return the aircraft to its design level of safety and reliability. In all cases, inoperative equipment must be repaired or the maintenance deferred at the aircraft’s next required inspection (§ 91.405(c)).
  25. 25. Correcting (continued) Owners of aircraft operated under part 91 may opt to use one of several types of airworthiness inspection systems, depending upon how the operator uses the aircraft. Therefore, the time between required inspections or inspection segments will vary. We currently operate on the OCIP maintenance program 50 Flight Hours or 1 Month. If we changed this inspection program we would most likely be reviewing MEL deferred items during the Basic Inspection currently every two months.
  26. 26. Correcting (continued) Items of inoperative equipment authorized by the MEL to be inoperative must be: Inspected or repaired by qualified maintenance personnel or maintenance deferred at the next 100-hour, annual, progressive (OCIP), or unscheduled inspection. However, if § 91.213 requires that an item be repaired, the item cannot be deferred.
  27. 27. Recordkeeping Requirements A record of inoperative equipment must remain in the aircraft so pilots will be aware of all discrepancies. 1) Since some operators do not carry aircraft logbooks in the aircraft, a discrepancy record or log is a good alternative. When an operator uses this type of discrepancy log in lieu of the aircraft’s maintenance records, the operator must retain the log as a part of the aircraft’s records as per § 91.417(b).
  28. 28. Recordkeeping Requirements (cont) 2) If the operator elects to use the aircraft maintenance record to log inoperative items, that portion of the record must be carried on board the aircraft during all operations. 3) Maintenance procedures and corrective actions shall be accomplished and be recorded according to §§ 43.9, 91.405, and 91.417. 4) Failure to record an inoperative item may result in operation of the aircraft contrary to the regulations because subsequent pilots would not be able to determine the airworthiness of the aircraft.
  29. 29. NEF and Why it Matters (NEF) Non Essential Furnishings If an item is not included in the MEL list, and an operator still seeks relief for an inoperative item, the operator must determine if its part of the NEF. If that inoperative item will not have an adverse affect on the safe conduct of flight and specific conditions are satisfied, the item may be deferred according to the NEF Program. If there is an obvious safety-of-flight issue, the inoperative item must be repaired prior to flight.
  30. 30. Questions? Questions about the previous topics?
  31. 31. Break! Up Next Definitions
  32. 32. Definitions See MEL pg 1.2.1 for complete list AFM Airplane Flight Manual "ER" refers to Extended Range operations of a two-engine airplane (ETOPS) which has a type design approval for ER operations (ETOPS) and complies with the provisions of Advisory Circular 120-42A. "Visible Moisture" means an atmospheric environment containing water in any form that can be seen in natural or artificial light; for example, clouds, fog, rain, sleet, hail, or snow.
  33. 33. Definitions "Flight Day" means a 24 hour period (from midnight to midnight) either Universal Coordinated Time (UCT) or local time, as established by the operator, during which at least one flight is initiated for the affected aircraft. "Icing Conditions" means an atmospheric environment that may cause ice to form on the aircraft (structural) or in the engine(s) (induction). "Inoperative" means a system and/or component malfunction to the extent that it does not accomplish its intended purpose and/or is not consistently functioning normally within its approved operating limit(s) or tolerance(s).
  34. 34. Definitions "Visual Flight Rules" (VFR) is as defined in 14 CFR Part 91. This precludes a pilot from filing an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight plan. "Visual Meteorological Conditions" (VMC) means the atmospheric environment is such that would allow a flight to proceed under the visual flight rules applicable to the flight. This does not preclude operating under Instrument Flight Rules.
  35. 35. Definitions "(M)" symbol indicates a requirement for a specific maintenance procedure which must be accomplished prior to operation with the listed item inoperative. Normally these procedures are accomplished by maintenance personnel; however, other personnel may be qualified and authorized to perform certain functions. Procedures requiring specialized knowledge or skill, or requiring the use of tools or test equipment should be accomplished by maintenance personnel. The satisfactory accomplishment of all maintenance procedures regardless of who performs them, is the responsibility of the operator.
  36. 36. Definitions "(O)" symbol indicates a requirement for a specific operations procedure which must be accomplished in planning for and/or operating with the listed item inoperative. Normally these procedures are accomplished by the flight crew; however, other personnel may be qualified and authorized to perform certain functions. The satisfactory accomplishment of all procedures, regardless of who performs them, is the responsibility of the operator. "Deactivated" and "Secured" mean that the specified component must be put into an acceptable condition for safe flight. An acceptable method of securing or deactivating will be established by the operator.
  37. 37. Definitions "Passenger Convenience Items " Is no longer a valid definition "Repair Intervals " Category A, B, C, D only refer to users of an MEL approved under 14 CFR 121, 125, 129 and 135. "Excess Items" means those items that have been installed that are redundant to the requirements of the 14 CFRs. "Day of Discovery" is the calendar day an equipment/instrument malfunction was recorded in the aircraft maintenance log and or record. This day is excluded from the calendar days or flight days specified in the MMEL for the repair of an inoperative item of equipment. This provision is applicable to all MMEL items, i.e., categories "A, B, C, and D.“
  38. 38. Definitions "Considered Inoperative", as used in the provisos means that item must be treated for dispatch, taxi and flight purposes as though it were inoperative. The item shall not be used or operated until the original deferred item is repaired. Additional actions include: documenting the item on the dispatch release (if applicable), placarding, and complying with all remarks, exceptions, and related MMEL provisions, including any (M) and (O) procedures and observing the repair category. "Is not used" in the provisos, remarks or exceptions for an MMEL item may specify that another item relieved in the MMEL "is not used." In such cases, crewmembers should not activate, actuate, or otherwise utilize that component or system under normal operations. It is not necessary for the operators to accomplish the (M) procedures associated with the item. However, operational requirements must be complied with, and an additional placard must be affixed, to the extent practical, adjacent to the control or indicator for the item that is not used to inform crewmembers that a component or system is not to be used under normal operations.
  39. 39. Definitions Nonessential equipment and furnishings (NEF) are those items installed on the aircraft as part of the original certification, supplemental type certificate, or engineering order that have no effect on the safe operation of flight and would not be required by the applicable certification rules or operational rules. They are those items that if inoperative, damaged or missing have no effect on the aircraft's ability to be operated safely under all operational conditions. These nonessential items may be installed in areas including, but not limited to, the passenger compartment, flight deck area, service areas, cargo areas, crew rest areas, lavatories, and galley areas. NEF items are not items already identified in the MEL or CDL of the applicable aircraft. They do not include items that are functionally required to meet the certification rule or for compliance with any operational rule. Operator's NEF process shall not provide for deferral of items within serviceable limits identified in the manufacture's maintenance manual or operator's approved maintenance program such as wear limits, fuel/hydraulic leak rates, oil consumption, etc. Cosmetic items that are fully serviceable but worn or soiled may be deferred under an operator's NEF process.
  40. 40. Definitions "PM" means Procedures Manual and references (M) and (O) procedures and 14 CFR requirements required by the MEL and contained in section 2 of the MEL. "Operative" shall be the MEL's standardized terminology to specify that an item of equipment will accomplish its intended purpose. When an MEL item specifies that an item of equipment must be operative, it does not mean that its operational status must be verified; it is to be considered operative unless reported or is known to be malfunctioning. When an MEL item specifies that an item of equipment must be verified operative, it means that it must be checked and confirmed operative at the interval(s) specified for that MEL item. When an MEL item specifies that an item of equipment must be verified, but no interval is specified, verification is required only at the time of deferral.
  41. 41. Questions? Questions about MEL, MMEL, NEF, Definitions or Aircraft Authorizations.
  42. 42. MEL Page Layout Section 1. System, Sequence Numbers & Item Contains Aircraft Systems by ATA number and sequence.
  43. 43. 1. System, Sequence Numbers & Item
  44. 44. MEL Page Layout Repair Category This column is not used in Part 91 Operations. It contains date classes with letters A, B, C, D.
  45. 45. Section 2. Number Installed Contains a specific equipment quantity count of items installed on aircraft.
  46. 46. Section 3. Number Required for Dispatch This Column lists the number of required items listed in the system to be operational for dispatch of the aircraft before next take off.
  47. 47. MEL Page Layout Section 4. Remarks and Exceptions (M) and (O) Limitations and Reference to the PM Procedural Manual located in section II of the MEL. Note: Not all section 4 Remarks will have a PM reference, instead follow any exceptions listed in section 4.
  48. 48. Section 4. Remarks and Exceptions
  49. 49. Questions? Any questions on the MEL Page Layout?
  50. 50. Procedures 1. Discover Discrepancy 2. Follow AFM when in route and notify maintenance ASAP regardless of discovery phase. 3. Write up Discrepancy and Refer to MEL at earliest convenience before next take off can occur. Visual reference of defect may be required by maintenance to facilitate repairs and return to operations. 4. Confer with maintenance and follow MEL Remarks or Exceptions to determine or restore aircraft operations via Remarks and Procedure Manual sections. 5. Placard Inoperative Equipment and Disable systems as indicated by the MEL. 6. Arrange repairs or document MEL Discrepancy Release. 7. Photograph or fax flight log showing MEL sign off to maintenance. Verify with maintenance reception and acceptance of documentation.
  51. 51. Proper MEL Sign Off Procedures and Documentation All items authorized to be inoperative in accordance with the MEL shall use the term “Operations Continued Per MEL ATA# - item#” Example “32-4” along with any other work performed to meet the requirements of the MEL. Pilots or Technicians will sign in the Maintenance Flight Log corrective action signature block, certificate number and current date.
  52. 52. Placards Place Placard next to inoperative equipment. Stickers are in back of MEL book. INOP INOP MEL34-3
  53. 53. Example Defect Discrepancy: Upon depressing nose wheel steering tiller during taxi it was found not moving to the right.
  54. 54. PM 32-6 Kellogg Company Page 2.32.3 Minimum Equipment List Revision 24 DA 900 -057, -102 Date 6 Mar 12 PM 32-6 Nose Wheel Steering System (O) Operations Procedures 1. Check of Nose Landing Gear Swiveling Tube: A. Preliminary Steps 1) Energize hydraulic system #2 using the stand by pump. 2) Pull and collar NOSE WHL (1GH) CB. 3) Disconnect the steering control. NOTE: Stand on the left of the nose landing gear in order to be at ease to carry out the operations that follow. 4) Lift ratchet. B. Aircraft without SB F900-63: 1) Disconnect the electrical connector from the anti-skid system. NOTE: This operation is not longer required after incorporation of SB F900-63.
  55. 55. PM 32-6 C. Aircraft with SB F900-63: 1) Unscrew knurled nut. 2) Carefully disengage wiring support fitted on pin. 3) Pull out pin. 4) Lower the lower torque link against the shock absorber sliding rod. 5) Handing the upper torque link, slowly rotate LH and RH side the swiveling tube following the green range located in front of nose gear box. Check free rotation of the swiveling tube. 6) Connect the steering control. WARNING: AVOID USING THE DOOR AS A HELP. NOTE: Nut of the torque link middle pin must be installed on the opposite side to the tachometer generator connector.
  56. 56. PM 32-6 D. Aircraft without SB F900-63: 1) Connect the electrical connector from the anti-skid system. E. Final Steps 1) De-energize hydraulic system #2. 2. Nose Wheel Steering (NWS) System Inoperative: NOTE: Maximum demonstrated cross-wind with nose wheel steering inoperative is: • 8 Knots at TAKE-OFF. • 12 Knots at LANDING. A. Refer to AFM: Section: 3 Sub-section: 20 Paragraph: LANDING GEAR - Steering System Inoperative.
  57. 57. Actions Taken Energize hydraulic system #2 using the stand by pump Pull and collar NOSE WHL (1GH) CB. Placard Nose Steering Tiller with INOP Sticker. Pull out pin, slowly rotate LH and RH side the swiveling tube following the green range located in front of nose gear box. Check free rotation of the swiveling tube. Connect the steering control. De-energize hydraulic system #2. NOTE: Maximum demonstrated cross-wind with nose wheel steering inoperative is: • 8 Knots at TAKE-OFF. • 12 Knots at LANDING.
  58. 58. Lock Out Circuit Breakers as Required
  59. 59. Documentation Nose wheel steering system inoperative. Aircraft operations continued per MEL Item 32-6. Sign name and certificate number. Today's date. Note: Include extra information for reference: Limited to 2 flight days. Anti-skid is operative. No standing water or contaminated runways Nose gear verified free to caster. Maximum demonstrated cross-wind with nose wheel steering inoperative is: • 8 Knots at TAKE-OFF. • 12 Knots at LANDING.
  60. 60. Example MEL Sign-Off Sample Falcon 900 MEL Documentation
  61. 61. Continued Operations Upon returning to home base a current copy of the MEL PM page will be attached to all subsequent Maintenance Flight Logs for as long as the item is inoperative. It’s each pilots responsibility to flight plan accordingly by reviewing all MEL items, remarks, exceptions and limitations before each take off.
  62. 62. Department MEL Exercise PITCH FEEL Discrepancy: PITCH FEEL light illuminates during climb out of MCO.
  63. 63. Department MEL Exercise Conditions: Current flight plan allows tankering of fuel for a drop and go at MDW with a final destination of BTL. Pitch control forces feel higher than normal at slower speeds. Mission: Time sensitive trip requires return of passengers to MDW. From moment of discovery walk step by step and work through the course of action. List options to return aircraft to normal operations after determining if any MEL procedures exist and any possible flight planning changes.
  64. 64. What's the First Step? What's the first thing to reference after noticing the Pitch Feel Light?
  65. 65. What's the First Step? Answer: Refer to the AFM. The AFM takes precedence over the MEL in the flight phase. Following the AFM Abnormal Procedures section lists your flight limitations. Note: In regards to the MEL only the AFM is considered an approved document.
  66. 66. Next Steps? What's Next?
  67. 67. Next Steps? When time allows refer to the MEL and confer with the Maintenance Department on best course of action. Preferably before landing.
  68. 68. PM 27-3 Kellogg Company Page 2.27.3 Minimum Equipment List Revision 24 DA 900 -057, -102 Date 6 Mar 12 PM 27-3 Elevator (M) Maintenance Procedures 1. Deactivate the PITCH FEEL CB. 2. Elevator Arthur Variable Bellcrank: A. Gain access to the Mechanic’s Servicing Compartment, B. With engine #1 or engine #3 running, check that the front sliding rod of the Arthur variable bellcrank is entirely retracted into the bellcrank body. (O) Operations Procedures 1. Flight Controls - Pitch Arthur Unit Inoperative: A. Apply AFM: Section: 3 Sub-section: 15 Paragraph: Flight controls - Arthur unit inoperative. Sub-paragraph: WARNING - PITCH FEEL light on.
  69. 69. Options? ?????????
  70. 70. Options? Turnaround and go back to MCO
  71. 71. Options? Turnaround and go back to MCO Continue to MDW
  72. 72. Options? Turnaround and go back to MCO Continue to MDW Divert to BTL Divert to a different destination
  73. 73. AFM Limitations? What Limitations are Present?
  74. 74. AFM Limitations? What Limitations are Present? Reduce airspeed to 260 KIAS or MI 0.76
  75. 75. AFM Limitations? What Limitations are Present? Reduce airspeed to 260 KIAS or MI 0.76 “Fasten Belts” Light pushbutton “ON”
  76. 76. AFM Limitations? What Limitations are Present? Reduce airspeed to 260 KIAS or MI 0.76 “Fasten Belts” Light pushbutton “ON” Approach speed (zero wind) VREF + 10Kt
  77. 77. AFM Limitations? What Limitations are Present? Reduce airspeed to 260 KIAS or MI 0.76 “Fasten Belts” Light pushbutton “ON” Approach speed (zero wind) VREF + 10Kt Increase the landing distance by 800 ft (1335 ft added to the landing field length).
  78. 78. What Are the MEL Restrictions Pitch Feel CB pulled and collared Arthur Bellcrank low speed position is verified before each departure. Airspeed does not exceed 220 KIAS / .74 M. AFM limitations are observed.
  79. 79. Confused? The AFM gets you to the ground and the MEL gets you back in the air! But they are not identical. By design the MEL factors in a safety margin that may be more conservative than the AFM. This is determined by the MMEL. The AFM is the master document under normal or abnormal operation until landing. Upon landing continued operation is permitted via the MEL and flown less than or equal to what is stated in both. If you are continuing operations under the MEL the lower limitation in the MEL should be followed.
  80. 80. How About those Options? Did they change? What if the delay allows weather to move into destination airports? What affect might that have? What would have to happen at any of the landing destinations to continue? Discussion
  81. 81. Goals of the Discussion Importance of the AFM on flight planning. The tie in of the MEL to the “Modus Operandi.” The MEL changes the game for limitations! What happens once you land. No take off can occur until the MEL (M & O) procedures are complied with. Procedures on the ground to continue operation per the MEL. Proper Documentation signed and submitted before aircraft release.
  82. 82. Questions About the MEL? MEL? M & O Procedures? NEF? Documentation? Placarding?