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Civics & Economics Chapter 10


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  • 1. Chapter 10: The Judicial Branch
  • 2. The Constitution Art I: The Legislative Branch Art II: The Executive Branch Art III: The Judicial Branch Art IV: Relations between states Art V: Amendment process Art VI: National Supremacy Art VII: Ratification Make Laws Enforce Laws Interpret Laws This week we will focus on Article III – The Judicial Branch
  • 3. Article III
    • Established a national Supreme Court
    • Congress has power to create lower federal courts
    • Federal Judges are appointed by the president
    • Appointments must be approved by Senate
    • Lists Federal Jurisdiction
  • 4. Checks & Balances: Judicial Courts Congress President Declare law unconstitutional Appoints Judges Amend constitution
  • 5. What is Jurisdiction? The courts authority to hear and decide a case. Types of Jurisdiction;
    • Original Jurisdiction = court has the right to hear case first
    • Exclusive Jurisdiction = ONLY a certain court has the right
    • Concurrent Jurisdiction = shared jurisdiction
    • Appellate Jurisdiction = hear case on appeal
  • 6. Federal Jurisdiction
    • Cases involving the Constitution
    • Violation of Federal Law
    • Controversies between States
    • Disputes between people from different States
    • Suits involving the Federal Government
    • Cases involving Foreign Governments & Treaties
    • Cases based on Maritime Laws
    • Cases involving US Diplomats
    The first four are of particular importance.
  • 7. Federal Crimes The majority of crimes committed break STATE law. However there are a number of federal laws against certain crimes. Kidnapping....any guesses why? Tax Evasion
  • 8. Counterfeiting Also included is patent rights and bankruptcy
  • 9. Federal Judges According to the Constitution there are no ‘official’ qualifications to be a federal judge. IN THEORY – you don’t need a law degree IN REALITY – All federal judges have law degrees and legal experience. President appoints Senate must approve But IMPORTANT: IT IS A LIFETIME APPOINTMENT
  • 10. U.S District Courts U.S. Court of Appeals U.S. Supreme Court
  • 11. U.S. District Courts US DISTRICT COURT - RALEIGH There are 94 District Courts located around the Country. District Courts have original jurisdiction in federal cases Judge and Jury hear trial
  • 12. U.S. Court of Appeals 12 Courts of Appeal around the Country (+a special 13 th ) each has its own circuit. Courts hear cases on Appeal No Jury = a bench trial = 3+Judges 4 th Circuit – Richmond, VA
  • 13. U.S. Supreme Court There are 8 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice Chief Justice John Roberts
  • 14. Power of the Court Declares whether laws are constitutional or unconstitutional Marbury v. Madison The most important case of all!!!! -Established Judicial Review The right to decide whether laws were constitutional.
  • 15. The courtroom calendar is called a docket. Only a handful of cases make it onto this list.
  • 16. OPINIONS Majority The decision of the court Concurring Same belief as majority but for different reasons Dissenting Oppose the majority
  • 17. First African-American Justice Thurgood Marshall Clarence Thomas sits on the court today. Had previously won important SC case – Brown v. Bd. Of Education
  • 18. First Woman in the Supreme Court Sandra Day O'Conner She retired last year Ruth Bader Ginsberg is the only woman currently on the bench
  • 19.