• External cognition is the interaction
between internal and external
representations when performing cognitive
• Computational offloading is the extent to
which external representations can reduce
the amount of cognitive effort to solve a
Yvonne Rogers, New Theoretical Approaches for Human-Computer Interaction, 2004.
Collins, C.; Carpendale, S.; Penn, G.
DocuBurst: Visualizing Document Content using Language Structure.
Proceedings of Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Symposium on Visualization, June, 2009.
• Beyond similarity and clustering
– How do we discern differences within and between
Collins, C.; Viégas, F.; Wattenberg, M.
Parallel Tag Clouds to Explore and Analyze Faceted Text Corpora.
To appear in Proc. IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science & Technology (VAST), 2009.
Our Data: U.S. Federal Court Decisions
Data from public.resource.org
Visualization Design Patent Invention
• Size = significance of
difference (G2 score)
• Order = alphabetic
• Edges = word occurring in
Bridging the Linguistic Divide
Open APIs for data
NYT, Twitter, Google
Open APIs for NLP
- Keyword extraction
Toolkits and APIs for - Sentiment analysis