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  • Different neurons specialize in sending and receiving different neurotransmitters: different neurons specialize in sending and receiving different neurotransmitters. A neurotransmitter is more like a master key to a building than a key that fits only one lock. Bring key down into receptor site on transparency This response will only occur if the “voltage” is high enough (action potential - balance of positive and negative ions) Although this is basically a binary operation, neurotransmitters modulate these two operations in hundreds of subtle ways Youtube: 3D animation of a neuron and an action potential. Ion channels in the soma open and allow an increase in the intracellular voltage. Once the voltage reaches a threshold, an action potential is generated, which travels the length of the axon and passes into the terminals. The voltage in the terminals stimulate the release of neurotransmitters which cross the synapse, opening ion channels in dendrites of the post-synaptic neuron and increasing the voltage of the second neuron. By Stephen Hicks, 2006.
  • If recycled, they are reabsorbed by the first nerve cell’s reuptake valves and stored for later use Youtube: Medical animation of nerve synapse from shows release of neurotransmitter and reuptake Youtube: Discovery Channel - Neurons and How They Work
  • List is rapidly expanding Some carry messages that convey information about the outside world; some access memories; some carry messages of action to the body; etc.
  • See notes yellow paper
  • See notes slide 6 for common ones that act as mood regulators (in addition to other factors) Cortisol - falls in steroid category and is involved in the stress response (fight/flight/freeze). Activates body/brain defense mechanisms. Releases clotting elements to the blood (to slow heavy bleeding Elevates cholesterol levels and depresses the immune system
  • Neurotransmitters

    1. 1. Neurotransmitters
    2. 2. Description <ul><li>When the electrical impulses that carry information reach the end of a neuron's axon, they are stopped at the tiny synaptic gap that separates them from the receiving neuron. </li></ul><ul><li>The circuit is broken </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers secreted at the synapse that have the potential to continue the circuit, transmitting information between neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Neuro-transmitters </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Without Neurotransmitters the brain could not process information or send out instructions to run the rest of the body </li></ul><ul><li>They affect the formation, maintenance, activity and longevity of synapses and neurons </li></ul>Dopamine
    5. 5. Process of Neurotransmisson <ul><li>Neurotransmitter molecules are produced within a specific type of neuron (different neurons are specialized in different neurotransmitters) and stored in tiny sacs known as vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>When an electrical signal reaches the vesicles, they release their neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Each type of neurotransmitter has a unique shape that acts like a key </li></ul><ul><li>Released neurotransmitters attempt to attach to receptors sites (usually on the receiving neuron’s dendrites) </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Each of the receptor sites is shaped like a lock that will fit only certain types of neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>If the “key fits” the neurotransmitter will basically send a message to turn “on” a receiving neuron- excitatory or “off” - inhibitory </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>When the neurotransmitter’s job is done, the receptors release the molecules, which are either broken down or recycled </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    9. 9. Types of Neurotransmitters <ul><li>There are over 60 known neurotransmitters to date </li></ul><ul><li>Each neurotransmitter has very specialized function </li></ul>Serotonin
    10. 10. <ul><li>Ligands or Neurotransmitters can be broken down into categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble Gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids (hormones) </li></ul></ul>cell receptor neurotransmitter
    11. 11. <ul><li>Some neurotransmitters carry emotional information that impact our mood, outlook on life and behavior </li></ul>Cortisol