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Student-Created Science Posters 2013


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    • 1. Light and Matter Colors of ObjectsMixing Colors of Light Mixing Colors of PigmentLight passes throughTransparent Matter such asglassTo get white light, youmust combine green,blue, and red light (asshown in diagrambelow)Red Green and Blue areprimary colors. When youmix primary colorstogether, you get asecondary color such ascyan magenta yellow.By JP and NiallOpaque Objects are nottransparent or translucentTranslucent Matter will letlight through, but it scatters itColors that we perceive a areflection of lightBanana’s are yellow becauseyellow light is the only color thatreflects off of their skinMixing pigment is differentthan mixing light. You can’tget white pigment by mixingred, blue and green.A pigment is a material thatgives a substance its color byabsorbing some colors of light,and reflecting others. Almosteverything contains pigments.Light RefractionAs the straw enters thewater at an angle, thelight refracts and thestraw appears to be cut
    • 2. By: David and Jon-Martin
    • 3. Buckyballs, also known asBuckministerfulleriens, are verydurable arrangements of Carbon.C60, or Carbon-60, closely resemblesa soccer ball. While usesinexsausted, scientists are trying tocome up with new ways to usethem. One use is as lightweight,durable armor, while another use isstoring Hydrogen, a quite dauntingand explosive task, as it is anextremely volatile gas.Doctors are also in on Buckyballs asthey are a close match to the proteinthat the AIDS virus latches on toand are also good at slowing down –or even stopping – allergic reactions.When Buckyballs arecombined with Carbonnanotubes and some other“stuff” they form apaintable liquid, then onceyou lay down some wiresyou’ve got a solar panel.This property of Buckyballsis a big draw for GreenEnergy Activists, soBuckyballs are a big hit inthat area.The military istesting a light-weight Carbon-Aluminum alloythat, when onlyas thick as a pieceof tinfoil,canapparentlyhold 12 tons percm2.Bucky-armorBy Colin Trewitt
    • 4. Northern lightsMost tribes believed that thelights were spirits trying to reachhumans.• The Point Barrow Eskimosbelieved that the aurora was anevil thing.• The Fox Indians lived in Wisconsinthey thought it was an omen ofwar. They also thought it wasspirits of their dead enemies.• Most Eskimos believed it wasspirits playing ball.• The East Greenland Eskimosthought that the Northern Lightswere the spirits of children whodied at birth.• The Eskimos on Yukon riverbelieved that the aurora wasspirits dancing.Folklore The CauseThe sun throwsparticles into space.When the particlesget close to earththey get pulled intoits magnetic field.Before it can hit earthit is blocked by theearths atmosphere.Which contains gasesthat react with theparticles sent fromthe sun, creatingelectricity that isshown as light.In The NorthThe Northern Lights are in thenorth because the magnetic force ofthe north pole attracts the particlessent from the sun. When the particlesgo over the atmosphere they reactwith gases and create light.
    • 5. The shape of a penguin’s body is perfectlyshaped for cutting through the water andthat is why penguins can swim at speeds upto 15 kilometers per hour.Penguins can’t fly because their wings aretoo small to support the weight to theirbodies.To protect them from the cold, penguinsshare body heat by huddling together ingroups like this. These groups can includethousands of penguins.Penguins are very social creatures, andalways live together in groups calledcolonies.Penguins have many layers of scale-likefeathers that help them keep warm. Theyalso have thick layers of fat that conserveheat.The muscles that control a penguin’s feetand flippers are located in the penguinsbody so that although the flippers getextremely cold, they can still be operatednormally by regions that are fully functionaland at normal body temperature.Another thing that protects penguinsfrom the cold is the very shape of theirbodies. They have a high ratio of volumeto surface area so there is lessopportunity for the heat to escape. Soalthough penguin’s bodies aren’t verygraceful, and make walking and turningtheir heads difficult, they are perfect forkeeping warm.PENGUINSBy Hali and Gale
    • 6. What is it? How is itorganized?The Periodic Table is anarrangement of chemicalelements, according to theiratomic mass. DmitriMendeleev (Russianchemist) found a pattern inthe chemical elements in1869. He wrote names onthe cards and arranged thecards by properties likedensity and appearance. Byarranging the cards byatomic mass, a patternappeared. In 1914 a Britishscientist , Henry Mosleymade the table moreaccurate by determining thenumber of protons andatomic number.Group 1: AlkalineMetalsGroup contains: metalsShared properties:softness, silver,shininess and lowdensityGroup 2: Alkaline EarthMetalsGroup contains: metalsShared properties:silver, higher densitiesthan alkaline metalsGroups 3-12: TransitionMetalsGroup contain: metalsShared properties:shininess, goodconductors of thermalenergy and electriccurrentGroup 13: Boron Group:Group contains: onemetalloid and five metalsShared properties: solidsat room temperatureGroup 14: Carbon GroupGroup contains: one nonmetal,two metalloids and three metalsShared properties: solids at roomtemperatureDifferent GroupsPeriodic Table ofElements(Picture below)Dmitri Mendeleev(Picture above)By Kinsey R
    • 7. What you hear in your ears are vibrations.Vibrations push the air molecules in thedirection of the rarefaction, orcompression.Many parts in the ear have to worktogether to hear sound. if anyorgan stops working the resultcould be hearing loss or deafness.First of all, a sound wave is a longitudinalwave that is caused by vibrations. This iswhat makes sound.This is what your ear and your brain goesthrough just to hear someone say“Hi”.Short exposures to sounds that are loud enough to be painful cancause hearing loss. You can protect your ears by putting somedistance from loud sounds. Turn the volume down when listening tomusic, if youre in front of a loudspeaker keep some distance. Whenyou double the distance between yourself and a loud sound, thesound’s intensity to your ears will be one-fourth of what it wasbefore.By Amy Lubeck and Justin Garcia
    • 8. Gravity is an invisible force that keeps us on(or pulls us toward) the ground.The more mass an object has, thelarger its gravitational pull is. Thisis why on Earth you don’t floataway. The blue arrows representattraction force of gravity.Airplanes use air resistance topush off of the ground,effectively canceling theaffects of gravity. This allowsflight, despite the pull ofgravity on Earth!Penguins are affected by gravity,as you can see from the image atthe top left corner. Penguins areflightless birds because they don’thave the proper wings to lift, orthe correct design to move. Alsothey are to heavy and becausethey have so much mass, gravitypulls them down.Gravity has a different amount of forceon different planets, since the mass isdifferent. On mars, you weigh2.6556016597510373443983402489627 times less than you would on Earth.Zero gravity can be experiencedby entering a plane that goes ona parabola. Upon going upwards,you will feel gravity more thanusual, but upon going down, youbecome weightless.
    • 9. Properties of Sound WavesAmplitudeThe maximum distance that the particles ofa wave’s medium vibrate from their restposition. The amplitude of a wave is relatedto it’s height. The larger the amplitude, thetaller the wave.WavelengthA wavelength is the distance between anytwo crests or compressions next to eachother in a wave. A wavelength can bemeasured from any point on a wave to thenext corresponding point on the wave.Wavelength is measured the same way goingtop to bottom or left to right.A frequency the number of waves produced ina given amount of time. Frequencies have adirect correlation with wavelengths.Frequency is also the measurement of thenumber of times that a repeated event occursper unit of time.FrequencyWave SpeedWave speed is the speed at which a wave travels.Wave speed can be calculated using wavelengthsand frequency. This is the equation: wavespeed=wavelength x frequency.By Jeffrey and Anish
    • 10. andDifferent types of light:•Radio waves•Microwaves•Infrared•Visible light•Ultraviolet rays•X-rays•Gamma raysCertain colors look different to some people.TypeThe primary colors are red, yellow andgreen but on the computer the colors arered, blue and green.Auto chrome uses orange, green and violetRainbowsPeople at the same angle interpret therainbows appearance differently.You can actually never reach the end of arainbow (  ) because the rainbow moveswhen you moveAlso the rainbow moves because the raindrops are at different spots in theatmosphere
    • 11. What is sound?Sound waves Sound and mediaMaking sound versushearing soundProtecting yourhearingA sound wave is a longitudinal wavethat is caused by vibrations and thattravels through a material medium.Sound waves travel in all directionscoming from their source. But, air orother matter does not travel backand forth.Longitudinal waves are made ofcompressions and refractions.The particles of the substance, suchas air particles, vibrate back andforth along the path that the soundwave travels. Sound is transmittedthrough the vibrations and collisionsof the particles. Because of theparticles vibrate back and forthalong the paths that sounds travels,sound travels as longitudinal waves.All sound waves require amedium/media. A medium is asubstance through which a wave cantravel. Most of the sounds that you heartravel air at least part of the time. Butsound waves can also travel throughother materials, such as glass, metal,and water.In a vacuum, however there are noparticles to vibrate. So, no sound can bemade in a vacuum.Sound must travel through air or someother medium to reach your ears andbe detected.Imagine If a glass cup hits the ground andno one is around to hear it, does the brokenglass make a sound? When a glass cup hitsthe ground, the glass and the floor wouldvibrate. These vibrations make compressionand rarefactions in the surrounding air. So,there would be a sound.Making sound is separate from detectingsound. The fact that no one heard the glasscup fall doesnt mean that there wasnt asound. The glass cup did make a sound butno was there to hear it.Short exposures to sounds that areloud enough to be painful can causehearing loss. Your hearing can alsobe damaged by loud sounds that arenot quite painful, if you are exposedto them for a long periods of time.There are some things you could doso that you won’t hurt your hearing.Loud sounds can be blocked out byearplug. You could listen at lowervolume when you are using yourearphones. You could also moveaway from loud sounds. If you arenear a loud speaker playing loudmusic, just walk away from it. Whenyou double the distance betweenyourself and a loud sound, thesounds intensity to your ears will beone- fourth of what it was before.
    • 12. CircuitsPieces of a Circuit• Load- the object that uses the electricity• Conductors- Wires that carry electricity• Power source- Battery or generator that supplies power• Switch- Controls the circuit by connecting and separatingtwo wires to control current.Types of Circuits• Series circuits• All parts are connected in a single loop.• There’s only one path for charges to follow.• All parts share the same current.• If one part breaks, the entire circuit stops.• Parallel circuits• A circuit in which the loads are connected sideby side.• Charges have multiple paths to travel on.• If one part stops working, the current cancontinue through the other path.What Uses Circuits?Everything electronic!Series Circuitsare used for…• Light strings• Burglar alarmsParallel Circuitsare used for…•Electrical outlets•Lighting a buildingSimple Series CircuitPower SourceWireSwitchLoadPath 1 Path 2Load 1 Load 2Power SourceSwitchSimple Parallel CircuitSara and Ishika- Period 3- April 2013
    • 13. •To get white light, combine thethree colors of light (red, blue,green)•RBG (red, blue, green. Also calledthe primary colors of light) can becombined in different ratios toproduce many colors•Combining colors of light is calledcolor addition•When two primary colorscombine, you see a secondarycolor of light*Cyan (blue plus green)*Magenta (blue plus red)*Yellow (red plus green)•When light hits matter, it can interactwith it in three different ways: it canreflect, absorb, or transmit• Absorption is the transfer of light energyto matter, and can make things feelwarmer•Transmission is the passing of lightthrough matter•Reflection is the bouncing back of light•Three types of matter: transparent(allows light to pass with littleinterference), translucent (transmits lightbut not am image), and opaque (objectthat is not transparent nor translucent)Here you see saran wrap (transparent),wax paper (translucent), and aluminum(opaque)•Pigment: a material thatgives a substance/ mixtureits color by absorbing somecolors of light and reflectingothers•Paint contains pigment•You cannot make white outof red, blue, and greenpigments•Chlorophyll (what givesplants their color) andmelanin (what gives skin itscolor) are types of pigments•Mixing pigments is calledcolor subtraction becausecolors of light are absorbedPrimary colors of light combinedtogether to make secondary colorsPrimary Pigments•We see wavelengths as different colors(long waves as red and short waves asviolet)•The color of an object is determined bythe wavelengths of light•Light reaches our eyes after reflection ortransmission•Colors of light that are reflected by anopaque object determine the color wesee•When you look through coloredtransparent or translucent objects, yousee the color of light that was transmittedthrough the material•Window glass is colorless because ittransmits all colors that strike itIn thee picture, every light is absorbedexcept that yellow is being reflected
    • 14. Light and Color• Mixing colors of light:• To get white light you need to combine the primarycolors of light, red, blue, and green• These 3 colors can be combined in many ways tocreate hundreds of different colors• The secondary colors of light are cyan, magenta, andyellow. These are made by mixing the primary colorstogether• Combining colors of light is called color addition,because you add the colors together Mixing colors of pigment: A pigment is a material that gives something else its color byabsorbing some light colors and reflecting others Combining pigment colors is called color subtraction, because morelight colors are taken away when you mix more pigmentsBy Eva Watermanyellow cyangreenblueredmagenta
    • 15. Freezing is when aliquid of any sortturns into a solid. Forthis to happen, theenergy of a liquid isremoved and theparticles stay inplace. Then, theattraction of theparticles has toovercome motion tofreeze. Since energyis removed, this is anexothermic change.The freezing point isthe temperature thata liquid turns into asolid, and is aphysical property.Melting is theopposite of freezing. Itis when particles areheated up and reach acertain temperature,then overcome theattraction betweenthem. Then thesubstance turns from asolid to a liquid. It is anendothermic changebecause energy isadded to thesubstance. Thetemperature that asolid changes into aliquid is the meltingpoint, and occurs at thesame temperature asthe freezing point .Boiling is when aliquid changes into agas. It happens whenthe vapor pressure isthe same as theatmosphericpressure. The boilingpoint is when anyliquid hits itstemperature thatcauses it to boil. Theboiling point isalways the same,even with differentamounts of the samesubstance.Condensation iswhen a gas changes intoa liquid, and is theopposite ofevaporation. Energy isremoved which causesthe attraction toovercome the particlesof motion, and theyclump together.Condensation is anexothermic change,because energy has tobe removed in order forthe state to change.The condensation pointis the sametemperature of theboiling point at a givenpressure.Evaporation iswhen a substancechanges from a liquidto a gas. It can occurat the surface of asubstance below itsboiling point. Someof the particles of theliquid gain energyand move fastenough to overcomethe attractionbetween them. Theybreak away fromfrom the particlesaround them and thesubstance becomes agas. Adding energy tothe liquid increasesthe rate ofevaporation.CayleyFrancesca
    • 16. The Coil Gun!By: thomas and timA Coil Gun is works by running electric currentthrough a coil of wire called a solenoid; thereforegiving the wire a magnetic field. Then attractingthe a iron bullet forward to the middle of the coil.Once the bullet reaches the end of the coil (itovershoots the center because it propels so fast),a series circuit infrared sensor turns off thecurrent to the original coil and uses the bulletsmomentum to continue forward.There are usually more than one coil in the coilgun. With three, four, or five coils, you can get alot of speed and momentum. When the bulletgoes through the first coil and reaches the tip ofthe first coil, it opens a gate literally, turning of theprevious coil and completing the circuit for thenext one. The image below explains this.Without the infrared sensor, the bullet would bedecelerating and oscillating to center of the coil.
    • 17. MirrorsThere are three types of mirrors: plane,concave, convex. A plane mirror is a mirrorwith a flat surface. An example of a planemirror is a bathroom mirror. Just likeConvex Mirrors it doesn’t matter where youstand, your characteristics won’t change.We all know if we raise our right hand ina plane mirror it will seem like our lefthand is being raise, or when the wordson our shirt is written backwards. Thoseterm is called the Left-Right Reversal.Below is a picture that explain what ishappening in the Left-Right Reversal:A convex mirror is a mirror that is curved outward likethe back of a spoon. Unlike Concave mirrors the locationof the object does not affect the characteristics of theobject. Think of a convex mirror as a sphere cut in half.The center of the original sphere is called: center ofcurvature. A line through the center of the mirror to thecenter of curvature is called a principal axis. The mirrorhas a focal point that is half way from the center of themirror and the center of the curvature. Since the focalpoint it behind the mirror then it is called a negative focalpoint.A concave mirror is a mirror that is curvedinward like the inside of a spoon There’s apicture of a concave mirror above. Think of aConcave mirror as opposite of a Convex mirror.Just like I explained in the Convex mirrordescription, that the mirror is kind of like asphere that has been cut in half. The center ofthe used-to-be sphere is called the: Center ofCurvature. Now if you draw a line through themirror and through the Center of Curvature youget a principal axis. In the middle of theprincipal axis the fulcrum. In this case, since themirror is curved inward, then the center of theused-to-be sphere is before the mirror, alongwith the fulcrum. With a Concave Mirror justremember: L.O.S.T. L stands for location (beforethe Center of Curvature?) O is orientation(upright or inverted?) S stands for size(magnified, reduced, or same size.) T stands forimages.By Emma and JillianPlane Mirrors:Convex Mirror:Concave Mirror:The way a Convex mirror works is when rays hit themirror it will reflect, the light rays diverge. Subsequentlythey will never intersect on the object’s side.
    • 18. Radio Waves62 miles to 0.04 inch (100Kilometersto 1 millimeter)Microwaves1 foot to 0.003 foot (0.3Meter to 0.001 meter)Infrared rays0.00015 foot(0.00005meter)Visible light0.0000015foot(0.5 milliimeter)Ultraviolet rays0.00000003foot(0.01 millimeter)X-rays0.00000000003foot(0.01 nanometer)Gamma rays0.0000000000003foot(0.0001nanometer)The entire range of electromagnetic waves is called the electromagnetic spectrum.All electromagnetic (EM) waves travel at the speed of light. EM waves differ only by their wavelength and frequency.1. Radio waves have the longestfrequencies and the longestwavelengths in the EM spectrum.They are used to broadcast radiosignals for radios and televisions.2. Microwaves have the second longestwavelengths. A special device called amagnetron is used to produce microwaves byaccelerating charged particles. Microwaves arenot only used in microwave ovens, but also inartificial satellites, cell phones, and radar.7. Gamma rays have the shortestwavelengths. They can penetrate mostmaterials easily. Gamma rays are used totreat forms of cancer by focusing theserays on tumors. They are also used to killharmful bacteria in food.5. Ultraviolet waves are produced by the sun, andreach earth even on cloudy days. When exposed toUV light or skin cells produce vitamin D which isnecessary for our bodies, but too much of UV lightmay cause sunburn, skin cancer, wrinkles, anddamage our eyes.4. Visible light is the very narrowrange of wavelengths andfrequencies in the spectrum thathumans can see. All wavelengths ofvisible light combined are calledwhite light6. X rays are a type of ray whichcan pass through many materials.They are used in the medical fieldand in security devices. Too muchX ray exposure can damage ourskin.3. Did you know that almost all things give offinfrared waves, including you? The amount ofinfrared waves an object gives off depends on theobjects temperature. The warmer the object isthe more infrared waves it gives off. You cant seethem, but special types of cameras can.300×106 Hz3 Hz 300 ×109 Hz 400 ×1012Hz 750 ×1012 Hz 30 ×1015 Hz 15 ×1018HzLowEnergyHighEnergy
    • 19. MagnetismProperties of Magnets• 2,000 years ago, Greeks discovered a mineral thatattracts iron, called magnetite.• Magnets exert force on each other and aresurrounded by magnetic fields.• Bar magnets are strongest near their ends becauseeach end is a magnetic pole, which can be north orsouth.• North poles attract south poles, and like polesrepel each other.• You can magnetize iron by lining up the domains.Earth’s Magnetism• The Earth behaves as if it has one large magnet runningthrough its center.• While the Earths geographic poles are on the axis onwhich the it rotates, the Earths magnetic poles are thepoints on the surface of the planet where the magneticforces are strongest.• There is no actual magnet in the Earth, it’s core’stemperature is too high to stay lined up in domains.•Because the outer core is liquid, it moves as the Earthrotates, which creates an electric charge. The chargemoves, and makes a magnetic field.Auroras• An aurora is formed when charged particles from thesun hit oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the air. Theatoms become excited and give off light of manycolors.•Although the earths magnetic field blocks most of thecharged particles from the sun, the fields bendinwards at the magnetic poles, and as a result thecharged particles can crash into the atmosphere nearthe poles.• Northern Lights are called aurora borealis, whileSouthern lights areElectromagnets• Electromagnets are made up of a solenoid wrappedaround an iron core.• A solenoid is a coil of wire carrying a current.• The iron in the center increases the magnetic strength ofthe solenoid.• The more loops per meter there are the stronger theelectromagnet is.• Electromagnets are useful because they can be turned onand off.• Electromagnets are used in almost anything, fromdoorbells to motors.Magnetic Fields• Magnetic fields exist in the region around a magnetin which magnetic forces can act.• The shape of a magnetic field can be shown withlines drawn from the north to south pole of a magnet.• These lines map out the magnetic fields and arecalled magnetic field lines.• The closer together the lines are, the stronger themagnetic force is.• Lines are closest together at the poles, where themagnetic force is strongest.• Magnetic fields can be created around wires withcurrent running through them.By: Allie and Alisa
    • 20. Light and ColorColors of ObjectsThe color that an object appears is determined by thewavelengths of light that reach your eyes. The lowestwavelength you can see is red, the highest is purple. Whenyour eyes receive the light that bounces off of an object, theysend signals to your brain. Your brain interprets the signals ascolors.Colors of OpaqueObjectsWhen white light hits anopaque object, some of thecolors of light are absorbed,and some are reflected. Thelight that is reflected and hitsyour eye is the color that theobject appears. For example,a red apple absorbs all lightexcept the color red, which isreflected.Colors of Transparent andTranslucent ObjectsTransparent and translucent materialsare colored slightly differently thanopaque objects. Most transparentand translucent materials are clear,because all light passes throughthem. But some objects are colored.When a white light hits a coloredtransparent object, most colors areabsorbed, but one passes through.That is the color you see.Light and MatterWhen light hits matter, it can interact with the matterin three ways: by reflection, sending the light back toyour eyes and allowing you to see the object; byabsorption, where the energy of light is transferred tothe matter; or by transmission, where the light passesthrough the object.Reflection Absorption TransmissionThere are three types of matter: transparentmatter, translucent matter, and opaque matter.Transparent matter is matter that allows light topass through it. Transparent matter is matter youcan see through, like air or glass..Translucentmatter transmits light but does not transmit animage.Think bubbly glass. You can see shapes andcolors from outside, but you cant see details.Finally, opaque matter is matter that light cannotpass through.Types of MatterTransparent TranslucentOpaqueBy ClaireLeary
    • 21. •Interference Of SoundWaves:• Interference happens whentwo or more waves overlap,which causes it to make a loudersound. The two types ofinterference are constructive anddestructive. Bands useconstructive when they play, byoverlapping each other.Destructive is when the soundbounces off the walls andinterfere with the instruments.•Resonance:•Resonance happens when twoobjects vibrate at the samefrequency. The sound producedby one object causes the otherobject to vibrate. If you have atuning fork that vibrates at one ofthe resonant frequencies of aguitar string, you can make thestring make noise withoutmaking any contact.• Reflection Of SoundWaves:• Reflection is when a wavebounces back after hittingan object, and it is called anecho. The strength of thatreflection depends on thesurface. Smooth, hardsurfaces reflect best, like ina gym. Soft surfacesabsorb the sound waves,like in an auditorium.
    • 22. I thought we could use this slide forpicture tryouts.
    • 23. Background tryouts: A link:
    • 24. THIS IS DUE MARCH 29TH!!!!!You can work alone or with a partner on this project.Choose a topic of appropriate complexity and cover it well.The poster is a digital product that is simply one large PowerPoint slide.Research, writing, and collecting graphics should be done at home and here.A large format printer on loan from HP will be used for the final (only) printout.The content for your poster can be gained from packets, books, websites, and videos.The steps:1. Get an overview of the project and view sample posters.2. Find a partner (or not), browse the textbook and find an area of interest3. Enter your names, topic, and textbook section onto my spreadsheet.4. Do initial research to choose subtopics, then write them (3-4) on paper.5. Create poster:• One PowerPoint slide, set page width to 30 & height to 22• Name the file "topic_first_first" (no spaces)• Find and read information and add it (in your words) to poster• Find great big graphics, save to computer, and add to poster (100% or less)• Arrange components so that they make sense and look good (PARC)• Print an 8.5 x 11 b/w copy and get suggestions for improvement6. Show me your poster file (on screen) to get final approval7. Turn in via by March 29 (pw = heumann).Grading Criteria:Each bullet listed above reflects 5 points of credit.5 points for great quality,4 points for good quality,3 points for ok quality,2 points for low quality,1 point for lousy/skimpy/cursory quality,0 points for no evidence of work/feature not present.
    • 25. Software NetworkHardwareAn electronic device designed to accept data, perform prescribed mathematicaland logical operations at high speeds, and display the results of theseoperations.A computer has many different physical elements, which iscalled hardware. There are a few main hardwarecomponents that are vital to a computer.Graphics Processing Unit (GPU): The GPU processes datait receives from the program that is currently running,then inputs that data to the monitor, deciding what eachpixel will display.Central Processing Unit (CPU): The CPU runs all programsand processes your computer does.Random Access Memory (RAM): RAM stores temporarydata sent from software and programs your computer isrunning, and randomly accessed by the CPU.Hard Drive: This is where all your permanent data isstored. Information is stored here when you savedocument, create a file, and do anything that you canaccess after you restart your computer. The data storedhere typically stays here until you manually delete it.Motherboard: Connects and transfers data to all the parts.Software is data downloaded toyour computer from an externalsource. Software is stored on yourhard drive, and ran by the CPU.Software can vary anywhere fromyour operating system (OS) whichis what you use to control yourcomputer, to a video game orapplication such as skype. Yourweb browser is also a piece ofsoftware. Software is what youcommand you computer to use orrun, and the hardware runs it.Computers are connectedto the internet via anetwork of cables, fibercables, internet providers,and routing computers.Your computer isconnected to the Ethernet,which receives datathrough cables ontelephone poles. Thesecables go to your internetprovider, which finallyconnects to routingcomputers.
    • 26. Color&LightWhy we have RedGreen&Blue. (andallthecolorsin between)PrimaryColorsvs. Primary Colors of LightLook at the two diagrams of colors above.Which one shows the colors of light?The primary colors you may know,red, blue,andyelloware not actually the true colors oflight. In fact,Red, BlueandGreenare.Notice that in between the primary circlesthere are secondary colors of light. When youmix various amounts of two or more colors,we can make any other color we want. Forexample, equal partsredandbluemakemagenta. This is called coloraddition.Poster by BrianWhy is this orange orange?A object’s color is determined by thewavelengths of light that reach your eyes.Your eyes see light reflected off the object.Your brain interprets what your eyes see ascolors. The objects reflect only certain colorsof light. For example, thisorangeabsorbs allof the other colors exceptorange.Sometimes, objects reflect a combination ofmore than one color, such as a pinkorbrown. Black and white are exceptions,because black reflects no color, while whitereflects all colors of light.Notice a row of colored arrows whichrepresent colors of light pointed at theorange. As you notice, all but the orangearrow go right into the orange. The orangearrow reflects back out.Transparent & Translucent ObjectsTransparent and translucent objects canbe seen through. But, how can they stillhave color?The color is seen because the materialtransmits light of that color, but doesn’tcompletely block other colors. Light canpass through, but at a slower rate. Forexample, the bottle allows mainly greenlight to pass through.Objects you cannot see through areconsidered opaque.YellowMagentaCyanWhat Color?RedBlueYellowGreenPinkOrangePurpleGreyCyanMagentaNavyPigments & PrintingPigments are materials that give substances theircolors. They absorb certain colors of light, whilereflecting others.The primary pigments are yellow, cyan, andmagenta, which can be combined in certain ratiosto create any other color. Mixing these pigments iscalled color subtraction, the taking away of morecolors. The primary pigments are the products ofthe three primary colors of light.
    • 27. Three essential parts of a circuit: power, wire, and load.Power-A power source is essential to any circuit. Thepower source creates electrical energy to power theload.Wire-A wire is anything that can conduct electricity andcarries the electricity in a circuit to the load and thenback to the power source to complete the circuit. Wireare essential because without them you could no carrythe electricity to the load.Load-A load is any device that changes the electricalenergy into another form of energy..Diode-Diodes turn AC current into DC. Diodes do this by having anegative side and positive side made when the two metals in adiode combine. Since one side is negative and one is positivewhen the positive flow attempts to travel through the positiveside it can’t because the positive side doesn’t need anymoreelectrons..When engineers are designing circuitsthey use symbols, like these, to representthe parts. Engineers use symbols s ashorthand, and its universal language.Here are some examples of symbols.CIRCUITS & SYMBOLSTo make circuits fulfill the desired task you need alot of devices to assist you. These are somecommon parts in a circuit.Switch- Switches are very common in circuits. Switcheshave two points that are called contacts. When bothcontacts touch two ends of a wire, the circuit is closed.When only one contacts touches the circuit is open.Circuit breaker- A circuit breaker is a device thatopens a circuit to stop the flow of electricity. Circuitbreakers are used in circuits to prevent fires fromhappening. Circuit breakers stop the flow by having anelectromagnet in the device. When the electromagnetgets to strong from the increase in voltage, themagnetic force pulls a metal piece, this then opens thecircuit stopping the flow.Fuse- Fuses are alternatives to circuit breakers. Fuses arejust thin metal encased by plastic. The metal has a certainmelting point, so when the voltage increases to a certainpoint the metal burns and opens the circuit. Useful toprevent fires like a circuit breakerResistors- Resistors is a device that creates a certainamount of ohms. This limits the current of a circuit.Resistors are very important because if we didn’t have themcircuits would just burn.Transistor- Unlike a resistor a transistor amplifies the currentof a circuit. Transistors do this by having three basic components:base, collector, and an emitter. When you increase the current forthe base, both the collector and the base combine to make abigger current at the emitter.Voltmeter & Ammeter- These two device measure theamount of volts and amps in a circuit.Circuit breakers are hard to imagineso here is a picture of one.There are two main ways to design a circuit.Series Circuit- Seriescircuits use the load as a wayto transfer energy back to thenegative side of the battery.This means if a load breaks,such as a light bulb, then thecircuit is open making thecircuit not work. Seriescircuits are useful as analerting system to showwhen a load is not working.Parallel Circuit- A parallelcircuit is more commonly use thana series circuit. This is because ifone load on a parallel circuit breaksthe whole circuit still works. Theparallel circuit achieves this byattaching each load individually tothe circuit instead of inn one lineon a circuit.By: Anthony Damore and MatinKeshmiri
    • 28. Covalent Bonds are a type of chemical bond thatinvolves two or more atoms sharing valence electrons.Covalent bonds are formed when 2 ormore atoms share valence electrons.Valence electrons are electrons in theouter “shell” of an atom.There are many thingsmade with covalent bonds.An example is salt. Sodium chlorite, or common tablesalt, is possible because chlorine and sodium sharetheir valence electrons. Some more common examplesinclude paper, credit cards, and water.
    • 29. The black hole is pretty much, a hole. It basically creates a hole in the space-time fabric because of gravitationalfield. Its gravitational field is so strong, that not even light, probably the fastest thing in the universe, cannot escapeit.A black hole is usually created by a dying star with a mass twentytimes bigger than our sun. During that stars life, It plays a constanttug-o-war between the gravity pulling in, and the pressure pressingout. But when the star runs out of nuclear juice, star collapses inon itself. Large stars end with a bang (also called a supernova). Ifthe core of the star is 2.5 times bigger than the sun, the gravitycollapses into the core to produce a black hole.How it all startsA black hole ‘eating’ a star.That is how the black hole looks like.(Sorry that’s the biggest resolution Icould find)--------------------->
    • 30. ChargesA charge is physical characteristic given to an object. An object can have a positive, negative or neutral (no) charge. According to the Law of electric charges, similarly charged objects repel each other, and oppositelycharged objects attract each other. The movement caused between charged objects is known as an electric force. The electric force’s area of effect (electric field) depends on the amount of charge in the objects, andthe distance between to two objects. The more charge and closer the distance, the greater the electric force. Here are three ways an object can be charged:FrictionConductionInduction Rubbing a material that likes tocollect electrons onto one that Conduction charges objects through physical contact.Induction changes the alignment ofloses electrons charges the objects by friction. If you have ever rubbed If you have a positively charged eraser, and you touch it to uncharged scissors, electrons in uncharged metal objects. Ifaa balloon against your hair and seen it attracted to the balloon, then you the scissors become positively charged. positively charged glass rodnear an know what charging by friction is like!uncharged slate of metal, the electrons are aattracted to the glass rod and a small areaofnegative charge is induced onthe object.Static electricityStatic electricity is a type of electricity that involves wiping electrons from one surface onto another (see friction). When objects rub up against each other, the electrons are transferred. The object withmore electrons is negatively charged, and the object with less electrons is positively charged. Since opposite charges attract, the two objects attract each other. One example of this is when you walk across a carpetwearing shoes. The rubber in the soles of your shoes is an insulator, and insulating materials like to collect electrons. The amount of electrons in your shoes increases with each step. Even more electrons are collectedwhen you rub your shoes on the carpet. All of these electrons leave your body when you touch a metal object, such as a doorknob. When you touch it, the electrons move towards the doorknob and shock you in theprocess.LightningLightning is a form of static electricity (see static electricity) that occurs in thunderstorms. It is just like shocking yourself by rubbing your shoes on a carpet and then touching a metal doorknob. The firststep to forming lightning is the water droplets, ice and air rubbing up against each other due to strong wind currents. Since the charges build up from this, The bottom of a cloud has negative charge, and the top haspositive charge. The second step to lightning is that lightning likes to take the shortest path to the ground. The ground is positively charged, so lightning is attracted to it. The electricity is sent in a jagged bolt called aleader stroke, and the ground sends up a bright return stroke. The two meet, and then the charges cancel out. This all happens in an instant. However, not all lightning is visible to us, most lightning takes place withinor between clouds. This type lightning that occurs in clouds is called sheet lightning. Sometimes, a strange electrical phenomenon is displayed called ball lightning. There are many theories to how and why balllightning is formed.
    • 31. Geothermal EnergyHow the energy iscreatedThe source: Heat from the mantlesection, which is 10,000 meters intothe Earth. This section is wheremagma is found.How energy is captured: Water, or aheating fluid is sent in a tube 10,000meters down to the mantle in a pipe.While the water is down there, itheats up and turns into steam. It thencomes back up as steam through adifferent pipe called the productionwell. Once the steam reaches theheat exchanger back above ground, itheats up water near a closer pipe. Thewater in the closer pipe gets heatedinto steam and rises into the turbineroom. The steam turns the turbinewhile it goes by, and the energy fromthe turbine is transferred intoelectricity in a generator. Then, oncethe electricity leaves the generator, itis sent into power cables that run intohomes. The leftover steam comes outa stack, or is used to heat publicswimming pools.History ofgeothermal Energy1807: John Colter discovered the firsthot springs in Yellowstone. Settlersalso founded a colony called HotSprings, in Arkansas.1830: Asa Thompson started a businessusing the hot spring’s energy source.The hot spring gets it’s heat from themantle area, just like how geothermalenergy gets it’s energy. It was the firstbusiness to ever try geothermal energy.1892: Citizens of Boise, Idaho get thefirst experience of hot water from theenergy of hot springs. This was the firstuse of geothermal energy for homeheating.1921: John D. Grant drills a hole deepinto the Earth, in hope of harnessingthe heat and using it for power. Hehooked it up to a steam turbine andgenerator, and ended up cranking out250 kilowatts of energy.1970: Geothermal energy is now beingapproved and recommended forenergy across the country. From there,many geothermal plants were beingbuilt and improved for max efficiency.Fun FactsOver 20 countries use geothermal energy. Geothermalenergy has existed ever since Earth existed. There is alarger resource of geothermal energy than oil, coal, gas,and uranium combined.Geothermal energy generatesabout 2% of the electricity in Utah, 6% of the electricityin California and almost 10% of the electricity innorthern Nevada. Over 26% of Iceland’s power comesfrom geothermal sources, since there are so manyvolcanoes there. Every hundred meters you go belowground, the temperature increases by about 3 degreesCelsius. Some geothermal plants use the hot steamcoming out of the stacks to heat nearby pools. Thissaves some electricity since they are using what isalready generated.
    • 32. Farsightedness and Near SightednessColor DeficiencyEye SurgeryFarsightedness, or hyperopia, is a condition inwhich the lens of the eye focuses distancesbehind rather than on the retina,and the eye istoo short. It is also a reduced ability to focus onnear objects caused by loss of elasticity of thecrystalline lens after age 45. A farsightedperson can only see something clearly if it isfar away. Farsightedness is normally present inbirth and tends to run in family.Nearsightedness, or myopia, is a condition inwhich the lens of the eye focuses distantobjects in front of rather than on the retina, andthe eye is too long. It is also eyesightabnormality resulting from the eyes faultyrefractive ability, and distant objects appearblurred. A nearsighted person can only seesomething clearly if it is nearby.Eye surgery is used to correctnearsightedness andfarsightedness by reshaping thecornea which retracts light.Once the cornea is reshaped, itfocuses light differently.Before surgery, the doctor willmeasure the patient’s cornea.The actual surgery will bepreformed by a laser beamwhich reshapes the cornea andimproves the patient’s vision.There are many risksassociated with eye surgery, apatient could lose part of or allof their vision.Color deficiency is caused whenthe cones in your eyes do notfunction properly. Colordeficiency, or color blindness,causes people to not be able totell the difference between redand green.Cones can detect red, green, andblue, but can also detect manyother colors of light. Sadly, colordeficiency cannot be corrected.