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  2. 2. COnt e nt 4 News briefs What’s new at the MAHLe Group 6 iNterview “engine components must be all-around performers” 8 eNgiNe systems aNd CompoNeNts Less friction, greater strength—optimized crank mechanism for commercial vehicles 10 eNgiNe systems aNd CompoNeNts Low-cost and flexible: assembled camshafts for commercial vehicles 12 eNgiNe systems aNd CompoNeNts nIReVA® 3015—the new valve material from MAHLe 14 eNgiNe systems aNd CompoNeNts Polymer on Sputter coating: superior solution for HDD applications 16 filtratioN aNd eNgiNe peripherals Modular and highly efficient: new valve covers with integrated oil mist separation 18 filtratioN aNd eNgiNe peripherals efficient and variable in design: new air filter modules for euro VI 20 filtratioN aNd eNgiNe peripherals For ultrahigh requirements: new fuel filters for euro VI 22 filtratioN aNd eNgiNe peripherals Lighter, cheaper, better: the new oil filter module for commercial vehicles visit us: from to trade fair name, location Sept. 18 Sept. 22, 2012 Husum Wind (Husum/Germany)impriNt Sept. 18 Sept. 21, 2012 Innotrans (Berlin/Germany)published by Sept. 20 Sept. 27, 2012 IAA Commercial Vehicles (Hanover/Germany)MAHLe International GmbHPragstrasse 26 – 46 Oct. 8 Oct. 10, 2012 Aachen Kolloquium (Aachen/Germany)70376 Stuttgart, Germany Oct. 23 Oct. 25, 2012 parts2clean (Stuttgart/Germany)www.mahle.com Oct. 29 nov. 1, 2012 PtC Asia (Shanghai/China)responsible for the contentDr. Jörg Stratmann Oct. 30 nov. 1, 2012 AAPeX (Las Vegas, nV/USA)Contact nov. 14 nov. 17, 2012 Automechanika Argentinasales@mahle.comPhone +49 (0) 711 501-14612 Dec. 2 Dec. 5, 2012 PRI Show (Orlando, FL/USA)Fax +49 (0) 711 501-4414612photography/picture creditsMAHLe Archivdesign & productionfreelance project GmbH, StuttgartReprint, even partially, only in accordance withand after authorization by the publisher. mahle Performance—also available online: www.performance.mahle.com© MAHLe GmbH, 20122 MAHLE Performance 2012
  3. 3. e D It OR I A L dear readers, Since we last came together at the IAA rising. With our components and systems, Commercial Vehicles in 2010, the positive we support our customers in the develop- trend continued in 2011. With an increase ment of new generations of commercial of 7.6 percent, global production of com- vehicles. Reduced frictional loss, optimized mercial vehicles developed favorably in engine accessories, and the use of systems 2011. Market developments in 2012 vary, components that can withstand greater me-Matthias Fix depending on the region and country. In chanical and thermal loads contributeVice President Sales and Application Engineering europe, growth has slowed significantly and greatly in this respect. One example I wouldCommercial Vehicles is expected to cool off further in the second like to refer to is our polymer-coated main half of the year. South America had an ex- and connecting rod bearings, which allow pected weak start to the year due to the stop-start functionality of the engine. With “pre-buy” effect in 2011, and the year over- the new Monolite design concept, we are all will come in 20 to 30 percent lower than working on making our steel pistons for the previous year. Following consolidation in ultrahigh loads even more compact. 2011, the Chinese market is far below 2010 levels, and commercial vehicle production In the future, it will be even more important will only see slow growth. Only north America for MAHLe to be included in vehicle and en- was able to carry over its momentum to the gine development at an early stage, so that first half of 2012; market indications, how- we can optimally adapt our components ever, also point to a slowdown. Altogether, and systems and subsequently offer highly the future prospects must be considered efficient, cost-optimized solutions. Our pro- with a grain of salt due to their volatility. duction plants and research and develop- MAHLe is well-positioned internationally, ment centers—and thus the technical ex- which to some extent can help to compen- pertise of our employees working on global sate for fluctuations in demand in individual projects—are located at customer sites markets. With a view to the near future, we around the world. are building on our solid market position and innovative product portfolio. Visit us at the IAA. You are cordially invited to our stand, where we will be happy to show the euro 6 emission standard will be intro- you the novelties we have to offer. duced shortly—a major topic at the IAA. While previous reductions in emissions focused on Sincerely, nOX and particulates, legislation has now shifted the attention to CO2 reduction. this is necessary both from an ecological and economical perspective—less fuel means Matthias Fix greater economic eficiency as fuel prices are MAHLE Performance 2012 3
  4. 4. WHAt’S neW At tHe MAHLE GROUPMAHLE has installed a two-cylinder gasoline engine as a range extender in a roadworthy electric demonstrator vehicle. the mahle range extender—impres- sive numbers, long cruising range MAHLe has developed and built a special engine for range-extended electric vehicles (ReeVs). ReeVs offer signiicant advantages over purely electrically powered vehicles (eVs). In particular, they solve the problem of the far too short cruising range of pure electric vehicles. the MAHLe range extender (Rex) is a very compact two-cylinder engine with 600 cm3 displacement. It is lightweight and can be produced at a low cost. In order to gain experience relevant to the steps re- quired to reach market readiness with a ReeV and to refine the noise and vibration properties, it has been installed in a demon- strator vehicle. the compact class demon- strator vehicle shows clearly how new MAHLe technologies can allow signiicant reductions in CO2 emissions without sacrificing drivingMAHLE Powertrain implemented the entire engine concept and engine controls. behavior or functionality.4 MAHLE Performance 2012
  5. 5. n e WS B R Ie FStech Center in shanghai is beingexpandedthe MAHLe tech Center in Shanghai is hometo the central functions such as sales, pur-chasing, human resources, It, and finance,but especially research and development forall MAHLe product lines. the center is cur-rently being expanded, with the addition ofthree new buildings that will be officiallyopened on november 13, 2012. Following The newly planned campus in Farmington Hills/USAthe expansion, the center will have six boxesfor complete engine test benches, instead the vehicles from thailand to the ASeAn mahle bundles central functions inof previously only two. Overall, nearly 9,000 countries. MAHLe is adding extensively to North america at one locationsquare meters of lab and ofice space will be both of its locations in thailand. With the purchase of an adjacent site,added to the already existing 7,000 square MAHLe Industries, Inc. has gained an addi-meters. this will allow us to increase the MAHLe engine Components (thailand) is tional 50,000 square meters of office spacenumber of employees from today 230 to as expanding its plant at the Bangkok location, and storage area, and can thus consolidatemany as 450. which mainly produces pistons. Construc- in Farmington Hills the central functions that tion work on the new 45 by 90 meter build- were previously distributed between two ing should be completed in September. the locations. the operations that were located new building will house an assembly line as in novi to date, such as MAHLe test Sys- well as measurement and testing equipment. tems and engineering Services, will move to It will also provide space for future machin- Farmington Hills by 2013. Sales, finance, ing and coating lines. legal, human resources, and It functions will also be consolidated on a single campus. In Samutprakarn, MAHLe Siam Filter Systems is adding considerably to the existing location. New mahle plant in Kyushu/JapanThe shaded buildings will be added to the Tech the new buildings measuring 5,000 m2 will In the northern part of the Japanese islandCenter in Shanghai. primarily house storage areas and offices. of Kyushu, a new production plant for air the previous areas that will be cleared will intake systems, valve covers, and activatedtwo plant expansions in thailand then have space for two new production carbon canisters is currently under construc-More and more Japanese vehicle manufac- lines for oil coolers and greater capacity for tion. Well-known Japanese vehicle manu-turers are producing in thailand—not only the production of air intake systems and facturers, such as nissan, toyota, Daihatsu,for the thai market, but also for exporting valve covers. and Honda, currently produce about 1.5 million vehicles in this region annually. the new plant is also in close proximity to Mazda and Mitsubishi Motor. the production area will comprise 7,500 m 2, and completion is planned for September 2012.In Samutprakarn/Thailand, the existing plant (shown here in green) is being generously expanded. The new plant in Kyushu/Japan MAHLE Performance 2012 5
  6. 6. I nt e R V I e W“enGIne COMPOnentS MUSt BeALL-AROUnD PeRFORMeRS”In a conversation with MAHLE Perform- disappears into braking energy. enormousance, Prof. Stefan Breuer from Bochum amounts of fuel are ultimately destroyed inUniversity of Applied Sciences explains this way.where he sees additional potential foroptimization in powertrains for long- which inevitably leads us to the Bio for Prof. Stefan Breuer After secondary school, Breuer completed an apprentice-distance commercial vehicles, and why question of hybrids. ship as an auto mechanic, then studied general mechani-it will be difficult to further increase the Breuer: For a long time, I was of the opinion cal engineering, with an emphasis on automotive engi-efficiency of diesel engines to any sig- that a hybrid powertrain would not make neering, at the Technical University in Darmstadt/Germany.nificant degree. sense for long-distance hauling. today’s He then worked briefly at Mercedes-Benz, but his great highly developed engines have very good interest in research led him back to the university, thisin a topography typical to central efficiencies of around 40 percent. But what time in Essen, to obtain his doctorate.europe, is an energy-efficient commer- a truck with an exclusive combustion engine From there he moved to Atlas Fahrzeugtechnik, an auto-cial vehicle even conceivable? powertrain cannot achieve is to recover en- motive engineering firm, where he researched vibrationBreuer: this question is near and dear to my ergy from braking and downhill runs. If there and riding comfort in commercial vehicles in the NVHheart. the driving dynamics of a truck entail were a way to store that energy, it would be department. He then had a brief guest performance intwo major factors that directly affect fuel possible to save a great deal of fuel. escalator development at Krone, before he moved to theconsumption, and therefore CO2 emissions university for applied sciences in Cologne in 2004 asas well: grade resistance and acceleration the main priority in long-distance professor for technical mechanics and commercial vehicleresistance. the act of braking in a truck trucking is transport efficiency—that engineering, and then later for driving dynamics as well.should theoretically be painful, because huge is, to carry as much freight as possible Since mid-2011, Breuer has been teaching design andamounts of energy are being destroyed again. at the lowest possible cost. looking at technical mechanics classes in the specific areas of both freight capacity and at costs, is mechanical engineering and mechatronics at the Velbert/It may be helpful to make a comparison here there any way at all to integrate the Heiligenhaus campus of the college in Bochum, as part ofto passenger cars. If you drive a passenger required energy store and recuperation the mechatronics and information technology program.car at 120 km/h on the freeway, going up a systems? A more in-depth area of automotive engineering is alsothree-percent grade, more energy is required, Breuer: I don’t see any way to achieve this currently planned for the master’s program.which you can get easily by pushing a little with current technology. It would take up too His drive: the fascination with the automobile, whichharder on the gas pedal. When you drive much space and weight. Rather, we need to became particularly evident to him during his guest per-back down the same grade, you get the consider what possibilities there might be formance in escalator development—it is simply moreenergy back, because you don’t brake, you for the future. We would certainly be looking fun to develop or analyze something for vehicles.just back off the gas. therefore, drivers of at short-term storage, thus not necessarilycars don’t see much difference in fuel con- electrical but more likely mechanical stor- Breuer is the co-editor of the technical book for commer-sumption when driving on hilly roads. truck age that should be investigated. even if this cial vehicles (Fachbuch Nutzfahrzeugtechnik, Springer Vieweg), which is available in its 7th edition at the IAAdrivers, on the other hand, have to fight means that there may be some disadvan- 2012, and the technical correspondent for commercialtheir way slowly up a grade, and then brake tage in the level of efficiency. the current vehicle engineering for the technical journals ATZ and MTZ.continuously on the downhill side. All of state is 100 percent loss when braking, afterthe energy invested in making the climb all, and I am sure that we will not be able to6 MAHLE Performance 2012
  7. 7. I n t eR V Ie Waccept that for much longer, as energy costs would be necessary, which are very expen-will eventually be too high. especially in this sive, particularly at high speeds. Accelerat- Fuel consumption of a commercial vehicle duringvery cost-sensitive segment, this could be ing a 40-ton truck from 60 to 80 km/h, at accelerationdefinitive for development efforts. an assumed specific consumption rate of From 0 to 80 km/ h : 190 g/kWh—which would be best case— 1 1 m 2 E= 2 mv 2= 2 · 40 000 kg · ( 22,2 s ) = 9 856 800 Nm =One prerequisite, however, is that conditions consumes about 0.27 liters of diesel fuel, 2,74 kWhremain the same or become more uniform according to the law of conservation ofacross country borders. If, for example, a energy. this represents an emission of about At 190 g/kWh, this represents 0.52 kg or 0.63 liters ofneighboring country lowers fuel prices, 780 g of CO2. diesel fuel. From 60 to 80 km/h, using the approach above,such efforts can quickly vanish once again. the result is 0.27 liters of diesel fuel, or about 0.27 × 2.85Homogenization would be very desirable in is there a technical approach that = 778 g CO2europe, for example. could be helpful in the short term? Breuer: the technology to be able to avoidare you hoping for globalization topographically inefficient routes or traffic engine very much at this stage. the poten-effects? jams is available; its integration just needs tial is limited to just a few percent, which inBreuer: this would be a policy question, yes. to be improved. In the future, however, it will view of the long service life of a truck, how-However, I also see technical opportunities be even more difficult, as freight transport ever, will have to be fully exhausted.in globalization. In my opinion, for example, continues to increase and traffic becomesa positive symbiosis has resulted from the more irregular. It may be more valuable in In transition, in the transient range, there willhigh mechanical requirements for engine the short term to raise awareness among certainly be future solutions that improvecomponents in europe and the extensive car drivers as to what it means when they responsiveness. One approach could be toservice life prevalent in the USA. the force a truck to apply its brakes. It would be monitor cylinder pressure, so that engineapproach of “one engine for the life of the nice to see more of a sense of community in controls would no longer be based on anvehicle” should also be part of the energy this respect. this has more potential on a operating map, but instead would useanalysis. Melting down an old engine like- percentage basis than is likely to be achieved pressure regulation. this would, however,wise requires energy. In terms of sustaina- by technical solutions. require measuring the highly dynamic pres-bility, therefore, globalization surely must sure in order to immediately adjust to thehave positive effects, but it also means that Can the conventional powertrain profit target pressure.new engine components or systems—par- from interlinking topographical dataticularly the PCU, for example—must really and engine management? Large steps forward, such as what the intro-be all-around performers. Breuer: this would certainly improve de- duction of charge air cooling made possible, mand-based actuation of engine accessories are in addition hardly feasible any longer with-following your earlier energy analysis: in that they possibly would be operated on out extensive modiications to the powertrainwould it not be helpful, in terms of a downhill runs only. In addition, timely selec- coniguration or the package itself. this reallyfairly simple measure, for lawmakers tion of the right transmission gear alone can does not come as a surprise, though; whento allow higher driving speeds for provide an advantage, as will soon be avail- thousands of engineers work on developingtrucks in certain areas, in order to be able in series production. something, eventually it approaches theable to gather momentum on downhill optimum. Additional advancements in fuelruns that are immediately followed by earlier you mentioned the very high consumption and emissions therefore doan incline? efficiency levels of combustion engine not sound very popular anymore. But every-Breuer: this is indeed done within certain powertrains in trucks. is there any one who deals with the subject knows howlimits, but safety considerations make it more potential for optimization at all? important they continue to be.advisable to be somewhat restrictive. the Breuer: A great deal of energy is lost via thekinetic energy of a truck rises as the square exhaust gas heat; solutions to utilize it are professor breuer, thank you very muchof its velocity, which means that the severity currently being worked on with great inten- for your time.of an accident also rises as the square. In sity by the manufacturers. this might resultaddition, traffic would be more dynamic if in another significant step forward in the The interview was conducted by Ruben Danisch.this gate were opened. that would be very overall efficiency. It does not seem possibledetrimental, because more accelerations to shift the optimal operating point of the MAHLE Performance 2012 7
  8. 8. LeSS FRICtIOn, GReAteR StRenGtHOPTIMIZED CRANK MECHANISM FOR COMMeRCIAL VeHICLeS Lower emissions, higher loads: the vehicles are also expected. Requirements requirements for commercial vehicle for engine power density will only continue diesel engines are not new, just more to increase rather than decline. stringent. There is room for improve- ment in the crank mechanism, in par- Previous efforts to meet eU directives up to ticular, where large forces are at play. eURO VI have caused fuel consumption of MAHLE has now managed to extract the basic engine to increase. In order to meet additional potential. market requirements despite this develop- ment, numerous opportunities for fuel savings effects of the legal environment have already been utilized in recent years. the commercial vehicle is fundamentally very sensitive to costs. A fleet operator for potential from lower piston compres- long-distance hauling bases purchasing de- sion height cisions on transportation efficiency. Besides One significant untapped potential area in the cost of the vehicle, ongoing operating the engine crank mechanism is the reduc- costs, which include fuel consumption, play tion of the compression height of the piston, a decisive role. efforts to reduce fuel con- meaning a lower piston height. MAHLe is sumption and therefore CO2 emissions, aiming for 20 to 30 percent lower compres- however, will not be solely driven by cost sion height than is typical today. On the one pressures in the future. now that the eU has hand, this measure could be implemented decided to limit CO2 emissions for light com- with longer connecting rods. they guide the mercial vehicles to an average of 147 g/km piston more effectively in that they reduce the starting in 2020, regulations for heavy freight lateral forces that the piston exerts on the8 MAHLE Performance 2012
  9. 9. e nGI n e SY S te MS A n D C OMP On e n tScylinder wall, thus also reducing frictional Initial principle studies have been very suc-losses. MAHLe has investigated similar cessful, and the beam-based joining methodactions for passenger car diesel engine is now being developed into a maturepistons and expects, based on this experi- process. this means that MAHLe will soonence, up to 0.8 percent diesel fuel savings be able to provide its customers with thein commercial vehicles. For a commercial most innovative piston technology to meetvehicle with fuel consumption of about 30 anticipated future requirements.liters/100 km and a service life of 150,000 Interlayer <50 nmkm/year, this equates to potential savings of piston ringsabout 360 liters of diesel fuel per vehicle per Optimization of the crank mechanism in-year. exact values for the savings potential volves not only the piston and connectingwill be determined soon. As an alternative rod, but also piston rings and piston pins,to an extended connecting rod, the block for example. One particular challenge is theheight of the engine could also be reduced ongoing development of the first compres-by the “shorter” piston, which would save sion ring, which is subjected to the greatestweight, installation space, and manufactur- loading and is thus at high risk of wear. Untiling costs. now, it has withstood ultrahigh loads with a coating made of MIP 230 chromium nitride Multilayer NanoBium coating, PVD with alternating NbN and CrN layersA piston with typical commercial vehicle (Crn), which is applied in a PVD (arc evapo-dimensions would also be about 2 kilograms ration) process. Modern combustion en-lighter. If the connecting rod is also optimized gines have less oil available for lubrication In order to reduce friction losses at the rings,for design and materials according to the in order to achieve lower emissions. this MAHLe successfully tested the V-SHAPelatest knowledge, up to 30 percent weight leads to significantly greater thermal loads design on the two-piece oil control ring lastsavings can be achieved for the crank on the ring, with the risk that the coating year. the tangential loads that press themechanism of a typical commercial vehicle might chip. ring against the cylinder wall are up to 50engine. the lower mass reduces bearing percent lower. the V-SHAPe has now beenfriction, thus contributing to increased effi- In order to be better prepared for such chal- further developed for increasing engine re-ciency of the engine. lenges, MAHLe has developed the new PVD quirements in that a PVD layer based on coating nanoBium MIP290. nanoBium is a chromium nitride is applied to the runningimplementing the design with new multilayered system comprising alternating surface area. this increases the service lifemanufacturing methods nanolayers made of niobium nitride and and taps further potential for minimizingA more compact piston that offers optimal chromium nitride. friction.cooling performance at the same time haspreviously been limited by production. MAHLe this multilayer structure improves the fatigue piston pinhas now developed a new manufacturing resistance and thermomechanical strength For piston pins in the steel piston, diamond-method that allows the necessary design of the ceramic layer. MAHLe has demonstrat- like carbon (DLC) coatings showed verylexibility. Both the steel piston for passenger ed the greater temperature fatigue resist- promising results in initial studies for reduc-cars and the commercial vehicle piston have ance of nanoBium MIP290 as compared to ing frictional losses, regardless of the load.thus far been produced using frictional weld- the typical MIP230 chromium nitride coat- Such coatings are being used more widelying. For the irst time, MAHLe is going with a ing in a 12.7 liter commercial vehicle engine. in pins for aluminum pistons in diesel en-beam-based welding method. this allows the wear and seizure resistance of the two gines and have now almost become thesigniicantly greater lexibility in piston design, coatings are at a similarly high level. Based standard. the advantage, in addition tosuch as the shape of the cooling cavity or off- on the consistently positive results, MAHLe slightly lower friction, is reduced suscepti-set bowls. Less material is required in the has already applied for a patent for the bility to seizing of the piston pin. Indicationsarea of the weld seam in order to provide the MIP290 nanoBium coating. After a long of improved frictional loss balance in thepiston with suficient rigidity during welding. search for better properties, this has been a steel piston are being investigated by MAHLethe new method also enables the use of breakthrough, optimally equipping MAHLe on a demonstrator engine.highly temperature-resistant materials for for the requirements of future generations ofthe combustion bowl. engines. Author: Dr. Stefan Spangenberg MAHLE Performance 2012 9
  10. 10. e nGI ne S YS t e MS A nD COMP One nt S LOW-COSt AnD FLeXIBLe:ASSEMBLED CAMSHAFTS FOR COMMeRCIAL VeHICLeS Assembled camshafts present a low- cost, flexible solution for modern fuel- efficient commercial vehicle engines. Cast iron camshafts have long been used for light commercial vehicles, while medium to heavy commercial vehicles have resorted to forged steel camshafts. these technolo- gies require relatively high tooling costs, which are very disadvantageous relative to passenger cars due to the low production quantities. Assembled camshafts allow higher contact pressure between the cam lobes and cam follower in comparison to cast camshafts, and offer significant weight advantages over steel camshafts made from solid material or raw forgings. the great design flexibility of the individual assembled components also provides cost advantages with respect to materials and design. For example, very durable cam lobes are made of roller bearing steel and then inductively hardened, while the drive input and output10 MAHLE Performance 2012
  11. 11. e nGI n e S YS t e MS A n D C OMP On e n t S shrink-fit method, parts such as cam lobes, the resulting reduction in frictional loss and pulse-generator wheels, and driving and optimized oil balance further contributes to output elements are joined to precision optimizing CO2 and reducing fuel consump- steel tubes having a high degree of torsional tion in the powertrain. MAHLe is currently stiffness and flexural strength. the purely investigating the potential of this technology elastic shrink-fit composite guarantees a for use in commercial vehicles. consistently high interference fit of the joined components over the entire service Assembled camshafts for commercial vehi- life of two million kilometers required for cles from MAHLe enable modern commercial commercial vehicle engines. Assembled vehicle engines to fulfill increasing require- camshafts that are manufactured by plasti- ments related to service life at a low cost, cally deforming the press fit, in contrast, while simultaneously reducing weight and demonstrate an aging effect, and the press optimizing fuel consumption. A clear trend it joint becomes weaker over the service life. toward the use of assembled camshafts can be seen in the development of future MAHLe has produced assembled cam- commercial vehicle engines. shafts for commercial vehicles under near- series conditions in various concept studies Author: Stefan Steichele and successfully performed endurance tests. With the series launch that is currently underway at a well-known manufacturer in europe, the first assembled camshafts for commercial vehicles from MAHLe will see large numbers built in series production. In the course of rising requirements forelements can be made of less expensive modern engines, additional potential gainsmaterials, as needed. are being evaluated for assembled cam- shafts, and the component is under ongoingthe MAHLe production method for assem- development. One possibility is to use a roll-bled camshafts provides optimal conditions ing bearing in place of the hydrodynamicfor flexible manufacturing. Using a thermal plain bearing that is typical for camshafts.Assembled camshaft for commercial vehicles with rolling bearing and closed cast bearing supports MAHLE Performance 2012 11
  12. 12. ® NIREVA 3015tHe neW VALVe MAteRIAL FROM MAHLe Continuous improvements in exhaust gas quality and fuel consumption in ad- vanced engine design present a constant challenge to the MAHLE valve develop- ment team. Familiar trends in engine design, such as downsizing, lead to rising mechanical and thermal loads on engine components, which in turn require new solutions.12 MAHLE Performance 2012
  13. 13. e nGI n e S YS t e MS A n D C OMP On e n t S requirements listed above can actually be passenger car engine exhaust valves, is covered for valves with familiar high-per- currently manufactured under license and formance nickel-based materials, but these available for use. two materials have been are less acceptable from a cost standpoint. developed exclusively with a supplier of While the cost factor has been accepted in steel for valves, and two more alloys were the past for niche applications such as sports developed regionally in China. car engines, due to their requirements proile, it constitutes a problem today given the wide After examining costs and availability, exten- range of applications and the associated in- sive lab testing for high-temperature fatigue crease in cost pressure. For reliable operation resistance, wear, and corrosion performance, throughout the desired engine service life, as well as internal and customer validation downsizing engines also require the use of runs in various commercial vehicle and pas- economical material solutions with adequate senger car engines, it was soon evident that high-temperature fatigue performance and the material developed in Japan presented corrosion properties. the best compromise. In the second half of the last decade, the Having technological properties similar to alloying element nickel saw huge price in- those of the nickel-based materials, the ma- creases, which inspired MAHLe to initiate a terial known at MAHLe as nIReVA 3015® global valve materials project in 2008. has 30 percent nickel and 15 percent chro- mium content, providing our customers with the goal was to investigate available mate- interesting cost savings potential relative to rials as well as new ones in order to identify high-performance materials. Once the range a valve material that would cover as wide a of applications in highly loaded commercial range of applications as possible with re- vehicle and passenger car engines was de- spect to cost and performance. ined, its good results convinced our custom- ers during extensive technical discussions. While the high-performance materials listed Following the first series production as a above are made of around 75 percent nickel, hollow exhaust valve in a sports car applica- the alloying element that drives the cost, tion this spring, several specifically highly various materials have been developed in loaded passenger car engines will follow in recent years that close the gap between series production in the course of the current established heat-resistant materials and the year and the next. Customers have validated nickel-based high-performance alloys. Using and approved the material in various com- various alloying concepts, the nickel content mercial vehicle engines, and we have been is typically reduced to about 30 percent, the nominated for a series production applica- chromium content is adjusted for good cor- tion starting in 2014. rosion resistance, and additional suitable elements are used to try to attain the best Author: Alexander Puck possible high-temperature properties.this also leads to new approaches in materialselection for the valve, valve seat insert, and In order to find a solution that is particularlyvalve guide components. Well-established well-suited for the specific requirements oflow-cost materials are increasingly becoming valves, various materials were extensivelyoverloaded as speciic output levels are rising. tested as part of the project. Several candi-this is especially true for exhaust valves with dates entered the contest and were given arespect to their high-temperature properties, catchy name: nIReVA, for nickel-reducedand for commercial vehicle intake valves re- valve alloys. One material, developed in Japangarding corrosion performance. Some of the and used there by two manufacturers for MAHLE Performance 2012 13
  14. 14. POLYMeR On SPUtteR COAtInG: SUPERIOR SOLUTION FOR HDD APPLICAtIOnS Driving cycles and operating conditions for heavy-duty diesel (HDD) applica- tions require robust bearing solutions. Load capacity, wear and seizure resist- ance are the fundamental requirements for ultrahigh performance and a long service life. Bearing halves are constructed in layers. A typical composition for a HDD application is a steel support layer, with a copper-based substrate and an aluminum-tin sputtered14 MAHLE Performance 2012
  15. 15. e nGI n e S YS t e MS A n D C OMP On e n t Soverlay. the addition of the overlay providesan optimal combination of bearing materialproperties, the right balance of hard and softproperties are critical when selecting suitableproducts for engine applications. Often, a Uncoated sputtersputtered overlay is the only usable solutiondue to durability requirements, even if thegreater load capacity may compromise sei-zure resistance. the technological trend is to-ward bearings with increasingly high speciicloads, thinner oil films and higher operating Coated sputtertemperatures.Under these operating conditions, the poten-tial for direct contact between metal sur-faces increases. the introduction of newfuel-saving technologies for commercial Figure 1: Comparison between a coated and an uncoated sputter bearing after the completion of the scuff seizure testHDD applications can also be expected,with more aggressive operating conditionsfor the bearings, which will increase suscep-tibility to wear and seizure.In order to improve compatibility in someapplications, a sacrificial overlay is used toimprove the surface properties. these sacri- Uncoated sputtericial overlays, however, have the disadvan-tage of wearing over time, which can resultin greater operating clearance, increasedrunning noise, and higher oil flow. the de-velopment of a functioning overlay was there-fore considered to be necessary in order to Coated sputtermaintain the properties of a polymer overlaybeyond the run-in period.the proposed bearing solution consists of a Figure 2: Comparison between a coated and an uncoated sputter bearing after a 1,000-hour durability test in an HDD applicationfunctional polymer overlay over a sputteredlayer. this proprietary polymer coating is madeup of a high-performance polyamide imide(PAI), a solid lubricant, and metallic particles. sputter overlays, a customized inspection sistance on the component bench and en-the combination provides excellent mechani- procedure was developed for scuff seizure gine test.cal strength and outstanding thermal and (Fig. 1). the operating conditions were simu-chemical resistance. the homogeneously lated by interrupting the lubricant feed pres- the combination of a polymer overlay on adistributed metallic particles, aligned in the sure, which caused the oil ilm to be disrupted. sputter layer provides the optimal balancerunning direction on the surface, provides very between hard and soft properties for high-good wear resistance, mechanical strength, In addition, coated and uncoated sputter performance HDD applications, and is aand thermal conductivity. bearings were tested in an HDD application robust solution for difficult operating con- for 1,000 hours (Fig. 2). Compared to the ditions.In order to be able to compare the wear and uncoated sputter, the polymer-coated sputterseizure resistance of coated and uncoated showed outstanding wear and seizure re- Author: James George MAHLE Performance 2012 15
  16. 16. FI Lt R At I On A nD e nGI ne P e R I P He R A LS MODULAR AnD HIGHLY eFFICIent: NEW VALVE COVERSWItH InteGRAteD OIL MISt SePARAtIOnNew valve covers have been developed separation at nearly any planned engine incli- pressure of the MAHLe separation systemfor a new engine platform of a large nation. these are challenging requirements, is the same for a wide range of blow-by vol-European commercial vehicle manu- as the engine platform is used in a large ume flow rates, identical components werefacturer. The focal points for the devel- number of vehicles, from mid-range trucks to able to be used for 4-cylinder and 6-cylinderopment of this cover with integrated oil various offroad vehicles (Fig. 1). After pre- applications. the same separation unit, con-separation were ultrahigh separation cleaning, the blow-by makes its way to the sisting of impactors and pressure regulation,levels, a modular concept for use in four- switched impactor/ine separator developed can be used for both engines, despite theircylinder and six-cylinder engines, and by MAHLe (Fig. 2). Since the differential different blow-by levels. Another highlight isnot least an attractive appearance.Walk-on areas, in particular, and a suitablestructure for the reduction of acoustic emis-sions were designed for strength. the in-take line of the compressor for the air brakewas also successfully integrated, which re-duced the number of variants of this line toa minimum.the development started with investigations Valve cover six-cylinder Valve cover six-cylinder (bus application “standing”) Valve cover four-cylinderinto a suitable blow-by sampling point thatwould provide low raw oil emissions for oil Fig. 1: Overview of valve cover types with identical component concept16 MAHLE Performance 2012
  17. 17. FI Lt R At I On A n D e n GI n e P e R I P H e R A LS 8 Raw gas Pre-separator Switched impactor Clean gas 7 6.7 6.4 6 Oil mass flow [g / h] Clean side channel 5 4 3 2.3 2 1 0.87 0.77 0.41 0 1,200 2,200 2,400 Engine speed at Full load [1/min] Pressure regulation valve Fig. 4: Gravimetric raw gas and clean gas values for the six-cylinder engine Oil filler/capFig. 2: Functional integrationthe use of a specially developed pressure cylinder engine (Fig. 4).the cleaned blow-byregulator that reuses the energy from com- then travels in a clean gas channel withinpression to provide very ine separation of the the cover, and is fed into the cylinder head.oil mist. All passive energy sources are thus Hose connections are thus eliminated.put to use to achieve ultrahigh separation Shift [mm] at 90ºClevels. Despite a very fine droplet spectrum extensive calculations have been performed, Fig. 5: Walk-on stabilityfor the engine, the impactor technology sep- particularly for the accessibility and acousticarates 1 µm particles at a rate of over 90 performance of the cover. Since the heightpercent (Fig. 3). of the cover is very low, a support on the Sound emission is also an important function camshaft frame is used to provide walk-on of the valve cover. Appropriate ribbing onClean gas values of below 0.9 g/h have been stability. the cover bends in a defined man- the inner side of the cover ensures that noachieved in the full load range for the six- ner until it contacts the support points (Fig. 5). unpleasant noise is emitted during engine operation. 0 100 PRV Rohgas am Motor engine raw gas Its appearance was likewise considered in 90 the design of the cover. When looking into 0 Fraktionsabscheidegrad Separation efficiency 80 the engine compartment of a truck, the valve cover is the first thing that meets the 0 70 density distribution q3 [-] Fraktionsabscheidegrad [%] eye. Attention was given to arranging the Separation efficiency 60 components as symmetrically as possible in 0 order to achieve an attractive appearance. 50 Appropriate emblems can further improve 0 40 the appearance of the valve cover. 0 30 By working together very closely with the cus- 20 tomer, all of the requirements of this trend- 0 10 setting development were able to be met. Gemessenwith LAP320 (TOPAS) measured mit (tOPAS) 0 0 0,1 1 10 Authors: Dimitri An, Christoph Lohre, Stefan Ruppel particlesize [µm] [µm ] Partikel größeFig. 3: Raw gas distribution and fractional separation MAHLE Performance 2012 17
  18. 18. eFFICIent AnD VARIABLe In DeSIGn:NEW AIR FILTER MODULES FOR eURO VI New requirements from commercial there are two significant trends in commer- vehicle customers have placed the focus cial vehicles that will greatly affect future in air filter development not only on concepts of air management. SCR systems compliance with maintenance intervals, increasingly supersede air intake from its but additionally on achieving high sepa- established installation location. this means ration levels. The available installation that new package solutions are required. If space has also become a more signifi- a low-profile design can be produced, such cant factor. The new air filter module as the new MAHLe concept (Fig. 1), the air from MAHLE not only meets these re- filter module can be located behind the quirements, but also shines in the devel- driver’s cab; in spite of the fact that plat- opment of overall concepts for specific forms are getting longer and longer, so that markets and customers. the space between the platform and cab is getting ever tighter.18 MAHLE Performance 2012
  19. 19. FILtR At IO n A n D en G In e P e R I P He R A LSWhen euro VI takes effect in 2013, air mass Multi-disk grid for water separation optionallyflow measurement will be implemented in with multi-cyclone for dusty countriesmodern commercial vehicle engines as well.In order to ensure trouble-free functionality Dirty air side ductof air mass flow sensors (which are at riskfrom excessive particle loading) over the lifecycle of commercial vehicles, manufacturersrequire air ilter modules with a signiicantlyhigher separation level of > 99.95 percent.In response to these trends, MAHLe hasdeveloped air filter modules with two new Fig. 3: Nanofibers on cellulose (thicker cellulose fibers shine through the nanofiber layer)significant features. Air filter element with plasticized end caps and nano Air filter moduleflat plasticized filter inserts fiber mediathe first feature consists in large plasticizedfilter inserts (Fig. 2) that allow a flexible and Fig. 1: Extremely low-profile air intake system mounted between the driver’s cab and the platform,low-proile design (component height < 15 cm, with raw air intake and fin mesh for water separationincluding housing). this concept providesmaximum freedom of design and can beapplied to inflow and outflow in any direc- the nanofibers are applied to a thin, open-tion, even in tight installation spaces. celled cellulose medium in an electrical spin- ning process.filter media with nanofiber layersthe second feature is a new filter media the underlying concept is surface filtration. Fig. 4: Nanofiber layerconcept. For the first time, MAHLe is using this type of nanoiber fabric is very ine, iltersnanoibers, speciically polyamide ibers with with very high eficiency, and stores the dusta diameter of 90 to 110 nm (Figs. 3 and 4). in a dust cake on the untreated side, outside of the medium. the very thin consistency of the medium with a fine fiber layer enables very tight pleating and therefore sufficient filter surface in the plasticized inserts. overall concept for specific markets and customers With the new air filter module, MAHLe has developed a unique concept that utilizes our strength in the area of plastification. Of course, MAHLe also offers market-specific concepts to address the challenges of dust- laden countries, extreme conditions of use, and increased water exposure. Precleaners in the form of individual axial cyclones or multicyclone systems are often designed to meet individual customer requests and inte- grated in the air filter module. the result is a customized overall concept with a high level of iltration performance for every application.Fig. 2: New type of commercial vehicle air filter insert with plasticized end plates Authors: Andreas Enderich, Matthias Traub MAHLE Performance 2012 19
  20. 20. Nearly all commercial vehicles today use economical diesel engines with common-rail high-pressure injection systems, which require efficient water separation in addition to a high particle separation rate. MAHLE has developed fuel filter modules for EURO VI heavy- duty applications that meet ultrahigh requirements for particle and water separation, while simultaneously maxi- mizing service life. Modern fuel ilter modules also need to have as little residual contamination as possible in order to protect the injection system, even in its new condition. A new clean room produc- tion area at MAHLe makes this possible. At the same time, components must be very robust while taking up as little installation space as possible. FOR ULtRAHIGH ReQUIReMentS: NEW FUEL FILTERS FOR eURO VI the eURO VI modules, driven on the pres- sure side, feature a high level of functional integration. this is evident in the adapted fuel cooler, the pressure sensor on the dirty side for detecting the level of contamination of the filter element, and several valves for controlling pressure and flow within the complex low-pressure fuel circuit. A manual air bleed pump, a quick-fill valve for filling by the customer, two nonreturn valves at the tank connections, and a manual water dis- posal system are also integrated.20 MAHLE Performance 2012
  21. 21. FI LtR At I On A n D e n GIn e P e R I P He R A LShighly efficient separation of water Manual priming pump Main filter (3 – 5 µm)from diesel fuelIn modern diesel fuel systems, water can leadto wear in the form of corrosion, cavitation, Pre-filter (100 µm)reduced lubricity, and microbiological growth,which may cause the injection system to mal-function. Fuels that contain biodiesel havean even greater affinity to water, as well aslower surface tension. this increases theformation of fine, stable emulsions. Complex flow chart with several integrated valvesConventional systems are not able to sepa- to control pressure and volume flowrate out fine emulsions, and their water sep- Fuel cooleraration performance drops off quickly as thefilter medium becomes contaminated by Water drain valveseparated particles. MAHLe has developednew filter concepts to meet these more Fig. 1: Heavy-duty fuel filter module for EURO VI with manual water disposalstringent requirements, enabling optimalseparation of even very small droplets andthe use of critical fuels throughout the life ofthe filter. a stand-alone system and an integrated sys- tem unit in MAHLe fuel ilter modules (Fig. 1).the patented filter element for our currentmodules is designed as a multistage assem- Filter modules with automatic water dispos- Fig. 3: Functional principle of adsorptionbly. When ultrasonically welded to addition- al do not just reliably separate out the water.al components, a filter element is produced they also discharge it to the environment inthat guarantees optimal particle and water a controlled manner. For conventional sys- Since the water to be disposed must gener-separation and very long service life, while tems, it is necessary to check the water ally have a residual hydrocarbon content ofrequiring very little installation space. Solid level in the fuel ilter regularly, and to dispose less than 20 ppm, it lows through a cleaningparticles are filtered out initially in the first of the separated water manually, as needed; unit with activated carbon, patented bystage. In the subsequent stages, small wa- the new MAHLe BlueDrain® system (Fig. 2) MAHLe, which adsorbs hydrocarbons relia-ter droplets are coalesced into larger drops, takes care of everything automatically. bly, even for strongly emulsified fuel contentand then the water is separated out by a (Fig. 3). Due to the excellent adsorption ca-hydrophobic end separator. the ilter element pacity of activated carbon, future standardsalso features continuous air bleeding during are also guaranteed to be fulfilled.operation. A screen acts as a preilter to pro- Housing Multi-leveltect the mechanical feeder pump from large water level sensor An intelligent actuation and safety conceptcontaminants in the tank. determines the current operating condition and guarantees safe systems function. Ad-environmentally friendly, automatic vantages of the BlueDrain ® system, com-low-maintenance water disposal pared with other functional principles, aresystem for diesel fuel filter modules the low cost of the replaceable cleaning unitIn addition to highly efficient particle and and its suitability for both pressure- andwater separation in the fuel filter, automatic suction-side applications. Plug for electronic Electronic control unitdisposal of the separated water is increas- control unitingly important. that is why MAHLe has de- Authors: Matthias Gänswein, Hans-Peter Langveloped an automatic water disposal system BlueDrain® water cleaning unitfor diesel fuel with a high water content,which will be available in the future as both Fig. 2: Design of the MAHLE BlueDrain® system MAHLE Performance 2012 21
  22. 22. LIGHteR, CHeAPeR, BetteR:THE NEW OIL FILTER MODULE FOR COMMeRCIAL VeHICLeS The new MAHLE oil filter module for commercial vehicles is highly versatile in terms of integration on both the oil side and the coolant side. This high level of integration reduces the number of interfaces and sealing points. High- performance plastics are used to help reduce weight and costs.22 MAHLE Performance 2012
  23. 23. FI LtR At I On A n D e n GIn e P e R I P He R A LSthe development and production of com- a molded elastomer gasket that is inlaid inplex oil filter modules has long been one of the gasket groove on the housing was se-MAHLe’s core competences. Besides filtra- lected for this interface. the gasket groovetion and cooling of lubricating oil, additional is cast as is, and the engine flange on thefunctions can be integrated into the overall housing is machined. this provides a sealedsystem of “engine lubrication and cooling.” joint that is optimized for function and cost. It also meets the demanding requirements forhigh level of integration an ideally level flange on the bolted engineIn our newest oil filter module, the coolant connection.pump, coolant thermostat, and sensors fortemperature control are all integrated (Fig. 1). the filter element, based on modern filterA valve provides for venting of the cooling media and production processes, fulfills thecircuit. the coolant drain screw is placed at requirements for as long a service interval asthe lowest point of the module in order to be possible (Fig. 2). the separation level meetsable to empty the block quickly for service. the requirements of a modern engine. thethe integration of the oil thermostat and high quality of the ilter media allowed thevarious valves on the oil side helps to reduce reduction of the ilter surface. the element isfriction losses. the restricted installation thus more compact for the same packagespace for the heavy-duty platform requires constraint. this improved the total pressurea high level of functionality. the module also loss of the module at low temperatures byserves as a support for the bracket of the ten percent. the filter is easy to access, andcharge air pipe. In order to ensure a lifetime a reliably functioning drainage system is in- Fig. 2: Patented filter element with 120,000 km service intervalseal between the engine and the oil filter tegrated, which improves the ease of main-housing, despite thermally induced shifting, tenance. the element is patented and there- fore provides additional protection when used solely within the customer-specific re- Controlled coolant pump Patented with Visco® clutch Coolant vent valve filter element quirements. weight and cost savings High-performance plastics have been in use in the passenger car market for years. the application of high-performance plastics toStainless steel cooler(rear side) the high service life of commercial vehicles is a challenge that MAHLe is glad to accept. By changing the position of internal inter- faces, the plastic content has been increased considerably. this reduced component weight relative to comparable oil filter modules by a Initial fill valve significant amount. the innovative pressure die casting design helps to reduce even more internal interfaces. the module is very com- pact. Additional potential material substitu- tions have been identiied in order to continue to develop the module with respect to costCoolanttemperature sensor Coolant drain screw and weight savings in the future. Interface for coolant thermostat Oil thermostat Author: Sabrina AuerFig. 1: Heavy-duty oil filter module with controlled pump and oil thermostat MAHLE Performance 2012 23
  24. 24. 00007665EN3.09/12 www.mahle.com