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Psy492 - Advanced General Psychology

Christina Alexander
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  • References: Argosy University (2007). Industrial and Organization Psychology. Retrieved October 18, 2007, from www.argosy.edu Kendall, D. (2004). Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials . 4th Ed., Belmont, CA. Thomson Learning, Inc

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  • 1. Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Christina Alexander Bachelors of Art: Psychology 2010
  • 2. Personal Statement Having majored in Business Management and psychological studies as an undergraduate, I would now like to concentrate on juvenile criminal justice. I am especially interested in children’s advocacy, the juvenile justice system, children and violence, and the psychological welfare of children. My personal child advocacy projects have involved some combination of these subjects. For the oral section of my comprehensive exams, I specialized in current day cases on children and violence. The relationship between "children" and war became the subject for my final project, which examined Ishmael Beah's use of innocence, fear, determination, and resilience in his memoir. I plan to work further on this project, referencing other authors and perhaps preparing a paper suitable for publication. In my studies toward a doctoral degree, I hope to examine more closely the relationship between children and violence. My private studies of psychology and the criminal justice system have caused me to consider the question of where the divisions between crime and cause lie. I would like to resume my studies of psychology, with special attention to juvenile criminal justice elements. Humanity also figures prominently in my personal, academic and professional goals. I have begun mission journals and am gradually building a working manuscript for a collection. The dominant theme of this collection relies on experiences that draw from travel, cause of mission, and people on other end of mission, as well as everyday experiences, celebrating the process of giving, and one’s purpose in life. My humanitarianism draws from family values and influences my academic studies. Much of what I read and study fosters my creative work and helps me ascertain what may be needed in various situations. I study psychology by taking part in discussions, group sessions, experimenting with the tools used by psychologists, authors in the past and other creative processes. In terms of a career, I see myself consulting, writing, and counseling within the criminal justice and law enforcement industry. Doctoral studies would be valuable to me in several ways. First, a counseling internship program would provide me with the practical experience I am eager to acquire. Further, earning a PsyD. in Psychology and Criminal Justice would advance my career goals by adding to my skills, both critically and creatively, in working with law enforcement. Ultimately, however, I see the PsyD. as an end in itself, as well as a professional stepping stone; I enjoy studying psychology for its own sake and would like to continue my studies on the level demanded by a PsyD. Program.
  • 3. Resume CHRISTINA M. ALEXANDER
    • Objective My career objective is to obtain an executive level position or its equivalent with the opportunity to
    • exercise my skills and abilities allowing room for advancement.
    • Professional 2007 – Present Universal Electronics, Inc. Nashville, TN
    • Experience Marketing/Government Sales – Director of Diversity
    • Government Contracting
    • Contract Negotiations
    • Marketing/Sales
    • Proposal Preparation
    • Diversity Certification/Diversity Compliance
    • Notary Public
    • 2005 – 2007 Our Place Dry Cleaners Detroit, MI
    • Owner/Operator
      • Human Resources: payroll, accts receivable, accts payable
      • Customer account management/solicitation
      • Daily operations, (i.e. time sheets, business to business
      • contact, equipment purchases, implementing business
      • advancement strategies
    • Franchise start-ups
    • 1996 – 2000 Detroit Teachers Credit Union Detroit, MI
    • Coordinator, Partnering in Education/HR/LI/Special Events Chair
      • Create and implement financial programs within Public School system
      • Employee Payroll
      • Employee record and time management
      • Loan applications/disbursements
      • Cash Management, transact member account business
      • Train new Tellers
      • Notary Public
      • Education 2007 Argosy University Nashville, TN
      • Psychology/Criminal Justice Bachelors
      • 2004 Davenport University Warren, MI
      • Business Management/Human Resources Bachelors
  • 4. Resume Presentations Alexander Christina (2008). Fatherless in America. Speech presented at the AME Church Annual Conference at the Greater Bethel AME Church. Publications Alexander, Christina (2005). Edward Foxworth: The Six Routines of Self Discovery. Journal of Self Help and Psychology, 23 - 24. Grants and Fellowships  The Education Foundation Scholarship/Grant (Argosy University, 2010)  Workshop Grant (Argosy University, 2008) Awards and Honors  Argosy Scholar 2007  Argosy Academic Excellence Award 2007  Certificate(s) of Appreciation, Meals on Wheels & Room in the Inn Homeless Program 2007-2010  Salvation Army, Volunteerism Award 2008 Skills and Qualifications  Microsoft Office, Publisher, Programming, Internet  Exceptional Cognitive Abilities, Written and Oral Communications Skills, Sensitivity to Ethics and Diversity, Interpersonal Effectiveness and Listening Skills References Ms. Novella M. Page, Supervisor of Student Teachers - TSU Anitoch, TN Mr. Joe Turner, President, CEO – Universal Electronics Inc Nashville, TN Mrs. Shelley Hudson, Instructor – Argosy University Nashville, TN
  • 5.
    • Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    • Research Skills
    • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    • Foundations of Psychology
    • Applied Psychology
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Table of Contents
  • 6.
    • Cognitive Abilities:
    • Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
  • 7.
    • Christina Alexander
    • Argosy University
    • PSY493 Crime and Causes
    • Week 2 Assignment 3
    • Prof. Ellen
    • Contemporary societies have grown more complex with the introduction of new technology, changes in values and norms, along with the rapidly shrinking global
    • village. (Kendall 2004) This outline will present suggested structure and techniques on how societies can maintain some degree of social solidarity in the face of such
    • changes. The outline will touch on gender socializations young people need to be familiar with. This is not only presented to help transition them from school to the job
    • arena but also to help them along life’s journey.
    • In the past men and women had very different role expectations, society’s definition of the way a specific role ought be played out (Kendall 2004). Gender norms of
    • the past, men were the sole provider and worked outside the home, while the women stayed home and took care of the children. Roles have changed, as a result of this
    • change women are now going into the work place, trading in their roles as homemaker, shifting into positions of corporate power and leadership, while men are
    • transitioning from a high status in Corporate America to being Mr. Mom. The change in roles can be attributed to the change in social institutions, which in the past
    • consisted of five basic institutions: family, religion, education, the economy and government/politics. Today we add mass media, sports, science & medicine and the
    • military to social institutions. (Kendall 2004) These are noted to help students meet basic social needs during their transition.
    • Students must be offered as well as encouraged to seek training and classes on parental guidance, family planning and roles of parents with careers. These classes will
    • help them understand social expectations, emotions, feelings and other unexplained situations they may find themselves in with family as they transition from school to
    • the work place. Classes on leadership roles and individual social responsibility are also recommended. These classes should highlight the political process, the
    • importance of voting, the process of voting, to include registration and how to get to know your candidates. The classes should teach the need and the benefit of
    • community volunteerism, there is nothing more fulfilling than helping someone in need. Working at shelters, with the National Guard or other disaster oriented
    • organizations, not only during the holidays but during a disaster, or any given day, feeding the homeless all should be instilled in the students. The students should be
    • reminded, no one is removed from needing help or assistance, and never think you are too successful to volunteer or assist someone less fortunate. The students need to
    • obtain knowledge on pay gap, a term to describe the disparity between male & female earnings, as well as knowledge on comparable worth, the belief wages should
    • reflect worth of job not gender or race of worker. (Kendall 2004) Understanding these concepts will empower the students with negotiating power when entering the
    • work arena. Knowing the reality of today’s yester-year standards will give them the upper hand in their negotiation.
    • In light of last years election, it is more realistic today, for a little girl to say; when I grow up, I want to be president of the United States, then it was 20 years ago.
    • Due to economic position, it is also realistic for a man to stay home and take care of the children, after leaving the workplace, voluntarily or involuntarily. This decision
    • may be the most economical sound choice for the family and is respected by society. While these examples are not the norm, they are becoming more common and it is
    • imperative that young people know these and similar situations are okay.
    • It is up to us to embrace, guide, and educate our leaders of tomorrow. To fill the gap between school and the workplace we must strengthen them with the tools, skills
    • and knowledge needed to be the first woman president or the first male, Sam Homemaker. The burden and responsibility is ours, I ask you to be instrumental in the
    • building, preparation and implementation of the classes and training courses I have suggested above. Thank you in advance for your time and consideration of this matter.
    Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking & Information Literacy
  • 8.
    • Research Skills
  • 9.
    • Review Paper
    • Christina Alexander
    • Argosy University
    • PSY492 Advanced General Psychology
    • Professor Mary Viventi
    • June 4, 2010
    Research Skills
  • 10.
    • Page 2
    • Seven Strains that Lead to Juvenile Delinquency
    • The impact of strain is said to be conditioned by association with delinquent peers, and self-efficacy as predicted in general strain theory (Agnew
    • 1992). General strain theory predicts that several factors condition the effect of strain on delinquency, with these factors influencing the experience of
    • strain, the ability to engage in criminal versus non-criminal coping, the costs of criminal versus non-criminal coping, and the disposition for criminal
    • versus non-criminal coping. Such factors include the importance attached to the goals, values, or identities that are threatened; coping skills; coping
    • resources like money, self esteem, and self-efficacy; conventional social supports; level of social control; and association with delinquent peers (Agnew,
    • Brezina, Wright & Cullen 2002).
    • Seven key strains that likely lead to delinquency include; family conflict, parental punishment, teachers' punishment, financial strain,
    • environmental strain, being bullied, and criminal victimization. Research has shown how family conflict and parental punishment, teachers' physical and
    • emotional punishment and victimization, financial and environmental conditions and being bullied (all “life strains,” associated intervening mechanisms
    • of negative emotions) are related to juvenile delinquency. Strains are said to most likely result in crime when they are seen as unjust, are seen as high in
    • magnitude, are associated with low social control, and create some pressure or incentive to engage in criminal coping (Agnew 2001). Strain has both a
    • direct effect on delinquency and indirect effects by weakening the inhibitions of the social bond and increasing one's involvement with delinquent peers
    • (Paternoster and Mazerolle 1994). Juveniles high in negative emotionality and low in constraint are more likely to react to strain with delinquency
    • (Agnew et al 2002).
    • Agnew (1997) placed much emphasis on personality traits, and recent work in psychology suggests that personality traits may have a fundamental
    • effect on the experience of and reaction to strain. In particular, the impact of personality traits may be far more pervasive than that of conditioning
    • variables typically examined in research. Personality traits may have a major impact on the emotional reaction to strain, the ability
    Research Skills
  • 11.
    • Page 3
    • to respond to strain in a non-criminal manner, the awareness of and concern for the costs of criminal coping, and the disposition for criminal coping
    • (Agnew et al 2002).
    • Juveniles that describe their family life as tense and stressful, disorganized and unpredictable, complicated and complex, and not relaxed and
    • easygoing are categorized as having family strain and live in stressful, chaotic families. Conflict with parents strain is usually when the juveniles’
    • parents often yell at them when they do something wrong and they often argue with their parents (Agnew et al 2002). Environmental strains such
    • as being rejected and avoided by parents, adults and/or caregivers during bonding stages, has a relatively high impact on juvenile delinquency. Home
    • environments, inadequate schools and violent neighborhoods foster antisocial behavior patterns that lead to juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency
    • is usually the result of seeking attention, a form of rebellion or displayed because of the lack of parental or adult supervision. Data suggest
    • that peer abuse is common and that it often has a devastating impact on its victims. Further, recent media accounts suggest that peer abuse is an
    • important cause of delinquency, particularly school violence (Agnew et al 2002). Theory and limited data suggest that personality traits of negative
    • emotionality and low constraint are partly caused by mistreatment from others, like harsh/erratic parental discipline and residence in economically
    • deprived inner-city communities, and low constraint may be partly caused be poor bonding with and supervision by conventional others. In particular,
    • individuals must be taught how to exercise self-restraint, and this occurs as parents and others provide clear rules, monitor behavior, and consistently
    • sanction rule violations in a fair, non-abusive manner (Agnew et al 2002).
    • The impact of low self control on crime is interpreted largely in terms of control theory. Low self control is said to result in crime because it
    • reduces the ability of individuals to restrain themselves from acting on their immediate impulses and desires, including those of a delinquent nature.
    • Such traits increase the likelihood that individuals will react to strain with strong negative emotions, will have trouble coping with such strain through
    • legitimate channels, and will find crime an attractive option (Agnew et al 2002).
    Research Skills
  • 12.
    • Page 4
    • In sum, there is good reason to believe that the impact of strain on delinquency may be heavily dependent on the
    • personality traits of the person experiencing the strain. Strain in general is more likely to lead to delinquency among older
    • adolescents, the 12 – 16 age range. Agnew (1997) claims that the peak in delinquency during mid to late adolescence is partly
    • because adolescents in this age range are more likely than are children and adults to cope with strain through crime. Agnew
    • further claims, adults often cope on behalf of children, reducing the likelihood of delinquency coping; adults have more coping
    • skills and resources than do adolescents; adolescents are lower in social control than are children and adults; adolescents have
    • more opportunities for delinquent coping than do children and adults; and adolescents are more disposed to delinquent coping
    • (Agnew et al 2002). To further develop this area of study, the question: Can crime/delinquency derived from social control
    • theory / social learning theory be a result of general strain theory, must be explored in great depth. Agnew (1992) argues that
    • strain theory has a central role to play in explanations of crime/delinquency, in contrast to several other prominent researchers
    • who suggests abandoning earlier studies of general strain theory(Agnew 1992). To further validate this area of study general
    • strain theory and social control theory / social learning theory has to be compared and contrasted to see where one ends and the
    • other begins, as it relates to crime and delinquency.
    Research Skills
  • 13.
    • References Page:
    • * Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47-87 . [CrossRef][Web of Science]
    • * Agnew, R. (1997). Stability and Change in Crime Over the Life Course: A Strain Theory Explanation. In Terence P. Thornberry (ed.), Developmental
    • Theories of Crime and Delinquency, Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol.7. New Brunsick, NJ.
    • * Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency.
    • Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 319-361. [ Abstract/Free Full Text]
    • * Agnew, R., Brezina, T., Wright, J. & Cullen, F. (2002). Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory . Retrieved June
    • 17, 2010, from http://www.soc.umn.edu/~uggen/Agnew_CRIM_02.pdf
    • * Bao, W., Haas, A., & Pi, Y. (2004). Life strain, negative emotions, and delinquency: An empirical test of general strain theory in the People's Republic
    • of China. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48, 281-297. [ Abstract]
    • * Mazerolle, P., Piquero, A., & Capowich, G.E. (2003). Examining the links between strain, situational and dispositional anger, and crime:
    • Further specifying and testing general strain theory. Youth & Society Journal, 35, 131-157 . [Abstract]
    • * Paternoster, R., & Mazerolle, P. (1994). General Strain Theory and Delinquency: A
    • Replication and Extension. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Aug 1994; vol. 31: pp. 235 - 263. Abstract | Full Text (PDF) | References |
    • Table of Contents |
    Research Skills
  • 14.
    • Communication Skills:
    • Oral and Written
    Communications Skills
  • 15.
    • Dual Diagnosis Treatment
    • Christina Alexander
    • Argosy University
    • PSY494 – Substance Abuse Treatment in
    • the Criminal Justice System
    • April 19, 2010
    • Instructor: Dr. Adria Adams
    Communications Skills
  • 16.
    • Dual Diagnosis Treatment
    • Substance Abuse and depression interact with
    • each other in what can often be a complex way.
    • The two illnesses cannot be treated separately;
    • successful treatment must take into account the
    • relationship between the two.
    • Fatigue, restlessness, low energy, lack of
    • appetite, and suicidal thoughts are indicators that
    • alcohol and depression may be present.
    Communications Skills
  • 17.
    • Dual Diagnosis Treatment
    • Heredity plays an important role in the onset of alcoholism and depression. Family history
    • increases the propensity to develop either or both disorders. In addition, each condition has
    • the potential to exacerbate the other:
    • Heavy, frequent drinking increases the vulnerability to become depressed, considering alcoholism’s debilitating impact on overall health and emotional well-being, work and relationships. Add to this the fact that alcohol is actually a depressant, and it’s easy to see why alcoholics may become depressed.
    • Individuals who suffer from stress, anxiety, or depression may use alcohol as a way to relax and escape from their problems. Yet, over time they will need to drink greater quantities to achieve the same results. This can lead to alcohol abuse or dependence.
    • People with depression and alcoholism have a heightened risk of suicide, vehicular
    • accidents, as well as other harmful and risk-taking activities. Together, the illnesses can
    • advance an existing depressive state, impair judgment and increase impulsiveness. Alcohol
    • and depression can be a deadly combination .
    Communications Skills
  • 18.
    • Dual Diagnosis Treatment
    • Motivational Enhancement Programs
    • These programs are designed to raise awareness of the impact drugs & alcohol has on their lives, as well as the lives of family, co-workers and society. They are encouraged to accept responsibility for past actions and make a commitment to change future behavior. Therapists help clients understand and accept the benefits of abstinence, review treatment options, and design a treatment plan to which they will commit.
    • Cognitive-Behavioral Coping-Skills Therapy
    • Comprised of a group of therapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy helps clients acquire skills to recognize, cope and change problem-drinking behaviors.
    • By understanding what needs are filled by drinking/drugging, a therapist is able to work with the client to find new ways to address needs that don’t include drinking/drugging -- and modify psychological dependence on the drug.
    • During therapy sessions, clients are taught essential coping skills to:
    • Recognize what triggers the urge to drink
    • Manage negative moods and emotional vulnerabilities
    • Change social outlets and friendships to focus on something other than drinking
    • 12-Step Facilitation Therapy
    • This peer-support approach encourages clients to become involved with a 12-step or related program that complements professionally supervised therapy.
    • Programs like Alcoholics Anonymous, Smart Recovery, SOS and Women for Sobriety are typically recommended with all forms of alcoholism therapy because they provide alcohol-dependent individuals with an encouraging, supportive environment.
    • Support group meetings focus on abstinence and fosters each individual’s physical, mental and spiritual health.
    Communications Skills
  • 19.
    • Dual Diagnosis Treatment
    • Most common circumstances associated with depression that lead to drinking and/or drugging:
    • Sad and lonely
    • Losing a loved one
    • Losing a Job
    • Weather (cold, wet & dark – usually winter months)
    • Isolated from family
    • Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness & worthlessness
    • Lack of social support
    • Financial strain
    • Stressful life/family situations
    • Abuse
    • Health/Medical problems
    • Family history
    • This treatment plan exams the circumstances that lead to depression induced drinking/drugging.
    • By looking closely at the cause, you have a better chance of breaking the habit.
    Communications Skills
  • 20.
    • Dual Diagnosis Treatment
    • References:
    • Learn-About-Alcoholism.com (ND). Depression and Alcoholism. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from http://www.learn-about-alcoholism.com/depression-and-alcoholism.html
    • Learn-About-Alcoholism.com (ND). Types of Alcoholism Therapy. Retrieved April 18, 2010, from http://www.learn-about-alcoholism.com/types-of-alcoholism.html
    Communications Skills
  • 21.
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Ethics & Diversity Awareness
  • 22.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 3 Assignment 2
    • Action – Oriented Structure
    • Christina Alexander
    • Argosy University
    • COM105 – Organizational Communication
    • March 28, 2010
    • Instructor: Anita Dorroll
    Ethics & Diversity Awareness
  • 23.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 3 Assignment 2
    • Page 2
    • Action – Oriented Structure
    • The following outlined report is based on AIC’s recommendations for Labolg’s upcoming global expansion: the why’s
    • and benefits of suggested implementation plan.
    • I. If Labolg want to be successful with its global expansion, here is why AIC’s recommendations are crucial.
      • AIC suggested to, know your global market, conducting an audience analysis will help Labolg understand the culture, interests, morals, values, and goals of those whom you want to influence to do business with you.Defining your audiences: the people you want to act, the consumers who are more likely to buy your product, the boss whose sign-off you need, as well as the employees who could achieve greater productivity in desired markets are all vital pieces to the puzzle of any expansion. Defining your audiences or knowing your global markets are essential for communicating with foreign business partners and consumers, your advertising campaigns and your business approach. (Argosy 2010)
      • Understanding cultural diversity is also a key element in Labolg’s success.Labolg must know all cultural barriers in order to operate smoothly. Understanding these cultural barriers from an organizational stand point, will be significant for Labolg’s audiences, to include, clients, constituents, global suppliers, global competitors, global media, and the global public at large. Communicating successfully internally and
      • externally depends on understanding the cultural diversity of your audiences. The audiences, as well as Labolg, as a whole, will benefit from the result. (Argosy 2010)
    Ethics & Diversity Awareness
  • 24.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 3 Assignment 2
    • Page 3
    • 3. Labolg must know show stoppers, what the do’s and don’ts of a particular market are otherwise the potential
    • expansion will be a waste of time and money.
    • AIC’s purpose here is to sensitize Labolg to the increasing need to understand the norms of cultures other than its own. Labolg
    • must adhere to the items in AIC’s initial report regarding conversational topics, technologies, etc. For instance, in Mexico
    • Labolg employees should not strike up conversations about politics or earthquakes. These topics are considered an intrusion
    • of privacy. No one will conduct business transactions with individuals or companies they consider rude and intrusive.
    • II. Labolg has positioned itself for successful global expansion by hiring AIC. AIC is in the top 5,
    • U.S. consulting firms with expertise in global expansion.
    • 1. So long as Labolg follow the recommendation, advice and suggestions of AIC, Labolg will become one of
    • the top selling global company’s. AIC’s research and strategy on the proper diversity training
    • programs for Labolg has been devised for success. AIC assures Labolg will have all the
    • tools and wherewithal to conduct business in the global markets of choice at the end of
    • contracted time period.
    • 2. Labolg will have a competitive edge with AIC’s plan to offer solutions that will highlight the
    • opportunity for potential business partners and customers/clients to save time and money,
    • rather than simply offering a product for sell.
    Ethics & Diversity Awareness
  • 25.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 3 Assignment 2
    • Page 4
    • In today’s economic crisis, Labolg must use the need for companies to stay within or under budget to its advantage.
    • Labolg’s product is new to the global market and is not in high demand, as of right now. With that in mind, Labolg
    • can offer cost and time saving solutions for existing and new businesses in the global markets. This again, is where
    • knowing your global market is vital and determines the up swing or down fall of the expansion.
    • III. AIC has devised the following suggestions for implementation:
    • 1 . Immediately complete diversity training programs, starting with top management. This is
    • necessary for Labolg to gain the tools of effective teamwork and keep its competitive
    • advantage and organizational success. (Levy 2006)
    • As previously noted, these programs will include leadership, diverse work environments, diverse work teams and
    • work/life balance in diversity. Each program will entail video presentations, group discussions and key note
    • speakers. Labolg’s employees will display passive observation – and be able to apply learned skills to
    • communications process, offer active strategies from learned cultural cues, how to ask significant questions and
    • finally, appropriate timing for self-disclosure. (Adler & Proctor 2007)
    • 2. In conclusion, AIC is committed to Labolg’s successful global expansion, and enhanced team member
    • performance via exposing team members to each others diverse differences.
    Ethics & Diversity Awareness
  • 26.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 3 Assignment 2
    • Page 5
    • AIC has dedicated a diverse team of its own, to assist Labolg with its global expansion.
    • We here at AIC take pride in our top 5 standing, we stand behind our services and look
    • forward to new challenges. AIC has research, studied, and strategized possible
    • solutions, outcomes and routes for Labolg, at your call we are ready to move
    • forward and seize the opportunity of timing, location, climate and resource availability.
    Ethics & Diversity Awareness
  • 27.
    • References:
    • Adler, R., Rosenfeld, L., and Proctor, R. (2007). Interplay 10th Edition: The Process of
    • Interpersonal Communication. New York, NY. Oxford University Press, Inc.
    • Argosy University (2010). COM105, Organizational Communications: Module 3 .
    • Retrieved March 22, 2010, from
    • http://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/0077383176/pages/13789451
    • Levy, P. (2006). Industrial/Organizational Psychology 2nd Edition: Understanding the
    • Workplace . Boston, MA. Houghton Mifflin.
    Ethics & Diversity Awareness
  • 28.
    • Foundations of Psychology
    Foundations of Psychology
  • 29. Foundations of Psychology To: Supervisor April 19, 2010 From: Christina Alexander, PSY494 –Spring II (2010) Subject: Handout on Dual Treatment sessions Per our conversation, I have attached a copy of both the recruitment handout as well as the power point presentation for your review. It is my plan to focus primarily on the circumstantial causes of depression that lead to drinking and/or drugging. By pointing out the causes, the inmates will be able to identify them and relate their feelings to the circumstances. We will then suggest alternative coping skills for the inmates. As you will find in the power point presentation, we have planned an outlined treatment plan to include motivational enhancement programs, cognitive-behavioral coping skills therapy, and 12 step facilitation therapy. The attached brochure is an example of one of the enhancement programs offered. I look forward to your reply in this matter. It is my hope that we are ready to move forward with this exciting, new, innovative plan. # # #
  • 30.
    • The cause of your depression helps determine the treatment
    • Understanding the underlying cause of your depression may help you overcome the problem. For example, if you are depressed
    • because of a dead end job, the best treatment might be finding a more satisfying career, not taking an antidepressant. If you are
    • new to an area and feeling lonely and sad, finding new friends at work or through a hobby will probably give you more of a mood
    • boost. In such cases, the depression is remedied by changing the situation.
    • Support and counseling is used to help achieve abstinence or 'controlled drinking' within safe limits. More formal psychological
    • therapies can be helpful, such as cognitive behavioral therapy.
    • We offer a program that combines substance abuse and psychological treatment as a means to equip individuals with the tools to
    • re-enter society.
    • Can you relate to the following? :
    • Sad and lonely
    • Losing a loved one
    • Losing a Job
    • Weather (cold, wet & dark – usually winter months)
    • Isolated from family
    • Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness & worthlessness
    • Lack of social support
    • Financial strain
    • Stressful life/family situations
    • Abuse
    • Health/Medical problems
    • Family history
    • Sessions held weekly: Tuesday Mornings at 9:30 am, in the Gym
    • Must be close to release in order to be eligible to participate
    • Christina Alexander, PSY494 Week7 Assignment2 (Handout)
    Foundations of Psychology
  • 31.
    • H.O.P.E. (Helping Others Pursue Excellence)
    • Front
    Mission Statement: The mission: To sow "the Seed of Hope," in the hearts of many. Hope focuses on those who are seeking a "new beginning.” Help develop them into responsible, productive, successful, law abiding, well equipped citizens. We take the service to others seriously. Our goal is to provide opportunities for outreach, and improvement. Foundations of Psychology The Program Program is designed to divert clients into treatment, breaking the cycle of crime, addiction and incarceration. This alternative program is an option to address the overwhelming need for substance abuse treatment, psychological attention and to equip the individuals with the tools to re-enter society. Through the program, diversion specialists screen clients as they approach their release date from prison. Intake interviews are conducted to determine if they are program candidates and are eligible for social services. Those eligible for the HOPE’s Diversion program include non-violent crime offenders with drug abuse problems and a diagnosed psychological disorder. The whole idea is to try to get people into treatment and community-based services as an alternative to normal case processing, and adjudication. The Team Judicial Review Coordinator Determines if eligible for release consideration Psychologist/Counselor Treats for mental disorders Nurse Assist Doctor with treatment, as needed Doctor Treatment, when needed. Physicals at release Drug Counselor Drug treatment program Judge Determines sentence and release Officers/Guards Crowd control and oversee daily activity Parole Officer Monitor upon release Volunteers Assist in area of expertise Program Director Oversee program
  • 32.
    • H.O.P.E. (Helping Others Pursue
    • Excellence)
    • Back
    Foundations of Psychology Psychological Services - Intensive monitoring - Depression treatment - Drug and Alcohol treatment - Anger management - Coping skills - Illness Management - Recovery Program - Wellness self-management programs Other Services - Life-Skills training - Housing placement - Vocational training - Job placement - Health care Through HOPE’s collaboration with law enforcement, the court system and correctional agencies and facilities, our staff provides services designed to prevent incarceration, help individuals while they are incarcerated and successfully reintegrate offenders back into their communities . About H.O.P.E. H elping O thers P ursue E xcellence was derived from the deep seeded love to help others embrace their full potential and be successful in life. Everyone deserves a second chance and often excel when given that chance. H.O.P.E. is the second chance that will help many in their pursuit of excellence. Created By: Christina Alexander PSY494 Substance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Week 7 Assignment 2 References: Thomas, F. (2008) 400 diverted into treatment, freeing courts, jail space, retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.jsonline.com/news/milwaukee/29594564.html
  • 33.
    • Applied Psychology
    Applied Psychology
  • 34.
    • Release Report
    • To: Probation Officer – Mr. ABC
    • RE: Michael X      Prepared by: C. Alexander, PSY494   
    • Case No. 111,111
    • Release Date: 4/23/10                                                          Date of Report: 4/22/10 
    • PURPOSE FOR REPORT :  The purpose for this report is to present a brief summary of Michael’s treatment history
    • and suggestions for after care following his release from prison.  
    • Michael a 22 year old, single, white male who has 13 years of formal education and formally employed as a junior
    • staff writer, was charged with possession and use of drugs and shows signs of mild depression since incarceration. 
    • The purpose for the current report is to give an up to date assessment on Michael’s treatment history and what he
    • will need to continue to succeed. The report will also suggest the importance of and why Michael's treatment and
    • services plan must be assessed and monitored continually and modified as necessary to ensure that it meets his
    • changing needs.
    • A family-based recovery support system is crucial to Michael's success in achieving and maintaining a substance
    • abuse–free lifestyle. Therefore, family therapy is the most crucial element of Michael’s continued therapy. A team
    • approach comprised of a Psychologist; a Social worker; a Family Therapist; a Counselor with familiarity of self-help
    • programs, a Vocational, Recreational and Educational Specialist worked for Michael during his incarceration.
    • Strategies for activating and empowering Michael’s range from educational to social should continue to include
    • effective materials about the nature and course of mood disorders that use state of the art technologies to
    • capture and maintain Michael’s interest, this has proved to be most effective for Michael and has
    • kept him and his family actively engaged in the treatment process.
    Applied Psychology
  • 35.
    • Recommendations for Michael’s monitoring during probation period are as follows:
    • I. Random visits and drug testing         II. Encourage to continue relapse prevention plan         III. Request reports or updates from school/work            IV. Mandate family therapy for Michael and custodial family members
    • V. Try to keep Michael and family engaged in success plan 
    • The advantages: the group setting will help Michael to socialize more and build up his confidence to
    • speak to and around people. It will also allow him the opportunity to hear how others are dealing
    • with difficulties. The relapse prevention plan will help Michael stay focused and on track of his
    • sobriety. The mandatory school/work requirement will force Michael to get back into school and
    • complete his degree, as he so expressed to be his desire. The additional services will help Michael
    • relax and release the stresses of the day. Finally, the family therapy will bring Michael and his
    • family back together as a strong family unit.
    • The disadvantages: the group setting may be intimidating for Michael, he has shut down while in prison group
    • settings. The relapse prevention plan may be strict and hard to follow. Michael may feel he has lost
    • time and the necessary energy to re-enroll in school and may have a time of finding work with a
    • prison record. Michael may feel embarrassed partaking in the additional services and family therapy may be better
    • received at an off site location. Michael may oppose his family coming to the half-way house for family therapy, he is
    • already angry with himself for putting his family through what they have already endured.
    • It is recommended that efforts to establish a trusting relationship with Michael be continued, in order to help him
    • adopt a coping pattern. It is my suggestion that group therapy will be more productive than individual interventions.
    • Once his guardedness is relaxed, it will likely be beneficial to explore issues present at the time he first experienced
    • substance abuse.
    Applied Psychology
  • 36.
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 37.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 5 Assignment 2
    • Putting the Puzzle Together
    • Christina Alexander
    • Argosy University
    • COM105 – Organizational Communication
    • April 13, 2010
    • Instructor: Anita Dorroll
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 38.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 5 Assignment 2
    • Page 2
    • Putting the Puzzle Together
    • Listed are nine team roles categorized into three groups: Action
    • Oriented, People Oriented, and Thought Oriented. Each team role is
    • associated with typical behavioral and interpersonal strengths. Also
    • defined, characteristic weaknesses that tend to accompany team-
    • role:
    • Action Oriented Roles:
    • Shapers (SH) Shapers challenge the team to improve. They are dynamic and usually extroverted people who enjoy stimulating others, questioning norms, and finding the best approaches to problems. The Shaper is the one who shakes things up to make sure that all possibilities are considered and that the team does not become complacent.
    • Shapers often see obstacles as exciting challenges and tend to have the courage to push on when
    • others feel like quitting.
    • Their potential weaknesses - they're argumentative, and may offend people's feelings.
    • Implementer (IMP) Implementers are the people who get things done. They turn the team's ideas and concepts into practical actions and plans. They are typically conservative, disciplined, work systematically, efficiently and very well organized. These are the people who you can count on to get the job done.
    • On the downside, Implementers may be inflexible and somewhat resistant to change.
    • Completer - Finisher (CF) Completer-Finishers see that projects are completed thoroughly. They ensure there have been no errors or omissions and pay attention to the smallest of details. They are very concerned with deadlines and will push the team to make sure the job is completed on time. They are described as perfectionists who are orderly, conscientious, and anxious.
    • Completer-Finisher may worry unnecessarily and find it hard to delegate.
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 39.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 5 Assignment 2
    • Page 3
    • People Oriented Roles:
    • Coordinator (CO) Coordinators take on the traditional team-leader role and also referred to as chairmen. They guide the team to what they perceive are the objectives. They are often excellent listeners and they are naturally able to recognize the value that each team member brings to the table. They are calm and good-natured and delegate tasks very effectively.
    • Potential weaknesses - may delegate away too much personal
    • responsibility, and may tend to be manipulative.
    • Team Worker (TW) Team Workers provide support and make sure the team is working together. These people fill the role of negotiators within the team and are flexible, diplomatic, and perceptive. These tend to be popular people who are very capable in their own right but who prioritize team cohesion and helping people getting along.
    • Weaknesses - tendency to be indecisive, and maintain uncommitted positions during discussions
    • and decision-making.
    • Resource Investigator (RI) Resource Investigators are innovative and curious. They explore available options, develop contacts, and negotiate for resources on behalf of the team. They are enthusiastic team members, who identify and work with external stakeholders to help the team accomplish its objective. They are outgoing and are often extroverted, meaning that others are often receptive to them and their ideas.
    • On the downside, they may lose enthusiasm quickly, and are often overly optimistic.
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 40.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 5 Assignment 2
    • Page 4
    • Thought Oriented Roles:
    • Plant (PL) The Plant is the creative innovator who comes up with new ideas and approaches. They thrive on praise but criticism is especially hard for them to deal with. Plants are often introverted and prefer to work apart from the team.
    • Because their ideas are so novel, they can be impractical
    • at times. They may also be poor communicators and can
    • tend to ignore given parameters and constraints.
    • Monitor - Evaluator (ME) Monitor-Evaluators are best at analyzing and evaluating ideas that other people (often Plants) come up with. These people are shrewd and objective and they carefully weigh the pros and cons of all the options before coming to a decision. Monitor-Evaluators are critical thinkers and very strategic in their approach.
    • Perceived as detached or unemotional. Sometimes they are poor motivators who react
    • to events rather than instigating them
    • Specialist (SP) Specialists have specialized knowledge that is needed to get the job done. They pride themselves on their skills and abilities, and they work to maintain their professional status. Their job within the team is to be an expert in the area, and they commit themselves fully to their field of expertise.
    • Limited contribution, preoccupied with technicalities at the expense of the bigger picture. Among teams of people that do the same job, a
    • few team roles often prevail. For example, within a research department, the team roles of Specialist and Plant may prevail. A team of
    • business consultants may mainly comprise Team Workers and Shapers. Such teams may be unbalanced, in that they may be missing key
    • approaches and outlooks.
    • If the team is unbalanced, first identify any team weakness that is not naturally covered by any of the team members. Then identify any
    • potential areas of conflict. For example, too many Shapers can weaken a team if each Shaper wants to pull the team in a different direction.
    • (Belbin 2010)
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 41.
    • Running head: Alexander, C. Week 5 Assignment 2
    • Page 5
    • Belbin's Team Roles
    • Action Oriented Roles Shaper Challenges the team to improve.
    • Implementer Puts ideas into action.
    • Completer Finisher Ensures thorough, timely completion.
    • People Oriented Roles Coordinator Acts as a chairperson.
    • Team Worker Encourages cooperation.
    • Resource Investigator Explores outside opportunities.
    • Thought Oriented Roles Plant Presents new ideas and approaches.
    • Monitor-Evaluator Analyzes the options.
    • Specialist Provides specialized skills.
    • I am often selected for the roles of coordinator, completer finisher, resource investigator and specialist, sometimes collectively. I would have
    • to say that all four somewhat comes naturally. The role that I tend to struggle with is that of completer finisher. In this role, team opposition,
    • lack of team effort and team members not pulling their weight causes great havoc when trying to meet or beat a deadline. In the role of
    • completer finisher, I seem to have more pressure to get the job done and done correctly.
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 42.
    • References:
    • Adler, R., Rosenfeld, L., and Proctor, R. (2007). Interplay 10th Edition: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York, NY. Oxford University Press, Inc.
    • Argosy University (2010). COM105, Organizational Communications: Module 5 . Retrieved April 10, 2010, from
    • http://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/0077383176/pages/13789451
    • Belbin, M., Dr. (2010). Mind Tools Essential Skills for an Excellent Career: Belbin's Team Roles - How understanding team roles can improve team performance. Retrieved April 11, 2010, from
    • http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_83.htm
    • Levy, P. (2006). Industrial/Organizational Psychology 2nd Edition: Understanding the
    • Workplace . Boston, MA. Houghton Mifflin.
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 43.
    • Reflecting on my academic tenure at Argosy University:
    • From attending Argosy University, studying the field of Psychology, I am now able to formulate reasoned opinions on a wide range of
    • psychological perspectives and theories within my written and oral presentations. I am able to assess a given topic from multiple
    • perspectives and evaluate merit of each, systematically analyze and appraise the complexities of a given issue, collect and arrange
    • information from a variety of sources pertinent to the chosen topic, and integrate reasoned appraisals of information into a project. I am
    • more creative and organized and have the ability of delivering stronger oral and written presentations. I exhibit the ability to design, develop
    • and defend appropriate levels of organizations and clarity of presentations, allowing my listeners to follow line by line reasoning, use of
    • correct grammer and word choice for precise meaning, apply the appropriate levels conciseness and clarity in content, language use, using
    • APA formatting, and applying and defending a particular stance related to psychological concepts in written and oral work.
    • I have acquired the art of effectively engaging in multi-culturally sensitive thought and action, and ethical thinking and action, evidenced
    • in my ability to articulate best practices specific problems, specific diversity issues and specific populations associated with psychology. I
    • am able to recognize more subtle breaches in ethical practices in the field as well as construct alternative analyses and choice behaviors.
    • Additionally, I am able to claim ownership over prescribed ethical principles for psychology as I continue to work to promote ethical decision
    • making, personal biases and works to increase awareness and respect for diverse populations. I am further able to recognize more subtle
    • forms of discrimination and prejudice within and around psychology as well as construct alternative analyses and choices of behavior.
    • I have come to exhibit consistent recognition and exceptional comprehension of the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical
    • findings, applications and historical trends in psychology. With this knowledge, I am able to synthesize and evaluate various psychological
    • theories by applying them to everyday events and experiences. I am able to use psychological principles, comprehensive explanations,
    • empirical data and best practices in solving problems, explaining social issues, and dealing with everyday life situations. In interpersonal
    • and organizational scenarios, I am able to consistently and effectively apply my listening skills, establish empathic, collegial relationships
    • that facilitate common goals, analyze importance of nonverbal communications, actively solicit and utilize feedback to develop adaptable
    • strategies, and I understand the impact of technological advancement in order to promote growth.
    • Though I have had significant exposure to the concept of understanding research methods and am able to correctly summarize the
    • research design, statistical and other evaluative tools and findings, I recognize this is an area of weakness. I plan to further explore,
    • strengthen and expand my knowledge and practice of applying research methods, as it relates to the field of psychology.
    Reflection
  • 44.
    • As stated in my personal statement, earning a PsyD. in Psychology and
    • Criminal Justice would advance my career goals by adding to my skills, both
    • critically and creatively, in working with law enforcement. Ultimately,
    • however, I see the PsyD. as an end in itself, as well as a professional
    • stepping stone; I enjoy studying psychology for its own sake and would like to
    • continue my studies on the level demanded by a PsyD. Program.
    • My lifelong learner goal is to continue taking classes, attending
    • workshops, lectures and seminars beyond my PsyD to stay abreast and up to
    • date in the ever changing world of psychological practices and procedures.
    My Future in Learning
  • 45.
    • Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.
    • For further information, please
    • Contact me at the e-mail address below:
    • [email_address]
    Contact Me