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CCW Conference: Cost effective practices for clean water
COST EFFECTIVE PRACTICES FORCLEAN WATERHye Yeong Kwon, Executive DirectorCenter for Watershed Protection, Inc.
• 501c3, started in 1992; offices in MD, VA,PA, NYWhat we do• Distill research into practical tools• Provide local watershed services• Train others to manage watersheds• Association/ membership servicesYour first source for bestpractices in watershed/stormwater management
Stormwater BMP Cost-Effectiveness StudyJames River Basin, VA• Evaluation of all urban practices• Costs and pollutant removal• Case study in the City of Richmond
Methods: BMP Selection• 34 urban practices– 26 CBP practices with approved efficiencies– 5 CBP practices with recently approved expertpanel recommendations– 2 CBP practices under review by expert panel– 1 additional practice reviewed: pet wasteprograms• Status of CBP BMP review panels available onChesapeake Stat website
Methods: Cost Estimates• King and Hagan (2011): Costs of StormwaterManagement Practices in Maryland Counties• Additional studies, data and assumptions usedfor pet waste programs, illicit dischargeelimination, stormwater retrofits, and urbangrowth reduction• Considered 20-year life cycle costs, including:– Design and construction– Land values and financing– Operations and maintenance
Methods: Cost-Effectiveness FormulaCost effectiveness ($/lb) =Annual pollutant reduction (lbs)Average annual cost over 20 years ($)For TN, TP, and TSS:
Results: Most Cost-Effective Practicesfor Sediment Removal1. Urban stream restoration2. Illicit discharge elimination: sewer repair3. Urban growth reduction4. Retrofit of existing dry pond (conversion towet pond or wetland)5. Vegetated open channels (A/B soils, nounderdrain)
Case StudyThree scenarios developed:1. Old CBP approved practices, noimplementation constraints2. Current CBP approved practices, withimplementation constraints3. All practices, with implementationconstraints
Case StudyInitial estimates for stormwater pollution reduction in the City of Richmond = $305 million$84 million$64 million$68 million
Illicit DischargeA discharge to storm sewer system that is notcomposed entirely of storm water except permitteddischarges and fire fighting related discharges
Findings from recent studies27-40% of outfalls have dry weather flowAverage Dry Weather Flow "Hit" Frequencyfor 5 Mid-Atlantic Watersheds020406080100120Any Wastewater Tap water Washwater Bacteria (co-indicator)Type of IndicatorPercent
57%43%Other activitiesRemoval of illicitdischargesEstimated percent of required total nitrogen reduction that can be met throughremoval of illicit discharges in Western Run*Illicit discharge load estimates based on single grab sampleSligo Creek required 79% reduction and 17% could met be through illicitdischarge elimination
*Assumes 50K per repair for 47 repairs**Assumes 100% of the water quality volume provided by treating 1" of rainfallCost Comparison$0$20,000,000$40,000,000$60,000,000$80,000,000$100,000,000$120,000,000IllicitDischargeRepair*DrySwaleConstructedWetlands**Bioretention**WetSwalePermeablePavement**PracticeCostTotal NitrogenTotal PhosphorusIllicit discharge elimination is a cost effective approach to nutrientmanagement
Why should governments get credit forsomething that they are required to do?• Illicit discharges fall through the cracks of MS4permits and Consent Decrees• MS4 permit requirements and guidance for IDDE isdeficient• Pollution load from illicit sources has not beenaccounted for in the Bay Model – coordinated actionand response is needed• We need more tools in the toolbox
What are gross solids?• Litter: Human derived trash such aspaper, plastic, Styrofoam, metal andglass greater than 4.75 mm• Organic Debris: Leaves, branches, seeds,twigs and grass clipping greater than4.75 mm• Coarse Sediments: Inorganic breakdownproducts from soils, pavement, orbuilding materials greater than 75microns (0.075mm), & fragments oflitter and organic debris not included inthe other two categories
Cost Summary ComparisonAnnual cost to remove equivalent annual TNloadThe cost-effectiveness of stormwater controls for nitrogen removal.Practice Type of practice Equivalent Annual cost($/lb N/IC1 ac)Bag filter Structural $691Bioretention (new, suburban) Structural $335-$6342,3Wet pond (new) Structural $7334Street sweeping Non-structural $16551 Based practice life expectancy of 10-years.2 Costs for other practices based on King and Hagen (2011) over a 20-year period and an urban loading rate of 14.1 lb TN/acre.3 Range represents a removal efficiency of 45% and 85% from Simpson and Weammert 2009.4 20% removal efficiency for TN from Simpson and Weammert 20095 Berretta et al. 2011 expressed as lb N/year
Discharge Flow Types•Pathogenic & toxic discharges•Sanitary wastewater•Commercial & Industrial discharges•Nuisance & aquatic life threatening discharges•Landscaped irrigation runoff•Construction site dewatering•Automobile washing•Laundry wastes•Unpolluted discharges•Infiltrating groundwater•Natural springs•Domestic water line leaks
Other ToolsStream RestorationMaintenance of Stormwater BMPsCrediting New from EPA/ CBPLow Impact Development/Green Infrastructure