Software is a set of instruction toSoftware is a set of instruction to
perform specific task. Software is theperform specific task. Software is the
intangible part of computer system.intangible part of computer system.
Software Categorized asSoftware Categorized as
1.1. System SoftwareSystem Software
2.2. Application SoftwareApplication Software
2. System SoftwareSystem Software
System Software is the set ofSystem Software is the set of
programs designed to coordinate theprograms designed to coordinate the
activities and functions of theactivities and functions of the
Hardware and various programsHardware and various programs
throughout the Computer Systemthroughout the Computer System
The two main categories are:The two main categories are:
1.1. Operating SystemsOperating Systems
2.2. Utility SoftwareUtility Software
3. Operating SystemsOperating Systems
Operating Systems is the most important systemOperating Systems is the most important system
software package of any computersoftware package of any computer..
An Operating System is a set of computerAn Operating System is a set of computer
programs that controls the computer hardwareprograms that controls the computer hardware
and acts as an interface with applicationand acts as an interface with application
The primary purpose of an operating system is toThe primary purpose of an operating system is to
maximize the productivity of a computer systemmaximize the productivity of a computer system
by operating it in the most efficient manner.by operating it in the most efficient manner.
It minimizes the amount of human interventionIt minimizes the amount of human intervention
required during processing.required during processing.
4. Classification of operating Systems.Classification of operating Systems.
Single user and Single tasking (MS-DOS)Single user and Single tasking (MS-DOS)
Single user and Multi tasking (Single user and Multi tasking (MS-Windows, WindowsMS-Windows, Windows
Multi user and Multi tasking (Unix,OS/400)Multi user and Multi tasking (Unix,OS/400)
Network Operating System (NOVELLNetwork Operating System (NOVELL
Special purpose computers.Special purpose computers.
5. Single user and Single tasking (MS-DOS)Single user and Single tasking (MS-DOS)
An operating system that allows a single userAn operating system that allows a single user
to perform just one task at a time is a Singleto perform just one task at a time is a Single
user and Single tasking (MS-DOS) operatinguser and Single tasking (MS-DOS) operating
They take up very little space on disk or inThey take up very little space on disk or in
memory when they are running and do notmemory when they are running and do not
require a powerful and expensive computerrequire a powerful and expensive computer
6. Single user and Multi taskingSingle user and Multi tasking
A Single user and Multi tasking operatingA Single user and Multi tasking operating
system is one that allows a single user tosystem is one that allows a single user to
perform two or more functions at once.perform two or more functions at once.
A disadvantage of a Single user and MultiA disadvantage of a Single user and Multi
tasking operating is the increased size andtasking operating is the increased size and
7. Multi user and Multi taskingMulti user and Multi tasking
Multi user multi tasking O/S is an operatingMulti user multi tasking O/S is an operating
system that allows multiple users to usesystem that allows multiple users to use
programs that are simultaneously running on aprograms that are simultaneously running on a
single network server, called terminal server.single network server, called terminal server.
8. The role of an operating system.The role of an operating system.
Performing common computer hardwarePerforming common computer hardware
Providing a user interface and input/outputProviding a user interface and input/output
Providing a degree of hardwareProviding a degree of hardware
Managing system memory.Managing system memory.
Managing processing tasks.Managing processing tasks.
Providing networking capability.Providing networking capability.
Controlling access to system resourcesControlling access to system resources
Managing Files.Managing Files.
9. Common Hardware Functions
All Application programs perform certain tasks. Example:
• Get input from the keyboard or some other input device
• Retrieve data from disks
• Store data on disks
• Display information on a monitor or printer
In order to perform these basic instructions, detailed
instructions need to be given to the
hardware. The operating system translates the basic
instructions into detailed
The basic instructions are translated to detailed instructions
by the operating system.
Simple, basic instruction Set of detailed instructions
10. One of the important functions of a operating system is
providing a user interface.
The user interface is the part of the operating system that
allows the user to communicate with the computer. There
are three main types of user interfaces. They are command
driven, menu driven, and graphical user interface (GUI).
The trend in user interfaces is moving on from brief end user
commands, or selection of choices from menu of options to
easy to use GUI. The GUI uses icons, bars, buttons, boxes
and other images. GUI relies heavily on pointing devices
such as the mouse and touch pad to select things.
Apart from the provision of user interface OSs manage all
aspect of input and output.
Input management involves controlling the keyboard, mouse
and other input devices.
Output management include controlling activities associated
with output devices.
11. Memory Management
The primary purpose of memory management is to
control how memory is accessed and determine how to
maximize available memory and storage. Newer
operating systems typically manage memory better
than older operating systems.
With the help of memory management many operating
systems allow the computer to execute program
instructions effectively and speed up processing.
Upgrade to a newer OS and increasing
the amount of memory is one of the ways of increasing
12. Processing Tasks
Managing all processing activities accomplished by the task-
management features of today’s operating systems. The task
management programs of an operating system manage the
accomplishment of the computing tasks of end users. They
give each task a slice of a CPU’s time and interrupt the CPU
operations to substitute other tasks. Task management may
involve a multitasking capability where several computing
occur at the same time.
Multitasking may take the form of timesharing, where the
computing tasks of several users can be processed at the same
time. The efficiency of multitasking operations depends on the
processing power of a CPU and the virtual memory and
multitasking capabilities of the operating system it uses.
13. Network Capability
The operating system helps the users in connecting
to a computer network. For example, Apple
computer users have built-in network access through
the AppleShare Feature and the Microsoft Windows
operating systems come with the capability to link
users to other devices and the Internet.
14. Access to System Resources
Computers often handle sensitive data that can be
accessed over networks. The operating system
needs to provide a high level of security against
unauthorized access to the users’ data &
programs. Normally, the operating system
provides a logon facility which allows users to
enter an identification code and a matching
password. The operating system needs to change
the password frequently.
15. An operating system contains file management tasks
that control the creation, deletion, and access of files of
data and programs. File management also involves
keeping track of the physical location of the files on
magnetic disks and other secondary storage devices.
SO operating systems maintain directories of
information about the location and characteristics of
files stored on a computer systems secondary storage
16. Common Operating systems.Common Operating systems.
Windows 9XWindows 9X
Windows 2000 professionalWindows 2000 professional
Windows XPWindows XP
The Macintosh operating systemThe Macintosh operating system
Network operating systems.Network operating systems.
Windows NT serverWindows NT server
Windows 2000 serverWindows 2000 server
Windows server 2003Windows server 2003
17. Utility SoftwareUtility Software
Backup utilitiesBackup utilities
Screen serversScreen servers
File compression utilitiesFile compression utilities
Spam and pop up Blocker utilitiesSpam and pop up Blocker utilities
Hardware utilitiesHardware utilities
18. Application softwareApplication software
Computer LanguageComputer Language
Machine LanguagesMachine Languages
Assembly LanguagesAssembly Languages
High Level Languages.High Level Languages.
Computer PackagesComputer Packages
MS OfficeMS Office
19. Application softwareApplication software
Types of Application softwareTypes of Application software
Personal Application softwarePersonal Application software
Workgroup Application softwareWorkgroup Application software
Enterprise Application softwareEnterprise Application software
Application software for Decision SupportApplication software for Decision Support
and specialized Purposesand specialized Purposes
20. Personal Application softwarePersonal Application software
There are thousand of computerThere are thousand of computer
applications which help to the individuals atapplications which help to the individuals at
schools ,home and work.schools ,home and work.
This type of software user software orThis type of software user software or
personal productivity softwarepersonal productivity software
Word ProcessingWord Processing
Spreadsheet AnalysisSpreadsheet Analysis
Database ApplicationsDatabase Applications
Graphics ProgramGraphics Program
Personal Information ManagersPersonal Information Managers
Online information ServicesOnline information Services
21. Workgroup Application softwareWorkgroup Application software
This category of software is designed toThis category of software is designed to
support group work.support group work.
Whether the group members are within theWhether the group members are within the
same location or spread around the world.same location or spread around the world.
Lotus Notes, MS Exchange, NovellLotus Notes, MS Exchange, Novell
Groupware support collaboration throughGroupware support collaboration through
electronic mail, Discussion groups andelectronic mail, Discussion groups and
databases, scheduling, task managementdatabases, scheduling, task management
and so on.and so on.
22. Enterprise Application softwareEnterprise Application software
Enterprise Application Programs aim toEnterprise Application Programs aim to
benefit an entire organization by improvingbenefit an entire organization by improving
cooperation and interaction between allcooperation and interaction between all
departments such as product planning,departments such as product planning,
purchasing, manufacturing, sales andpurchasing, manufacturing, sales and
customer service.customer service.
23. Integrated Software to support Supply Chain Management
25. Specialized application software forSpecialized application software for
information , decision support and otherinformation , decision support and other
purposes is available in every industry.purposes is available in every industry.
Application of Specialized purposes includeApplication of Specialized purposes include
expert systems as well as artificialexpert systems as well as artificial
intelligence applications.intelligence applications.
Application software for DecisionApplication software for Decision
Support and specialized PurposesSupport and specialized Purposes
People who are working with thePeople who are working with the