Common Hardware Functions All Application programs perform certain tasks. Example: • Get input from the keyboard or some other input device • Retrieve data from disks • Store data on disks • Display information on a monitor or printer In order to perform these basic instructions, detailed instructions need to be given to the hardware. The operating system translates the basic instructions into detailed instructions. The basic instructions are translated to detailed instructions by the operating system. Operating System Simple, basic instruction Set of detailed instructions
One of the important functions of a operating system is providing a user interface. The user interface is the part of the operating system that allows the user to communicate with the computer. There are three main types of user interfaces. They are command driven, menu driven, and graphical user interface (GUI). The trend in user interfaces is moving on from brief end user commands, or selection of choices from menu of options to easy to use GUI. The GUI uses icons, bars, buttons, boxes and other images. GUI relies heavily on pointing devices such as the mouse and touch pad to select things. Apart from the provision of user interface OSs manage all aspect of input and output. Input management involves controlling the keyboard, mouse and other input devices. Output management include controlling activities associated with output devices.
Memory Management The primary purpose of memory management is to control how memory is accessed and determine how to maximize available memory and storage. Newer operating systems typically manage memory better than older operating systems. With the help of memory management many operating systems allow the computer to execute program instructions effectively and speed up processing. Upgrade to a newer OS and increasing the amount of memory is one of the ways of increasing performance.
Processing Tasks Managing all processing activities accomplished by the task-management features of today’s operating systems. The task management programs of an operating system manage the accomplishment of the computing tasks of end users. They give each task a slice of a CPU’s time and interrupt the CPU operations to substitute other tasks. Task management may involve a multitasking capability where several computing tasks can occur at the same time. Multitasking may take the form of timesharing, where the computing tasks of several users can be processed at the same time. The efficiency of multitasking operations depends on the processing power of a CPU and the virtual memory and multitasking capabilities of the operating system it uses.
Network Capability The operating system helps the users in connecting to a computer network. For example, Apple computer users have built-in network access through the AppleShare Feature and the Microsoft Windows operating systems come with the capability to link users to other devices and the Internet.
Access to System Resources Computers often handle sensitive data that can be accessed over networks. The operating system needs to provide a high level of security against unauthorized access to the users’ data & programs. Normally, the operating system provides a logon facility which allows users to enter an identification code and a matching password. The operating system needs to change the password frequently.
An operating system contains file management tasks that control the creation, deletion, and access of files of data and programs. File management also involves keeping track of the physical location of the files on magnetic disks and other secondary storage devices. SO operating systems maintain directories of information about the location and characteristics of files stored on a computer systems secondary storage devices File Management
Enterprise Application Programs aim to benefit an entire organization by improving cooperation and interaction between all departments such as product planning, purchasing, manufacturing, sales and customer service.
Integrated Software to support Supply Chain Management
Organization product planning Sales manufacturing purchasing customer service