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  • 1. Software
    • Software is a set of instruction to perform specific task. Software is the intangible part of computer system.
    • Software Categorized as
        • System Software
        • Application Software
  • 2. System Software
    • System Software is the set of programs designed to coordinate the activities and functions of the Hardware and various programs throughout the Computer System
    • The two main categories are:
        • Operating Systems
        • Utility Software
  • 3. Operating Systems
    • Operating Systems is the most important system software package of any computer .
    • An Operating System is a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs.
    • The primary purpose of an operating system is to maximize the productivity of a computer system by operating it in the most efficient manner.
    • It minimizes the amount of human intervention required during processing.
  • 4. Classification of operating Systems.
    • Single user and Single tasking (MS-DOS)
    • Single user and Multi tasking ( MS-Windows, Windows NT)
    • Multi user and Multi tasking (Unix,OS/400)
    • Network Operating System (NOVELL Netware)
    • Special purpose computers.
  • 5. Single user and Single tasking (MS-DOS)
    • An operating system that allows a single user to perform just one task at a time is a Single user and Single tasking (MS-DOS) operating system.
    • They take up very little space on disk or in memory when they are running and do not require a powerful and expensive computer
  • 6. Single user and Multi tasking
    • A Single user and Multi tasking operating system is one that allows a single user to perform two or more functions at once.
    • A disadvantage of a Single user and Multi tasking operating is the increased size and complexity.
  • 7. Multi user and Multi tasking (Unix,OS/400)
    • Multi user multi tasking O/S is an operating system that allows multiple users to use programs that are simultaneously running on a single network server, called terminal server.
  • 8. The role of an operating system.
    • Performing common computer hardware functions.
    • Providing a user interface and input/output management.
    • Providing a degree of hardware independence.
    • Managing system memory.
    • Managing processing tasks.
    • Providing networking capability.
    • Controlling access to system resources
    • Managing Files.
  • 9.  
  • 10. Common Hardware Functions All Application programs perform certain tasks. Example: • Get input from the keyboard or some other input device • Retrieve data from disks • Store data on disks • Display information on a monitor or printer In order to perform these basic instructions, detailed instructions need to be given to the hardware. The operating system translates the basic instructions into detailed instructions. The basic instructions are translated to detailed instructions by the operating system. Operating System Simple, basic instruction Set of detailed instructions
  • 11. One of the important functions of a operating system is providing a user interface. The user interface is the part of the operating system that allows the user to communicate with the computer. There are three main types of user interfaces. They are command driven, menu driven, and graphical user interface (GUI). The trend in user interfaces is moving on from brief end user commands, or selection of choices from menu of options to easy to use GUI. The GUI uses icons, bars, buttons, boxes and other images. GUI relies heavily on pointing devices such as the mouse and touch pad to select things. Apart from the provision of user interface OSs manage all aspect of input and output. Input management involves controlling the keyboard, mouse and other input devices. Output management include controlling activities associated with output devices.
  • 12. Memory Management The primary purpose of memory management is to control how memory is accessed and determine how to maximize available memory and storage. Newer operating systems typically manage memory better than older operating systems. With the help of memory management many operating systems allow the computer to execute program instructions effectively and speed up processing. Upgrade to a newer OS and increasing the amount of memory is one of the ways of increasing performance.
  • 13. Processing Tasks Managing all processing activities accomplished by the task-management features of today’s operating systems. The task management programs of an operating system manage the accomplishment of the computing tasks of end users. They give each task a slice of a CPU’s time and interrupt the CPU operations to substitute other tasks. Task management may involve a multitasking capability where several computing tasks can occur at the same time. Multitasking may take the form of timesharing, where the computing tasks of several users can be processed at the same time. The efficiency of multitasking operations depends on the processing power of a CPU and the virtual memory and multitasking capabilities of the operating system it uses.
  • 14. Network Capability The operating system helps the users in connecting to a computer network. For example, Apple computer users have built-in network access through the AppleShare Feature and the Microsoft Windows operating systems come with the capability to link users to other devices and the Internet.
  • 15. Access to System Resources Computers often handle sensitive data that can be accessed over networks. The operating system needs to provide a high level of security against unauthorized access to the users’ data & programs. Normally, the operating system provides a logon facility which allows users to enter an identification code and a matching password. The operating system needs to change the password frequently.
  • 16. An operating system contains file management tasks that control the creation, deletion, and access of files of data and programs. File management also involves keeping track of the physical location of the files on magnetic disks and other secondary storage devices. SO operating systems maintain directories of information about the location and characteristics of files stored on a computer systems secondary storage devices File Management
  • 17. Common Operating systems.
    • DOS
    • Windows 9X
    • Windows 2000 professional
    • Windows XP
    • UNIX
    • LINUX
    • The Macintosh operating system
    • Network operating systems.
    • Windows NT server
    • Windows 2000 server
    • Windows server 2003
  • 18. Utility Software
    • Backup utilities
    • Antivirus
    • Firewall
    • Screen servers
    • File compression utilities
    • Spam and pop up Blocker utilities
    • Hardware utilities
  • 19. Application software
    • Computer Language
        • Machine Languages
        • Assembly Languages
        • High Level Languages.
    • Computer Packages
        • MS Office
        • Photoshop
  • 20. Application software
    • Types of Application software
    • Personal Application software
    • Workgroup Application software
    • Enterprise Application software
    • Application software for Decision Support and specialized Purposes
  • 21. Personal Application software
    • There are thousand of computer applications which help to the individuals at schools ,home and work.
    • This type of software user software or personal productivity software
        • Word Processing
        • Spreadsheet Analysis
        • Database Applications
        • Graphics Program
        • Personal Information Managers
        • Online information Services
  • 22. Workgroup Application software
    • This category of software is designed to support group work.
    • Whether the group members are within the same location or spread around the world.
    • Lotus Notes, MS Exchange, Novell Groupware support collaboration through electronic mail, Discussion groups and databases, scheduling, task management and so on.
  • 23. Enterprise Application software
    • Enterprise Application Programs aim to benefit an entire organization by improving cooperation and interaction between all departments such as product planning, purchasing, manufacturing, sales and customer service.
  • 24. Integrated Software to support Supply Chain Management
  • 25. Organization product planning Sales manufacturing purchasing customer service
  • 26.
    • Specialized application software for information , decision support and other purposes is available in every industry.
    • Application of Specialized purposes include expert systems as well as artificial intelligence applications.
    Application software for Decision Support and specialized Purposes
  • 27. LIVEWARE
    • People who are working with the computer.