• The term "nutraceutical" was coined from "nutrition"
and "pharmaceutical" in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice,
MD, founder and chairman of the Foundation for
Innovation in Medicine (FIM), Cranford, NJ.
[Nutr (ition) + (pharm) aceutical]
• "Nutraceutical" is creating the concept that extracts
from food can be used as drugs, i.e. food
Nutraceuticals are products purified from foods that
are generally sold in medicinal forms, such as
powders, tablets or capsules, to provide protection
against chronic disease.
Nutraceuticals can be derived from plants, from
animals and microorganisms (e.g. essential fatty
acids, enzymes, etc.) and from marine sources (e.g.
glucosamine, chitosan, fish oils, etc.).
The purpose of Nutraceuticals is to maintain or improve
key functional aspects of the human body, such as:
Carbohydrates & Fiber
Fat & Essential fatty acids
Minerals like Macrominerals & Trace minerals
Other nutrients like Antioxidants, Phytochemicals &
Intestinal bacterial flora
• Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy.
Your body uses minerals for many different jobs,
including building bones, making hormones and
regulating your heartbeat.
• Macrominerals- Elements with recommended
dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day
• Trace minerals- Some trace mineral elements with
recommended dietary allowance (RDA) less than
Essential for muscle and digestive system health, bone strength, neutralize acidity, help
clear toxins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions
Chlorine Very common electrolyte
Magnesium Builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity
Phosphorus Required component of bones; essential for energy processing
Potassium Very common electrolyte for heart and nerve health
Sodium Very common electrolyte
For three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins like skin, hair, nails, liver, and
Trace minerals Function
Cobalt Required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes.
Copper Required component of many redox enzymes
Chromium Required for sugar metabolism
Required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine, for other important organs as breast, stomach,
salivary glands, thymus etc
Iron Required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins
Manganese Processing of oxygen
Molybdenum Required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases
Nickel Present in urease
Selenium Required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins)
Vanadium No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans
Required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and
• We have more calcium in our body than any other
• The body stores more than 99 percent of its
calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and
keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body
in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells.
• Our body needs calcium to help muscles and blood
vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones
and enzymes and to send messages through the
• Calcium helps our body with:
Building strong bones and teeth
Sending and receiving nerve signals
Squeezing and relaxing muscles
Releasing hormones and other chemicals
Keeping a normal heartbeat
• Types of calcium supplements
• The two main forms of calcium dietary supplements are
calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Calcium phosphate is
• Calcium Carbonate: Over-the-counter products contain
calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do
not cost very much.
• Calcium Citrate: This is a more expensive form of the
supplement. It is absorbed well on an empty or full stomach.
People with low levels of stomach acid (a condition that is
more common in people over age 50) absorb calcium citrate
more easily than calcium carbonate.
Infants (Adequate Intake)
0 - 6 months: 200 milligrams per day (mg/day)
7 - 12 months: 260 mg/day
Children and Adolescents
1 - 3 years: 700 mg/day
4 - 8 years: 1,000 mg/day
9 - 18 years: 1,300 mg/day
19 - 50 years: 1,000 mg/day
50 - 70 years:
Men - 1,000 mg/day
Women - 1,200 mg/day
Over 71 years - 1,200 mg/day
Pregnancy and Breast-feeding
14 - 18 years: 1,300 mg/day
19 - 50 years: 1,000 mg/day
Up to 2,500 - 3,000 mg a day of calcium from dietary sources and supplements appears
to be safe for children
• Magnesium is an essential element in biological
systems. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion.
• It is an essential mineral nutrient for life and is present in
every cell type in every organism.
• For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source
of energy in cells, must be bound to a magnesium ion in
order to be biologically active.
• Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions
for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or
synthesizing ATP, or those that use other nucleotides to
synthesize DNA and RNA.
• Magnesium in the body serves several important
Contraction and relaxation of muscles
Function of certain enzymes in the body
Production and transport of energy
Production of protein
• Nerve conduction
• Magnesium can affect muscle relaxation
through direct action on cell membranes.
• Mg++ ions close certain types of calcium
channels, which conduct a positively
charged calcium ion into neurons.
• With an excess of magnesium, more
channels will be blocked and nerve cells
will have less activity
• Magnesium-containing salts are especially used in treating the
hypertension of eclampsia.
• Even if the case is not eclampsia, there may
be antihypertensive effects of having a substantial portion of
the intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) exchanged for e.g.
magnesium chloride; NaCl is an osmolite and
increases arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, which
increases extracellular volume and thus results in increased
• However, not all osmolites have this effect on AVP release, so
with magnesium chloride, the increase in osmolarity may not
cause such a hypertensive response.
Symptoms due to a lack of magnesium have three
Reduced ability to learn
Moderate deficiency symptoms:
Heart (cardiovascular) changes
Continued muscle contraction
These are the recommended daily requirements of magnesium:
1 - 3 years old: 80 milligrams
4 - 8 years old: 130 milligrams
9 - 13 years old: 240 milligrams
14 - 18 years old (boys): 410 milligrams
14 - 18 years old (girls): 360 milligrams
Adult females: 310 - 320 milligrams
Pregnancy: 350 - 400 milligrams
Breastfeeding women: 310 - 360 milligrams
Adult males: 400 - 420 milligrams
• Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work
• It helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also
helps move nutrients into cells and waste products
out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset
some of sodium's harmful effects on blood
• Potassium is a mineral involved in electrical and
cellular body functions. In the body, potassium is
classified as an electrolyte.
• Potassium is a very important mineral to the human body. It has
various roles in metabolism and body functions and is essential for
the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs:
• It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance.
• It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids and
in carbohydrate metabolism.
• It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth.
• It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart.
The Food and Nutrition Center of the Institute of Medicine has
established the following recommended dietary intakes for potassium:
0 - 6 months: 0.4 grams a day (g/day)
7 - 12 months: 0.7 g/day
Children and Adolescents
1 - 3 years: 3 g/day
4 - 8 years: 3.8 g/day
9 - 13 years: 4.5 g/day
14 - 18 years: 4.7 g/day
Age 19 and older: 4.7 g/day
Women who are producing breast milk need slightly higher amounts
(5.1 g/day). Ask your doctor what amount is best for you.
• Zinc is found in cells throughout the body.
• It is needed for the body's defensive (immune)
system to properly work. It plays a role in cell
division, cell growth, wound healing, and the
breakdown of carbohydrates.
• Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and
taste. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood the
body needs zinc to grow and develop properly.
Symptoms of zinc deficiency include:
Hypogonadism in males
Loss of hair
Problems with the sense of taste
Problems with the sense of smell
Trouble seeing in the dark
Wounds that take a long time to heal
Dietary Reference Intakes for zinc:
0 - 6 months: 2* milligrams per day (mg/day)
7 - 12 months: 3* mg/day
*Adequate Intake (AI)
1 - 3 years: 3 mg/day
4 - 8 years: 5 mg/day
9 - 13 years: 8 mg/day
Adolescents and Adults
Males age 14 and over: 11 mg/day
Females age 14 to 18 years: 9 mg/day
Females age 19 and over: 8 mg/day
• Vitamins are substances that our body needs to
grow and develop normally.
• There are 13 vitamins our body needs.
• They are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins
(thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin,
vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate).
• We can usually get all our vitamins from the foods
we eat. Our body can also make vitamins D and K.
People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take
a vitamin B12 supplement.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Absorption Directly into blood
Along with lipids through
Circulate freely in water
filled parts of body
Stored with fat
Excretion Excesses through urine
Not as easily excreted; stored in
Toxicity Possible from supplements
More easily reaches toxic levels
- from supplements
A D E K
Sci. Name Source Function
meat, eggs, oily
fish, liver, milk,
For healthy bones, teeth, mucous
membranes and skin. Aids vision,
especially in the dark. Carotenoids,
which are other forms of vitamin A are
Poor night vision, eye
immune system and more
prone to infection.
Ergocalciferol dairy product, oily
fish and fish oils,
eggs, and fortified
Vitamin D is needed to absorb
calcium and strengthen bones and
teeth and can prevent the onset of
Softening and weakening of
the bones, insomnia,
nervousness and muscle
such as mustard,
Acts as an antioxidant. Helps body
form new red blood cells and
improves the functioning of immune
system. Using vitamin E for leg
cramps offers many benefits.
spring onions and
Essential for blood clotting, also helps
to maintain strong bones and could
Easy bruising and bleeding.
Sci. Name Source Function
Citrus fruits, melon,
broccoli, kiwi fruit,
potatoes, dark green leafy
Maintain skin, teeth, gums,
tendons and ligaments, aids to
heal wounds quicker,
strengthen the immune system
and fight cancerous cells.
Required to form
Prone to infections, slower
healing of wounds, dental
and gum problems, fatigue,
loss of appetite, dry skin,
painful joints, anaemia and
a slower metabolism.
Eggs, meat, liver, dried
fruit, fish, whole grain
Needed for the metabolism and
synthesis of all foods
Tiredness and a loss of
feeling in the toes.
lean meat, eggs, chicken,
liver, fish, beans, nuts,
whole grains and cereals,
Formation of red blood cells
and various neurotransmitters
and a healthy immune system
and healthy antibodies.
Managing blood sugar and
preventing heart disease.
protein Metabolism and can
improve cognitive function.
Skin disorders, mouth
depression and anemia.
leafy green vegetables,
citrus fruits, pulses,
cereals, liver, pork, poultry,
Production of red blood cells,
DNA and proteins. growth and
repair of cells and tissues and is
especially important during
pregnancy to prevent babies
being born with spina bifida.
absorption of essential
nutrients and neural tube
defects in babies.
• Dextrose, commonly called glucose, d-glucose, or blood
sugar, occurs naturally in food, and is moderately sweet.
• It is a monosaccharide (basic unit of carbohydrates,
C6H1206) and has a high glycemic index (digested
carbohydrates ability to raise blood glucose levels, also
• Sucrose, the technical name for table sugar, cane
sugar, or white sugar, is made of one glucose
molecule and one fructose molecule bound
together. Comes in powdered and granulated
forms, sugar is made from highly processed form of
sugar beet or sugar cane plant extracts.
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Vitamin D3 1000IU + Vitamin E 400IU + Vitamin B6 10mg + Potassium Citrate 100mg Powder
• A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted
muscle that does not relax.
• When we use the muscles that can be controlled voluntarily,
such as those of our arms and legs, they alternately contract
and relax as we move our limbs.
• Muscles that support our head, neck, and trunk contract
similarly in a synchronized fashion to maintain our posture.
• A muscle (or even a few fibers of a muscle) that involuntarily
(without consciously willing it) contracts is in a "spasm." If the
spasm is forceful and sustained, it becomes a cramp.
• Muscle cramps often cause a visible or palpable hardening of
the involved muscle.
Almost everyone experiences a muscle cramp at some
time in their life.
There are a variety of types and causes of muscle
Numerous medicines can cause muscle cramps.
Most muscle cramps can be stopped if the muscle can be
Muscle cramps can often be prevented by measures such
as adequate nutrition and hydration, attention to safety
when exercising, and attention to ergonomic factors.
• Low blood calcium, magnesium: Low blood levels of either
calcium or magnesium directly increase the excitability of both
the nerve endings and the muscles they stimulate. These are
commonly noted during pregnancy.
• Low levels of calcium and magnesium are common in pregnant
• Cramps are seen in any circumstance that decreases the
availability of calcium or magnesium in body fluids, such as
taking diuretics, hyperventilation (overbreathing),
excessive vomiting, inadequate calcium and/or magnesium in
the diet, inadequate calcium absorption due to vitamin D
deficiency, poor function of the parathyroid glands (tiny glands
in the neck that regulate calcium balance), and other
• Low potassium: Low potassium blood levels
occasionally cause muscle cramps, although it is more
common for low potassium to be associated with
• Low Magnesium (Hypomagnesemia) triggers following
Anxiety & Panic Attacks – Mg normally keeps adrenal stress
hormone under control.
Asthma – Both histamine production & bronchial spasm
increase with magnesium deficiency.
Depression – Serotonin, which elevates mood, is dependent on
Mg. A Mg-deficient brain is also more susceptible to allergens,
foreign substances that can cause symptoms similar to mental
Detoxification – Mg is crucial for the removal of toxic
substances & heavy metals such as aluminum & lead.
Nerve Problems : Magnesium alleviates peripheral
disturbances throughout the whole body, such as
migraines, muscle contraction, gastrointestinal spasm &
calf, foot & toe cramps.
Musculoskeletal Conditions – Fibrositis, fibromyalgia,
muscle spasms, eye twitches, cramp & chronic neck &
back pain may caused by magnesium deficiency.
Osteoporosis – Use of calcium with Vitamin D to enhance
calcium absorption without a balancing amount of Mg
causes further Mg deficiency, which triggers a cascade of
events leading to bone loss.
• Obstetrics & Gynacology – Mg prevents Pre-menstrual
Syndrome (PMS), prevents dysmenorrhea (cramping pain
during menses). Mg alleviates premature contractions,
pre-eclampsia & eclampsia in pregnancy. Intravenous Mg
is given in obstetrical wards for pregnancy-induced
hypertension & to lessen the risk of cerebral palsy &
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).