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    Gastroenteritis ppt Gastroenteritis ppt Presentation Transcript

    • GASTROENTERITIS created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • GASTROENTERITIS• An infection or inflammation of the digestive tract, particularly the stomach and intestines• It is frequently referred to as the stomach or intestinal flu created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • CAUSES• Viruses – such as caliciviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses and adenoviruses. created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • CAUSES• Bacteria – such as the Campylobacter bacterium created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • CAUSES• Parasites – such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • CAUSES• Bacterial toxins – poisonous by- products caused by bacteria can contaminate food -Some strains of staphylococcal bacteria produce toxins that can cause gastroenteritis created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • CAUSES• Chemicals – lead poisoning, for example, can trigger gastroenteritis created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • CAUSES• Drugs – certain drugs, such as antibiotics, can cause gastroenteritis in susceptible people and can irritate the digestive tract created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITISEscherichia coli infection Campylobacter infection• this is a common • the bacteria are found in problem for travelers animal feces. Infection is caused by, for example, to countries with poor consuming contaminated sanitation. Infection is food or water, eating caused by drinking undercooked meat contaminated water (especially chicken), and or eating not washing your hands contaminated raw after handling infected animals. fruits and vegetables. created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS Cryptosporidium infection Giardiasis• parasites are found in the • parasite infection of the bowels of humans and bowel. Infection is caused animals. Infection is caused by, for example, drinking by, for example, swimming in contaminated water, a contaminated pool and handling infected animals accidentally swallowing or changing the nappy of water, or through contact with an infected baby and not infected animals. An infected washing your hands person may spread the afterwards. parasites to food or surfaces if they don’t wash their hands after going to the toilet.. created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS Salmonellosis Shigellosis• Bacteria are found in • bacteria are found in animal feces. Infection is feces. An infected caused by eating person may spread contaminated food or handling infected animals. the bacteria to food or An infected person may surfaces if they don’t also spread the bacteria to wash their hands after other people or surfaces by going to the toilet. not washing their hands properly. created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS Viral Gastroenteritis • viruses are found in human feces. Infection is caused by person-to-person contact such as touching contaminated hands, feces or vomit, or by drinking contaminated water or food. created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • SYMPTOMS• Loss of Appetite• Bloating created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • SYMPTOMS• Nausea and Vomiting• Diarrhea created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • SYMPTOMS• Abdominal Pain and Cramps• Body Aches created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • SYMPTOMS• Bloody stools (in some cases)• Pus in the stools (in some cases) created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • SYMPTOMS• Lethargy• These symptoms are sometimes also accompanied by Fever and Weakness created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • COMPLICATION• The greatest danger presented by gastroenteritis is dehydration. The loss of fluids through diarrhea and vomiting can upset the bodys electrolyte balance, leading to potentially life-threatening problems such as heart beat abnormalities (arrhythmia)• The risk of dehydration increases as symptoms are prolonged. Dehydration should be suspected if a dry mouth, increased or excessive thirst, or scanty urinationcreated by: Katherine L. Laud, SN is experienced
    • COMPLICATION• If symptoms do not resolve within a week, an infection or disorder more serious than gastroenteritis may be involved. Symptoms of great concern include a high fever (102 F [38.9 C] or above), blood or mucus in the diarrhea, blood in the vomit, and severe abdominal pain or swelling. These symptoms require prompt medical attention. created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • DIAGNOSIS• The symptoms of gastroenteritis are usually enough to identify the illness• It is important to establish the cause, as different types of gastroenteritis respond to different treatments. Diagnostic methods may include: - Medical history - Physical examination - Blood tests - Stool tests created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • TREATMENTTreatment depends on the cause but may include:• Plenty of fluids and Right Diet• Oral rehydration drinks, available from your chemist• Admission to hospital and intravenous fluid replacement, in severe cases created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • TREATMENT• Antibiotics, if bacteria are the cause• Drugs to kill the parasites, if parasites are the cause• Avoiding anti-vomiting or anti- diarrhea drugs unless prescribed or recommended by your doctor, because these medications will keep the infection inside your body created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • PREVENTIONGeneral suggestions on how to reduce the risk of gastroenteritis include:• Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after going to the toilet or changing nappies, after smoking, after using a handkerchief or tissue, or after handling animals• Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing food or eating created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • PREVENTION• Use disposable paper towels to dry your hands rather than cloth towels, since the bacteria can survive for some time on objects• Keep cold food cold (below 5 C) and hot foot hot (above 60 C) to discourage the growth of bacteria• Make sure foods are thoroughly cooked created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • PREVENTION• Clean the toilet and bathroom regularly, especially the toilet seat, door handles and taps• When travelling overseas to countries where sanitation is suspect, only drink bottled water. Don’t forget to brush your teeth in bottled water too. Avoid food buffets, uncooked foods or peeled fruits and vegetables, and ice in drinks created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • PROGNOSIS• Gastroenteritis is usually resolved within 2 to 3 days and there are no long-term effects. If dehydration occurs, recovery is extended by a few days created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • DISEASE PROCESScreated by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • CLINICAL FEATURES OF GASTROENTERITIScreated by: Katherine L. Laud, SN
    • THANK YOU!!! By: Katherine L. Laud created by: Katherine L. Laud, SN