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Ap gov chapter 8 political parties

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    Ap gov chapter 8 political parties Ap gov chapter 8 political parties Presentation Transcript

    • Political Parties
      Mr. Stroud
    • Political Parties
      Voluntary associations of people who seek to control the government through common principles based upon peaceful and legal actions (winning elections).
      Political parties are linkage institutions.
      They hold the government responsible for its actions.
    • Party Systems
      One Party
      Only one party has a chance of winning
      Generally membership is not voluntary
      Dictatorial government
    • Party System
      Two Party System
      Several parties may exist but only TWO dominate
      “Other” or “minor” third parties struggle to survive and win elections
      The Electoral College and Single member districts limit 3rd Parties
      Generally Two party systems are located in countries that have a general agreement among the citizens about the basic principles of government (US Political Culture)
      Stable system that avoids extremes
    • Party Systems
      Multi-Party
      4 – 20 different parties
      Can be based on region, ideology, class, religion..etc
      Have proportional representation systems
      Give voters a great deal of choice but….
      Generally no clear winner emerges which leads to coalition governments and power sharing
      Promotes instability
    • What do Political Parties Do?
      Recruit Candidates
      Nominate and support Candidates – raise $ and run campaigns
      Educate Voters – inform voters about candidates and encourage voters to participate
      Organize Government – The organization of Congress and state legislatures is based on political party control (majority v. minority); political appointments are often based on party affiliation
    • Party Identification and Membership
      It is Voluntary in the United States
      No Dues
      Most states require citizens to identify their political party when registering to vote (closed or open primary state)
    • Two Party Tradition
      No mention of parties in the Constitution
      Most FF hated “factions”
      Anti-Fed vs. Fed would eventually form the foundation for our two party system
      Why do we keep it?
      Tradition (British heritage)
      Electoral System (one winner per office )
      Election Law (vary from state to state – limits 3rd parties)
    • Party History
      Rise of Party (1789 – 1800)
      Democratic Domination (1800-1860)
      Jackson / Party of the Common man
      Republican Domination (1860-1932)
      Return of the Democrats (1932-1968)
      FDR and the New Deal Coalition
      Divided Government (1968 – Present)
      Gridlock
    • Electoral Dealignment
      When significant numbers of voters no longer support a particular political party – often these voters identify themselves as independent and believe they have no loyalty to any particular political party
    • Electoral Realignment
      The occurs when voting patterns shift and new coalitions of party support are formed.
      Party in power loses power and a new dominant party takes its place
      Election of 1860
      Election of 1932
      Election of 1980
    • Third Parties
      Exist inside our system
      Have a difficult time getting candidates elected to office (most success at the state and local level)
      Can influence election outcomes
      Help push for reform
      Two Party system “eats” third parties and their ideas
    • Types of Third Parties
      Ideological – based on a set of social, political, or economic beliefs (communist – socialist)
      Splinter – those who have split away from one of the major parties; usually revolve around a strong personality (TR – Bull Moose / George Wallace – American Independent)
      Single Issue – parties that focus on one public policy matter (Free Soil – Right to Life – Prohibition)
      Protest– rooted in economic discontent – can be sectional in nature (populist)
    • Party Structure
      National Convention – Party meets each summer every four years to select candidates for the President and V.P. / the party platform is also created
      National Committee – Manages the party between conventions. Help to raise $.
      National Chairperson – Directs the work of the national committee, helps fundraise, recruits new members, builds coalitions and unit inside the party
    • Party Structure
      Congressional Campaign Committee – Each party has a committee in the House of Representatives and Senate that works to ensure the election or reelection of the party’s candidates by raising funds.
    • Party Structure
      State and Local Organization
      Differences exist between states
      State and local parties are organized the same way as the national party
      Today state party organization is strong and are well funded (change over time)
      Campaign Finance Reform and the limits on SOFT MONEY have restricted some power
    • FUTURE
      Uncertain…
      Political Parties in the US have been losing power over time
      Third Party Challenge
      Increasing #’s of Independents
      Increase in split ticket voting