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Ap gov chapter 8 political parties

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  • 1. Political Parties
    Mr. Stroud
  • 2. Political Parties
    Voluntary associations of people who seek to control the government through common principles based upon peaceful and legal actions (winning elections).
    Political parties are linkage institutions.
    They hold the government responsible for its actions.
  • 3. Party Systems
    One Party
    Only one party has a chance of winning
    Generally membership is not voluntary
    Dictatorial government
  • 4. Party System
    Two Party System
    Several parties may exist but only TWO dominate
    “Other” or “minor” third parties struggle to survive and win elections
    The Electoral College and Single member districts limit 3rd Parties
    Generally Two party systems are located in countries that have a general agreement among the citizens about the basic principles of government (US Political Culture)
    Stable system that avoids extremes
  • 5. Party Systems
    4 – 20 different parties
    Can be based on region, ideology, class, religion..etc
    Have proportional representation systems
    Give voters a great deal of choice but….
    Generally no clear winner emerges which leads to coalition governments and power sharing
    Promotes instability
  • 6. What do Political Parties Do?
    Recruit Candidates
    Nominate and support Candidates – raise $ and run campaigns
    Educate Voters – inform voters about candidates and encourage voters to participate
    Organize Government – The organization of Congress and state legislatures is based on political party control (majority v. minority); political appointments are often based on party affiliation
  • 7. Party Identification and Membership
    It is Voluntary in the United States
    No Dues
    Most states require citizens to identify their political party when registering to vote (closed or open primary state)
  • 8. Two Party Tradition
    No mention of parties in the Constitution
    Most FF hated “factions”
    Anti-Fed vs. Fed would eventually form the foundation for our two party system
    Why do we keep it?
    Tradition (British heritage)
    Electoral System (one winner per office )
    Election Law (vary from state to state – limits 3rd parties)
  • 9. Party History
    Rise of Party (1789 – 1800)
    Democratic Domination (1800-1860)
    Jackson / Party of the Common man
    Republican Domination (1860-1932)
    Return of the Democrats (1932-1968)
    FDR and the New Deal Coalition
    Divided Government (1968 – Present)
  • 10. Electoral Dealignment
    When significant numbers of voters no longer support a particular political party – often these voters identify themselves as independent and believe they have no loyalty to any particular political party
  • 11. Electoral Realignment
    The occurs when voting patterns shift and new coalitions of party support are formed.
    Party in power loses power and a new dominant party takes its place
    Election of 1860
    Election of 1932
    Election of 1980
  • 12. Third Parties
    Exist inside our system
    Have a difficult time getting candidates elected to office (most success at the state and local level)
    Can influence election outcomes
    Help push for reform
    Two Party system “eats” third parties and their ideas
  • 13. Types of Third Parties
    Ideological – based on a set of social, political, or economic beliefs (communist – socialist)
    Splinter – those who have split away from one of the major parties; usually revolve around a strong personality (TR – Bull Moose / George Wallace – American Independent)
    Single Issue – parties that focus on one public policy matter (Free Soil – Right to Life – Prohibition)
    Protest– rooted in economic discontent – can be sectional in nature (populist)
  • 14. Party Structure
    National Convention – Party meets each summer every four years to select candidates for the President and V.P. / the party platform is also created
    National Committee – Manages the party between conventions. Help to raise $.
    National Chairperson – Directs the work of the national committee, helps fundraise, recruits new members, builds coalitions and unit inside the party
  • 15. Party Structure
    Congressional Campaign Committee – Each party has a committee in the House of Representatives and Senate that works to ensure the election or reelection of the party’s candidates by raising funds.
  • 16. Party Structure
    State and Local Organization
    Differences exist between states
    State and local parties are organized the same way as the national party
    Today state party organization is strong and are well funded (change over time)
    Campaign Finance Reform and the limits on SOFT MONEY have restricted some power
  • 17. FUTURE
    Political Parties in the US have been losing power over time
    Third Party Challenge
    Increasing #’s of Independents
    Increase in split ticket voting