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Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
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Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

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Jennifer Parker, Ph.D, LPC …

Jennifer Parker, Ph.D, LPC
University of South Carolina Upstate

Shauna Galloway-Williams, M.Ed, LPC
Julie Valentine Center

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  • 1. Intergenerational Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Jennifer Parker, Ph.D, LPC USC Upstate Shauna Galloway-Williams, M.Ed, LPC Julie Valentine Center
  • 2. Objectives  Review current findings on intergenerational sexual abuse  Provide information regarding trauma informed approaches for professionals working with families and children who are victims of CSA
  • 3. Prevalence  Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) - difficult to determine prevalence  Prior studies in 1999 and 2000 along with crime statistics estimated 1:4 girls and 1:6 boys  Newer reports (D2L) suggest 1 in 10 overall  Most children do not tell  Less is known about the prevalence of intergenerational CSA
  • 4. Perpetrators of CSA  Most are known to the victim  Most are male  Many perpetrators are juveniles – especially if victim young child  Small % of victims become perpetrators, however many perpetrators were victims of CSA  Mothers not typically perpetrators of CSA  However, aspects of the mother are related to their child’s vulnerability
  • 5.  Mother  past history  34% - mothers of sexually abused children were CSA victims  psychological problems  depression, trauma symptoms, sociopathic symptoms  substance abuse  violent relationships  has children with different fathers  poor mother-child attachment  lacks effective parenting skills  poor attachment between grandmother and mother of victim and disruption of care Intergenerational Factors
  • 6. ACE Study  Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE)  One of the largest studies to assess the relationship between child maltreatment and health and well-being in adulthood  Counts number of traumatic experiences reported  Risk for many health problems increases with the number of stressors  In one study as many as 80% of young adults who experienced CA were experiencing some form of psychosocial difficulty http://acestudy.org/
  • 7. ACE & Risk Factors  Alcoholism and alcohol abuse  Other drug use  Depression  Fetal death  Health-related quality of life  Heart disease  Liver disease  Pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • 8. ACE & Risk Factors  Risk for intimate partner violence  Multiple sexual partners  Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)  Smoking  Suicide attempts  Unintended pregnancies  Early initiation of smoking  Early initiation of sexual activity  Adolescent pregnancy
  • 9. Attachment Theory  Enduring relationship between mother and child  Gradually develops early in life  Protection and security are primary components  Child with secure attachment explores their environment but stays close to mom for protection  Internal working model (IWM) develops and becomes the basis for later adult relationships
  • 10. CA and Attachment  Early trauma disrupts healthy attachment processes  Effects brain development resulting in multiple risks Physical health, learning, social relationships, low self-esteem, poor emotional control  When mom has history she may have inadequate internal representation of healthy interpersonal relationships or of an effective caregiver  This increases risk for poor attachment with her children  Becomes a model for future adult relationships
  • 11. Secure Attachments  Parental responsiveness to a child’s distress = secure attachment  Healthy attachment leads to emotional well-being and self protection  Healthy attachments can be a buffer and against intergenerational transmission  Important to work with family and build better bonds  Research indicates the attachment relationship endures but can be modified with therapy and positive life experiences
  • 12. Emotional Intelligence (EI)  Secure attachments builds higher EI  EI associated with positive relationships  Self-awareness  Self-Control  Social awareness  Relationship management  Self-efficacy  Parental self-efficacy is harmed by child maltreatment, adult attachment insecurities, and maternal depression
  • 13. Letter from a Non Offending Caregiver
  • 14. Non Offending Caregivers (NOCS)  Understanding NOCs  letter from NOC to DSS (Jess)  Characteristics of NOCS  Boundaries  Parenting style  Relationships
  • 15. Non Offending Caregivers Needs  Information  Empathetic response  Someone to talk to  Someone to listen to them  To know what happened  To know this happens to other families  To be treated with respect  To know options available regarding custody, placement, treatment and evaluation  Resources
  • 16. NOC Feelings  Anger  Sadness  Hurt  Loneliness  Numb  Rejected  Fear  Betrayal  Loss of Control  Guilt  Shame  Embarrassment  Jealousy  Anxiety  Depression
  • 17. NOC Losses  Control (Family, Child, Self)  Relationships  Financial support  Child Care  Home  Employment  Social Support System  Self
  • 18. Stages of Grief and NOC Response to Disclosure of Abuse Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
  • 19. Denial  Denial of Facts  Denial of Awareness  Denial of Responsibility  Denial of Impact  Denial of Need for Treatment Look at denial of all involved (NOC, Offender, Child, Family, Community)
  • 20. Anger  Self  Offender  System  Child  Society  God
  • 21. Bargaining  Minimizing Facts, impact, information  Negotiation Situation, Relationship  Questioning and Second Guessing
  • 22. Depression  Hopelessness  Despair  Feeling trapped  Numb  Feeling life and world is falling apart  Guilt  Shame  Inadequacy  Vulnerability
  • 23. Acceptance  Determination  Increased Awareness  Increased Understanding  Growth  Independence  Hope  This will not define my child or my family.
  • 24. Assessing Protective Factors and Breaking the Cycle  Believes the child  Identifies roles and responsibilities for abuse  Identifies roles and responsibilities for protection  Relationship to the alleged offender  Relationship to victim and siblings  History of abuse and or trauma
  • 25.  Support System  Stressors  Substance abuse  Medical or Mental Health Problems  Motivation to support (Self, court ordered, etc.)  Understanding of impact of CSA on children  Knows how to protect in the future
  • 26. Alexander P. C., (2009). Childhood trauma, attachment, and abuse by multiple partners Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,1(1), 78–88. DiLillo, D., Damashek, A. (2003). Parenting characteristics of women reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse. Child Maltreatment, 8, 319-333. Kim, K., Noll, J.G., Putnam, F.W., & Trickett, P.K. (2007). Psychosocial characteristics of non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls: Findings from a prospective multigenerational study: Child Maltreatment, 12, 338-351. Kwako, L.E., Noll, J.G., Putnam, F.W., &Trickett, P.K. (2010). Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15, 407-422. Leifer, M., Kilbane, T., & Grossman, G. (2001).A three generational study comparing the families of supportive and unsupportive mothers of sexually abuse children. Child Maltreatment, 6, 353-364. Leifer, M., Kilbane, T., Jacobsen, T., Grossman, G., (2004). A three-generational study of transmission of risk for sexual abuse. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 662-672. Leifer, M., Kilbane, T., & Kalick, S. (2004) Vulnerability or resilience to intergenerational sexual abuse: The role of maternal factors: Child Maltreatment, 9 (1), 78-91. McCloskey, L. A., & Bailey, J. A. (2000). The intergenerational transmission of risk for child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15 (10), 1019-1035. Oates, R. K., Tebbutt, J., Swanston, H., Lynch, D. L., & O’Toole, B. I. (1998). Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, (11) 1113–1118. Thomas, P.M., (2003). Protection, dissociation, and internal roles: Modeling and treating the effects of child abuse. Review of General Psychology, 7 (4) 364-380. Townsend, C., Rheingold, A.A., (2013). Estimating a child sexual abuse prevalence rate for practitioners: A review of child sexual abuse prevalence studies. Charleston, S.C., Darkness to Light. Retrieved from www.D2L.org.

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